Search results for: miRNASelect™ pEP_hsa_mir_598 Expression Vector
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CRISPR/Cas9-Based Cellular Engineering for Targeted Gene Overexpression.Gene and cellular therapies hold tremendous promise as agents for treating genetic disorders. However, the effective delivery of genes, particularly large ones, and expression at therapeutic levels can be challenging in cells of clinical relevance. To address this engineering hurdle, we sought to employ the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system to insert powerful regulatory elements upstream of an endogenous gene. We achieved robust activation of thegene in primary human umbilical cord blood CD34⁺ hematopoietic stem cells and peripheral blood T-cells. CD34⁺ cells retained their colony forming potential and, in a second engineering step, we disrupted the T-cell receptor complex in T-cells. These cellular populations are of high translational impact due to their engraftment potential, broad circulatory properties, and favorable immune profile that supports delivery to multiple recipients. This study demonstrates the feasibility of targeted knock in of a ubiquitous chromatin opening element, promoter, and marker gene that doubles as a suicide gene for precision gene activation. This system merges the specificity of gene editing with the high level, sustained gene expression achieved with gene therapy vectors. We predict that this design concept will be highly transferrable to most genes in multiple model systems representing a facile cellular engineering platform for promoting gene expression.
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mir-637 inhibits the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell QBC939 through interfering CTSB expression.To investigate the role of mir-637 on the proliferation, migration and apoptosis in human cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cell line QBC939, and the impact of mir-637 on Cathepsin B (CTSB) expression.
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SP1 upregulated FoxO3a promotes tumor progression in colorectal cancer.FoxO transcription factors are important regulators of cell survival in response to a variety of stress stimuli and play vital functions in tumor progression. However, the functions and underlying regulators of FoxO3a in colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been fully elucidated. The aim of the current study was to identify the functions of FoxO3a in CRC and characterize the transcription elements within the promoter region of FoxO3a. The expression of FoxO3a was upregulated in response to hypoxic and oxidative stress stimuli. Furthermore, knockdown of FoxO3a significantly reduced cell proliferation and migration ability, while it promoted the response to cetuximab treatment. In addition, it was revealed that knockdown of FoxO3a reduced tumor progression in vivo. A mechanistic study found that plenty of putative SP1 sites were identified in the FoxO3a promoter. Luciferase reporter assay revealed that a region corresponding to the SP1 binding sites located between ‑2,000 and ‑1,037 bp of FoxO3a promoter was essential for the transcriptional activity. Co-transfection of a SP1 expression vector with the reporter constructs markedly increased luciferase activity. Collectively, these results indicated that SP1‑dependent promoter elements drive FoxO3a gene transcription in colorectal CRC, and indicated that SP1 upregulated FoxO3a is critical for CRC progression.
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SIRT5 as a biomarker for response to anthracycline-taxane-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is of great importance for patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and the achievement of pathological complete response (pCR) to NAC in TNBC patients indicates survival benefits. However, the identification of reliable predictive biomarkers of pCR to NAC in TNBC patients remains an urgent and largely unattended medical issue. In the present study, we evaluated the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between pCR and non-pCR patients after doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide therapy, followed by paclitaxel pre-operative treatment in 64 TNBC patients recorded in the GSE41998 dataset of Gene Expression Omnibus and identified 118 DEGs. Subsequently, we selected five core genes that were closely associated with the pCR of TNBC patients by using a genetic algorithm‑support vector machine-based method. Sirtuin 5 (SIRT5) was one of the five core genes and patients who achieved pCR expressed higher levels of SIRT5. Thus, we speculated that SIRT5 may be a potential predictive marker of the response to anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy. Oncomine analysis revealed that the expression levels of SIRT5 were higher in epirubicin/cyclophosphamide-docetaxel responders compared with non-responders. Furthermore, Gene Ontology analysis indicated that SIRT5 may affect the response to anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy by regulating the Rho pathway. It was also observed that SIRT5 was upregulated in TNBC and breast cancer with BRCA1 mutation subtypes. High SIRT5 expression was also associated with poor clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients. In conclusion, the present study revealed SIRT5 as a biomarker for response to anthracycline-taxane-based NAC in patients with TNBC and identified a series of novel biological functions of SIRT5 in breast cancer.
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Targeting human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase to mitochondria protects cells from high glucose-induced apoptosis.Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a major vision threatening disease mainly induced by high glucose. Despite great efforts were made to explore the etiology of DR, the exact mechanism responsible for its pathogenesis remains elusive.
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Evaluation of the Glypican 3 promoter for transcriptional targeting of hepatocellular carcinoma.Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major health problem as evidenced by its increasing incidence and high morbidity and mortality rates. Most patients with HCC have underlying liver disease and dysfunction which limits the current therapeutic options. Treatments that spare the liver and destroy the HCC are needed. Targeting transcriptional differences between HCC and liver cells may provide this therapeutic window. In this study, we examine the potential of the Glypican 3 (GPC3) promoter as a targeting strategy. GPC3 is an oncofetal protein belonging to the proteoglycan family which is normally only expressed during fetal development. However, in HCC, the expression of this protein is reactivated. Here, we show that GPC3 is expressed primarily in HCC and not in normal liver lines. We show that the GPC3 promoter can be used to drive expression of significantly more luciferase and eYFP in HCC cell lines compared to normal liver cells. Further, we show that vectors containing cytosine deaminase (CD) under GPC3 promotor control induced significantly more killing of HCC cell lines after treatment with 5-FC compared to normal liver cell lines. These data suggest that transcriptionally targeted delivery of transgene in HCC cells can be achieved using the GPC3 promoter and this targeting strategy produces limited toxicity to normal liver cells.
