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#28882644   2017/09/08 Save this To Up

Postsynaptic N-type or P/Q-type calcium channels mediate long-term potentiation by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the trigeminal oralis.

Both N-type and P/Q-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) are involved in the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), the long-lasting increase of synaptic strength, in the central nervous system. To provide further information on the roles of N-type and P/Q-type VGCCs in the induction of LTP at excitatory synapses of trigeminal primary afferents in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vo), we investigated whether they contribute to the induction of LTP by activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs).

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#28822016   2017/08/19 Save this To Up

In situ imaging reveals properties of purinergic signalling in trigeminal sensory ganglia in vitro.

Chronic pain is supported by sterile inflammation that induces sensitisation of sensory neurons to ambient stimuli including extracellular ATP acting on purinergic P2X receptors. The development of in vitro methods for drug screening would be useful to investigate cell crosstalk and plasticity mechanisms occurring during neuronal sensitisation and sterile neuroinflammation. Thus, we studied, at single-cell level, membrane pore dilation based on the uptake of a fluorescent probe following sustained ATP-gated P2X receptor function in neurons and non-neuronal cells of trigeminal ganglion cultures from wild-type (WT) and R192Q CaV2.1 knock-in (KI) mice, a model of familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 characterised by neuronal sensitisation and higher release of soluble mediators. In WT cultures, pore responses were mainly evoked by ATP rather than benzoyl-ATP (BzATP) and partly inhibited by the P2X antagonist TNP-ATP. P2X7 receptors were expressed in trigeminal ganglia mainly by non-neuronal cells. In contrast, KI cultures showed higher expression of P2X7 receptors, stronger responses to BzATP, an effect largely prevented by prior administration of CaV2.1 blocker ω-agatoxin IVA, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based silencing of P2X7 receptors or the P2X7 antagonist A-804598. No cell toxicity was detected with the protocols. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a well-known migraine mediator, potentiated BzATP-evoked membrane permeability in WT as well as R192Q KI cultures, demonstrating its modulatory role on trigeminal sensory ganglia. Our results show an advantageous experimental approach to dissect pharmacological properties potentially relevant to chronic pain and suggest that CGRP is a soluble mediator influencing purinergic P2X pore dilation and regulating inflammatory responses.

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#28087765   2017/01/14 Save this To Up

Synapsin II Regulation of GABAergic Synaptic Transmission Is Dependent on Interneuron Subtype.

Synapsins are epilepsy susceptibility genes that encode phosphoproteins reversibly associated with synaptic vesicles. Synapsin II (SynII) gene deletion produces a deficit in inhibitory synaptic transmission, and this defect is thought to cause epileptic activity. We systematically investigated how SynII affects synchronous and asynchronous release components of inhibitory transmission in the CA1 region of the mouse hippocampus. We found that the asynchronous GABAergic release component is diminished in SynII-deleted (SynII(-)) slices. To investigate this defect at different interneuron subtypes, we selectively blocked either N-type or P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. SynII deletion suppressed the asynchronous release component at synapses dependent on N-type Ca(2+) channels but not at synapses dependent on P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels. We then performed paired double-patch recordings from inhibitory basket interneurons connected to pyramidal neurons and used cluster analysis to classify interneurons according to their spiking and synaptic parameters. We identified two cell subtypes, presumably parvalbumin (PV) and cholecystokinin (CCK) expressing basket interneurons. To validate our interneuron classification, we took advantage of transgenic animals with fluorescently labeled PV interneurons and confirmed that their spiking and synaptic parameters matched the parameters of presumed PV cells identified by the cluster analysis. The analysis of the release time course at the two interneuron subtypes demonstrated that the asynchronous release component was selectively reduced at SynII(-) CCK interneurons. In contrast, the transmission was desynchronized at SynII(-) PV interneurons. Together, our results demonstrate that SynII regulates the time course of GABAergic release, and that this SynII function is dependent on the interneuron subtype.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Deletion of the neuronal protein synapsin II (SynII) leads to the development of epilepsy, probably due to impairments in inhibitory synaptic transmission. We systematically investigated SynII function at different subtypes of inhibitory neurons in the hippocampus. We discovered that SynII affects the time course of GABA release, and that this effect is interneuron subtype specific. Within one of the subtypes, SynII deficiency synchronizes the release and suppresses the asynchronous release component, while at the other subtype SynII deficiency suppresses the synchronous release component. These results reveal a new SynII function in the regulation of the time course of GABA release and demonstrate that this function is dependent on the interneuron subtype.

