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#28241063   2017/02/27 To Up

Role of DNA methylation in expression control of the IKZF3-GSDMA region in human epithelial cells.

Chromosomal region 17q12-q21 is associated with asthma and harbors regulatory polymorphisms that influence expression levels of all five protein-coding genes in the region: IKAROS family zinc finger 3 (Aiolos) (IKZF3), zona pellucida binding protein 2 (ZPBP2), ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 (ORMDL3), and gasdermins A and B (GSDMA, GSDMB). Furthermore, DNA methylation in this region has been implicated as a potential modifier of the genetic risk of asthma development. To further characterize the effect of DNA methylation, we examined the impact of treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) that causes DNA demethylation, on expression and promoter methylation of the five 17q12-q21 genes in the human airway epithelium cell line NuLi-1, embryonic kidney epithelium cell line 293T and human adenocarcinoma cell line MCF-7. 5-aza-dC treatment led to upregulation of expression of GSDMA in all three cell lines. ZPBP2 was upregulated in NuLi-1, but remained repressed in 293T and MCF-7 cells, whereas ORMDL3 was upregulated in 293T and MCF-7 cells, but not NuLi-1. Upregulation of ZPBP2 and GSDMA was accompanied by a decrease in promoter methylation. Moreover, 5-aza-dC treatment modified allelic expression of ZPBP2 and ORMDL3 suggesting that different alleles may respond differently to treatment. We also identified a polymorphic CTCF-binding site in intron 1 of ORMDL3 carrying a CG SNP rs4065275 and determined its methylation level. The site's methylation was unaffected by 5-aza-dC treatment in NuLi-1 cells. We conclude that modest changes (8-13%) in promoter methylation levels of ZPBP2 and GSDMA may cause substantial changes in RNA levels and that allelic expression of ZPBP2 and ORMDL3 is mediated by DNA methylation.

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Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla Mouse Anti-Human Fibrobla Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr CometAssay Control Cells Neutral CometAssay Contro pDC57 Mammalian Luciferas pDC99 Mammalian Luciferas Human Epithelial Cadherin anti CD45 RA B cells, T c MOUSE ANTI HUMAN EPITHELI

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#28031110   2016/12/29 To Up

[Recombinant platanus pollen allergen 2 (rPla a2) up-regulates the expression of ORMDL3 mediated by GATA3 in NIH3T3 cells].

Objective To identify the effect and mechanism of recombinant platanus pollen allergen 2 (rPla a2) on the transcription and expression of orosomucoid 1-like 3 (ORMDL3) gene in NIH3T3 cells. Methods Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect the influence of rPla a2 on the mRNA and protein levels of ORMDL3 and GATA3. After transfection of GATA3 siRNA or pcDNA-GATA3, the role of GATA3 was evaluated in rPla a2 regulating ORMDL3 expression. Dual-luciferase reporter assay was performed to measure the influence of rPla a2 and GATA3 on ORMDL3 promoter activity. Results The rPla a2 induced mRNA and protein expressions of ORMDL3 and GATA3. Knockdown of GATA3 inhibited the induction of rPla a2 upon ORMDL3. In addition, the induction effect was enhanced by over-expression of GATA3. ORMDL3 promoter activity was significantly promoted by rPla a2 and inhibited by knockdown of GATA3. Conclusion The rPla a2 up-regulates the expression of ORMDL3 mRNA and protein, which is mediated by GATA3 through targeting promoter region of ORMDL3.

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Gli Reporter – NIH3T3 C pDC57 Mammalian Luciferas pDC99 Mammalian Luciferas 15 K allergen of House Du Anti 15 K allergen of hou anti CD45 RA B cells, T c Anti-15 K allergen of hou House Dust Mite Allergen Human Cord Blood CD34+ Ce 129 Mouse Embryonic Stem Rat Mesenchymal Stem Cell Recombinant Mn SOD (Human

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#28192616   2017/02/13 To Up

Association of ORMDL3 with rhinovirus-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and type I Interferon responses in human leucocytes.

Children with risk alleles at the 17q21 genetic locus who wheeze during rhinovirus illnesses have a greatly increased likelihood of developing childhood asthma. In mice, overexpression of the 17q21 gene ORMDL3 leads to airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness. However, the mechanisms by which ORMDL3 predisposes to asthma are unclear. Previous studies have suggested that ORMDL3 induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and production of the type I interferon (IFN)-regulated chemokine CXCL10.

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#28336364   2017/03/24 To Up

Mechanisms and roles by which IRF-3 mediates the regulation of ORMDL3 transcription in respiratory syncytial virus infection.

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis in infancy, which is a major risk factor for recurrent wheezing and asthma. Orosomucoid 1-Like Protein 3 (ORMDL3) has been reported to associate with virus-triggered recurrent wheezing and asthma in children. However, little is known about how ORMDL3 is involved into RSV infection. In this study, we showed that the mRNA expression of ORMDL3 is significantly increased in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis compared with uninfected controls, also increased in bronchial epithelial cells and lung fibroblasts following RSV infection in vitro. To investigate the underlying mechanisms of RSV-induced ORMDL3 expression, we performed in silico analysis of the binding sites of several transcription factors in the ORMDL3 promoter. The proximal interferon-regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) binding site positively regulated ORMDL3 transcription following exposure to RSV, as determined through mutational analysis. Overexpression and RNA interference experiments targeting IRF-3 showed that it regulates the expression of ORMDL3 following RSV exposure. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed that IRF-3 binds directly to the promoter of the ORMDL3 gene. Furthermore, we confirmed that expression of IRF-3 is significantly increased and shows a strong linear correlation with increased ORMDL3 in the peripheral blood lymphocytes from infants with RSV-induced bronchiolitis. Our results indicate that IRF-3 is an important regulator of ORMDL3 induction following RSV infection by binding directly to the promoter of ORMDL3, which may be implicated in the inflammatory and immune reactions involved in bronchiolitis and wheezing diseases.

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#28275141   2017/03/09 To Up

Cutting Edge: Targeting Epithelial ORMDL3 Increases, Rather than Reduces, Airway Responsiveness and Is Associated with Increased Sphingosine-1-Phosphate.

In this study, we used cre-lox techniques to generate mice selectively deficient in ORMDL3 in airway epithelium (Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10) to simulate an inhaled therapy that effectively inhibited ORMDL3 expression in the airway. In contrast to the anticipated reduction in airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), OVA allergen-challenged Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 mice had a significant increase in AHR compared with wild-type mice. Levels of airway inflammation, mucus, fibrosis, and airway smooth muscle were no different in Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 and wild-type mice. However, levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) were significantly increased in Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 mice as well as in airway epithelial cells in which ORMDL3 was inhibited with small interfering RNA. Incubation of S1P with airway smooth muscle cells significantly increased contractility. Overall, Ormdl3(Δ2-3/Δ2-3)/CC10 mice exhibit increased allergen-induced AHR independent of inflammation and associated with increased S1P generation. These studies raise concerns for inhaled therapies that selectively and effectively inhibit ORMDL3 in airway epithelium in asthma.

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#28334876   2017/03/23 To Up

PDGFRB gain-of-function mutations in sporadic infantile myofibromatosis.

Infantile myofibromatosis is one of the most prevalent soft tissue tumors of infancy and childhood. Multifocal nodules with visceral lesions are associated with a poor prognosis. A few familial cases have been linked to mutations in various genes including PDGFRB. In this study, we sequenced PDGFRB, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, in 16 cases of myofibromatosis or solitary myofibroma. Mutations in the coding sequence of PDGFRB were identified in 6 out of 8 patients with the sporadic multicentric form of the disease and in 1 out of 8 patients with isolated myofibroma. Two patients had the same mutation in multiple separated lesions. By contrast, a third patient had three different PDGFRB mutations in the three nodules analyzed. Mutations were located in the transmembrane, juxtamembrane and kinase domains of the receptor. We showed that these mutations activated receptor signaling in the absence of ligand and transformed fibroblasts. In one case, a weakly-activating germline variant was associated with a stronger somatic mutation, suggesting a two-hit model for familial myofibromatosis. Furthermore, the mutant receptors were sensitive to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib, except D850V, which was inhibited by dasatinib and ponatinib, suggesting a targeted therapy for severe myofibromatosis. In conclusion, we identified gain-of-function PDGFRB mutations in the majority of multifocal infantile myofibromatosis cases, shedding light on the mechanism of disease development, which is reminiscent of multifocal venous malformations induced by TIE2 mutations. Our results provide a genetic test to facilitate diagnosis, and preclinical data for development of molecular therapies.

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#28335087   2017/03/23 To Up

Ursolic acid and mechanisms of actions on adipose and muscle tissue: a systematic review.

This systematic review aimed at addressing the ursolic acid actions as an adjunctive treatment of the obesity-mediated metabolic abnormalities. To explore our aims, we used the literature search including clinical and animal studies using the Medline and Google Scholar (up to December 2015). Out of 63 screened studies, 17 presented eligibility criteria, such as the use of ursolic acid on adiposity, energy expenditure and skeletal muscle mass in mice and humans. In the literature, we found that several physiological and molecular mechanisms are implicated in the effects of ursolic acid on obesity, energy expenditure, hepatic steatosis, skeletal muscle mass loss and physical fitness, such as (1) increase of thermogenesis by modulation adipocyte transcription factors, activation of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and overexpression of the uncoupling protein 1 thermogenic marker; (2) enhancement of skeletal muscle mass by activation in bloodstream growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations secretion, as well as in the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin and inhibition of ring-finger protein-1; and (3) improvement of physical fitness by skeletal muscle proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator alpha and sirtuin 1 expression. Therefore, supplementation with ursolic acid may be an adjunctive therapy for prevention and treatment of obesity-mediated and muscle mass-mediated metabolic consequences.