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#27838299   2016/11/13 Save this To Up

Structure-activity relationships of ω-Agatoxin IVA in lipid membranes.

To analyze structural features of ω-Aga IVA, a gating modifier toxin from spider venom, we here investigated the NMR solution structure of ω-Aga IVA within DPC micelles. Under those conditions, the Cys-rich central region of ω-Aga IVA still retains the inhibitor Cys knot motif with three short antiparallel β-strands seen in water. However, (15)N HSQC spectra of ω-Aga IVA within micelles revealed that there are radical changes to the toxin's C-terminal tail and several loops upon binding to micelles. The C-terminal tail of ω-Aga IVA appears to assume a β-turn like conformation within micelles, though it is disordered in water. Whole-cell patch clamp studies with several ω-Aga IVA analogs indicate that both the hydrophobic C-terminal tail and an Arg patch in the core region of ω-Aga IVA are critical for Cav2.1 blockade. These results suggest that the membrane environment stabilizes the structure of the toxin, enabling it to act in a manner similar to other gating modifier toxins, though its mode of interaction with the membrane and the channel is unique.

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#27618790   2016/09/13 Save this To Up

Synaptic transmission at the endbulb of Held deteriorates during age-related hearing loss.

Synaptic transmission at the endbulb of Held was assessed by whole-cell patch clamp recordings from auditory neurons in mature (2-4 months) and aged (20-26 months) mice. Synaptic transmission is degraded in aged mice, which may contribute to the decline in neural processing of the central auditory system during age-related hearing loss. The changes in synaptic transmission in aged mice can be partially rescued by improving calcium buffering, or decreasing action potential-evoked calcium influx. These experiments suggest potential mechanisms, such as regulating intraterminal calcium, that could be manipulated to improve the fidelity of transmission at the aged endbulb of Held.

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#27273014   2016/06/30 Save this To Up

P/Q-type and T-type voltage-gated calcium channels are involved in the contraction of mammary and brain blood vessels from hypertensive patients.

Calcium channel blockers are widely used in cardiovascular diseases. Besides L-type channels, T- and P/Q-type calcium channels are involved in the contraction of human renal blood vessels. It was hypothesized that T- and P/Q-type channels are involved in the contraction of human brain and mammary blood vessels.

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#27175010   2016/05/13 Save this To Up

Inefficient constitutive inhibition of P2X3 receptors by brain natriuretic peptide system contributes to sensitization of trigeminal sensory neurons in a genetic mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine.

On trigeminal ganglion neurons, pain-sensing P2X3 receptors are constitutively inhibited by brain natriuretic peptide via its natriuretic peptide receptor-A. This inhibition is associated with increased P2X3 serine phosphorylation and receptor redistribution to non-lipid raft membrane compartments. The natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist anantin reverses these effects. We studied whether P2X3 inhibition is dysfunctional in a genetic familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 model produced by introduction of the human pathogenic R192Q missense mutation into the mouse CACNA1A gene (knock-in phenotype). This model faithfully replicates several properties of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1, with gain-of-function of CaV2.1 Ca(2+) channels, raised levels of the algogenic peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, and enhanced activity of P2X3 receptors in trigeminal ganglia.

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#27052156   2016/05/16 Save this To Up

Sodium-calcium exchanger and R-type Ca(2+) channels mediate spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in magnocellular neurones of the rat supraoptic nucleus.

Isolated supraoptic neurones generate spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i oscillations in isolated conditions. Here we report in depth analysis of the contribution of plasmalemmal ion channels (Ca(2+), Na(+)), Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), intracellular Ca(2+) release channels (InsP3Rs and RyRs), Ca(2+) storage organelles, plasma membrane Ca(2+) pump and intracellular signal transduction cascades into spontaneous Ca(2+) activity. While removal of extracellular Ca(2+) or incubation with non-specific voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (VGCC) blocker Cd(2+) suppressed the oscillations, neither Ni(2+) nor TTA-P2, the T-type VGCC blockers, had an effect. Inhibitors of VGCC nicardipine, ω-conotoxin GVIA, ω-conotoxin MVIIC, ω-agatoxin IVA (for L-, N-, P and P/Q-type channels, respectively) did not affect [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. In contrast, a specific R-type VGCC blocker SNX-482 attenuated [Ca(2+)]i oscillations. Incubation with TTX had no effect, whereas removal of the extracellular Na(+) or application of an inhibitor of the reverse operation mode of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger KB-R7943 blocked the oscillations. The mitochondrial uncoupler CCCP irreversibly blocked spontaneous [Ca(2+)]i activity. Exposure of neurones to Ca(2+) mobilisers (thapsigargin, cyclopiazonic acid, caffeine and ryanodine); 4-aminopyridine (A-type K(+) current blocker); phospholipase C and adenylyl cyclase pathways blockers U-73122, Rp-cAMP, SQ-22536 and H-89 had no effect. Oscillations were blocked by GABA, but not by glutamate, apamin or dynorphin. In conclusion, spontaneous oscillations in magnocellular neurones are mediated by a concerted action of R-type Ca(2+) channels and the NCX fluctuating between forward and reverse modes.

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#26985025   2016/03/17 Save this To Up

Interdependent Conductances Drive Infraslow Intrinsic Rhythmogenesis in a Subset of Accessory Olfactory Bulb Projection Neurons.

The accessory olfactory system controls social and sexual behavior. However, key aspects of sensory signaling along the accessory olfactory pathway remain largely unknown. Here, we investigate patterns of spontaneous neuronal activity in mouse accessory olfactory bulb mitral cells, the direct neural link between vomeronasal sensory input and limbic output. Both in vitro and in vivo, we identify a subpopulation of mitral cells that exhibit slow stereotypical rhythmic discharge. In intrinsically rhythmogenic neurons, these periodic activity patterns are maintained in absence of fast synaptic drive. The physiological mechanism underlying mitral cell autorhythmicity involves cyclic activation of three interdependent ionic conductances: subthreshold persistent Na(+) current, R-type Ca(2+) current, and Ca(2+)-activated big conductance K(+) current. Together, the interplay of these distinct conductances triggers infraslow intrinsic oscillations with remarkable periodicity, a default output state likely to affect sensory processing in limbic circuits.

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#26708163   2016/02/04 Save this To Up

Injury-specific functional alteration of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels in synaptic transmission of primary afferent C-fibers in the rat spinal superficial dorsal horn.

We investigated functional alterations of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) in excitatory synaptic transmission from primary afferent A- and C-fibers after peripheral nerve injury. Patch-clamp recordings were performed on substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal cord slices with an attached dorsal root, prepared from L5 spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. The effects of neuronal VGCC blockers, ω-conotoxin GVIA (ω-CgTX) for N-type channels and ω-agatoxin IVA (ω-AgaIVA) for P/Q-type channels, on evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) by stimulation of A- or C-fibers were studied. Besides, electrophysiological assay using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and immunohistochemistry were done. In naïve rats, ω-CgTX (0.1-1μM) reduced more effectively A-fiber eEPSCs than C-fiber ones. After nerve injury, ω-CgTX produced great inhibition of C-fiber eEPSCs in slices with the injured L5 dorsal root of SNL model rats, as compared to sham-operated rats. By contrast, in slices with the non-injured L4 one, inhibitory effects of ω-CgTX were not changed. This occurred concurrently with increased expression of N-type VGCCs in L5 spinal dorsal horn and with enhanced Ca(2+) currents through N-type VGCCs in small-sized (C-type) L5 DRG. In terms of A-fiber eEPSCs, ω-CgTX elicited similar inhibition in nerve-injured and sham-operated rats. ω-AgaIVA (0.1μM) had less effect on A- or C-fiber eEPSCs. These results indicate that N-type, but not P/Q-type, VGCCs mainly contribute to excitatory synaptic transmission from A- and C-fibers in the spinal dorsal horn. More importantly, following nerve injury, the functional contribution of N-type VGCCs to nociceptive transmission is increased in the pre-synaptic terminals of injured C-fibers.

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