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#28334946   2017/03/23 To Up

Mutations affecting the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor: impact of charged residues on the membrane insertion.

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. To study the impact of mutations affecting the hydrophobic transmembrane domain of the LDLR, each of the 22 amino acids of the transmembrane domain was individually mutated to arginine. The more centrally in the transmembrane domain an arginine was located, the lower amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum were observed. This led to lower amounts of the 160 kDa mature LDLR on the cell surface. For the mutants V797R-LDLR, L798R-LDLR and L799R-LDLR a proportion of full-length receptors including the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains, was secreted into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen to appear in the culture medium. When the transmembrane domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was replaced by that of the mutant L799R-LDLR, similar effects were observed for the EGFR as for L799R-LDLR. Introducing arginines in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR also affected metalloproteinase cleavage of the ectodomain and γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. The most likely explanation for the low amounts of the 120 kDa precursor is that a basic residue in the hydrophobic transmembrane domain prevents the mutant LDLR from being inserted in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane from the Sec61 translocon complex. As a consequence, quality control systems could be activated. However, our data indicate that proteasomal degradation, lysosomal degradation, autophagy or ectodomain cleavage were not the underlying mechanism for degradation of these mutant LDLRs.

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#28334978   2017/03/23 To Up

Therapeutic window of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy to treat psychosis in Alzheimer's disease.

Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to describe pharmacokinetic-occupancy curves in caudate, putamen and thalamus. Model outputs were used to estimate threshold steady state blood concentration and occupancy required to elicit a clinically relevant response (>25% reduction in scores on delusions, hallucinations and agitation domains of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory) and extrapyramidal side effects (Simpson Angus Scale scores > 3). Average steady state blood levels were low (71 ± 30 ng/ml), and associated with high D2/3 occupancies (65 ± 8%, caudate; 67 ± 11%, thalamus; 52 ± 11%, putamen). Antipsychotic clinical response occurred at a threshold concentration of 20 ng/ml and D2/3 occupancies of 43% (caudate), 25% (putamen), 43% (thalamus). Extrapyramidal side effects (n = 7) emerged at a threshold concentration of 60 ng/ml, and D2/3 occupancies of 61% (caudate), 49% (putamen) and 69% (thalamus). This study has established that, as in schizophrenia, there is a therapeutic window of D2/3 receptor occupancy for optimal treatment of psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. We have also shown that occupancies within and beyond this window are achieved at very low amisulpride doses in Alzheimer's disease due to higher than anticipated occupancies for a given blood drug concentration. Our findings support a central pharmacokinetic contribution to antipsychotic sensitivity in Alzheimer's disease and implicate the blood-brain barrier, which controls central drug access. Whether high D2/3 receptor occupancies are primarily accounted for by age- or disease-specific blood-brain barrier disruption is unclear, and this is an important future area of future investigation, as it has implications beyond antipsychotic prescribing.

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#28335003   2017/03/23 To Up

Identification of genetic variants affecting vitamin D receptor binding and associations with autoimmune disease.

Large numbers of statistically significant associations between sentinel SNPs and case-control status have been replicated by genome-wide association studies. Nevertheless, few underlying molecular mechanisms of complex disease are currently known. We investigated whether variation in binding of a transcription factor, the vitamin D receptor (VDR) whose activating ligand vitamin D has been proposed as a modifiable factor in multiple disorders, could explain any of these associations. VDR modifies gene expression by binding DNA as a heterodimer with the Retinoid X receptor (RXR).We identified 43,332 genetic variants significantly associated with altered VDR binding affinity (VDR-BVs) using a high-resolution (ChIP-exo) genome-wide analysis of 27 HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines. VDR-BVs are enriched in consensus RXR::VDR binding motifs, yet most fell outside of these motifs, implying that genetic variation often affects binding affinity only indirectly. Finally, we compared 341 VDR-BVs replicating by position in multiple individuals against background sets of variants lying within VDR-binding regions that had been matched in allele frequency and were independent with respect to linkage disequilibrium. In this stringent test, these replicated VDR-BVs were significantly (q < 0.1) and substantially (2-fold) enriched in genomic intervals associated with autoimmune and other diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. The approach's validity is underscored by RXR::VDR motif sequence being predictive of binding strength and being evolutionarily constrained.Our findings are consistent with altered RXR::VDR binding contributing to immunity-related diseases. Replicated VDR-BVs associated with these disorders could represent causal disease risk alleles whose effect may be modifiable by vitamin D levels.

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