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Regulatable Lentiviral Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy in a Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease.Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) exhibits potent neuroprotective properties in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease (PD), but challenges in GDNF delivery have been reported from clinical trials. To address this barrier, we developed a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) -based macrophage-mediated GDNF therapy platform. Here we introduced a regulatable lentiviral vector (LV-MSP-Tet-Off-hGDNF) in order to allow the expression of human GDNF to be adjusted or stopped by oral administration of doxycycline (Dox). C57BL/6J mice were lethally irradiated with head protection and then transplanted with syngeneic bone marrow cells transduced with either the hGDNF-expressing vector or a corresponding GFP-expressing vector, LV-MSP-Tet-Off-GFP. Suppression of vector gene expression was achieved through administration of Dox in drinking water. To create a toxin-induced Parkinsonian model, mice were injected in two cycles with MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) to yield nigral cell/striatal dopamine loss and behavioral deficits. During the presence of Dox in the drinking water, plasma GDNF was at a basal level, whereas during the absence of Dox, plasma GDNF was significantly elevated, indicating reliable regulation of therapeutic gene expression. Midbrain GDNF levels were altered in parallel, although did not return completely to basal levels during the periods of Dox withdrawal. Motor activities of the MPTP-Tet-off-hGDNF group were comparable to those of the Tet-off-GFP (subject to no MPTP treatment) group, but substantially better than those of the MPTP-Tet-off-GFP group. Interestingly, the improvement in motor activities was sustained during the Dox-withdrawn periods in MPTP-Tet-off-hGDNF animals. Neuroprotection by therapeutic GDNF expression was further evidenced by significant amelioration of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase loss after both the first and second MPTP treatment cycles. These data suggest that neurotrophic factor expression can be upregulated to achieve efficacy or downregulated in case of off-target effects or adverse events, a feature that may eventually increase the acceptance of this potentially neuroprotective/disease-modifying PD therapy.
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In Utero Transplantation of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells for Potential Fetal Treatment of Hemophilia A.Hemophilia A (HA) is an X-linked recessive disorder caused by mutations in the factor VIII ( FVIII) gene leading to deficient blood coagulation. The current standard of care is frequent infusions of plasma-derived FVIII or recombinant B-domain-deleted FVIII (BDD-FVIII). While this treatment is effective, many patients eventually develop FVIII inhibitors that limit the effectiveness of the infused FVIII. As a monogenic disorder, HA is an ideal target for gene or cell-based therapy. Several studies have investigated allogeneic stem cell therapy targeting in utero or postnatal treatment of HA but have not been successful in completely correcting HA. Autologous in utero transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells is promising for treatment of HA due to the naive immune status of the fetal environment as well as its potential to prevent transplant rejection and long-term FVIII inhibitor formation. HA can be diagnosed by chorionic villus sampling performed during the first trimester (10 to 13 wk) of gestation. In this study, we used an established protocol and isolated placenta-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (PMSCs) from first trimester chorionic villus tissue and transduced them with lentiviral vector encoding the BDD-FVIII gene. We show that gene-modified PMSCs maintain their immunophenotype and multipotency, express, and secrete high levels of active FVIII. PMSCs were then transplanted at embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5) into wild-type fetuses from time-mated pregnant mice. Four days after birth, pups were checked for engraftment, and varying levels of expression of human green fluorescent protein were found in the organs tested. This study shows feasibility of the approach to obtain PMSCs from first trimester chorionic villus tissue, genetically modify them with the FVIII gene, and transplant them in utero for cell-mediated gene therapy of HA. Future studies will involve evaluation of long-term engraftment, phenotypic correction in HA mice, and prevention of FVIII inhibitor development by this approach.
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Efficient non-viral T cell engineering by Sleeping Beauty minicircles diminishing DNA toxicity and miRNAs silencing the endogenous TCR.Transposon-based vectors have entered clinical trials as an alternative to viral vectors for genetic engineering of T cells. However, transposon vectors require DNA transfection into T cells which we found to cause adverse effects. T cell viability was decreased in a dose-dependent manner and DNA-transfected T cells showed a delayed response upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with regard to blast formation, proliferation and surface expression of CD25 and CD28. Gene expression analysis demonstrated a DNA-dependent induction of a type I interferon response and IFN-β upregulation. By combining Sleeping Beauty transposon minicircle vectors with SB100X transposase-encoding RNA, we were able to reduce the amount of total DNA required and achieved stable expression of therapeutic TCRs in more than 50% of human T cells without enrichment. The TCR-engineered T cells mediated effective tumor cell killing and cytokine secretion upon antigen-specific stimulation. Additonally, the Sleeping Beauty transposon system was further improved by miRNAs silencing the endogenous TCR chains. These miRNAs increased the surface expression of the transgenic TCR, diminished mispairing with endogenous TCR chains and enhanced antigen-specific T cell functionality. Our approach facilitates the rapid non-viral generation of highly functional, engineered T cells for immunotherapy.
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[An experimental study of CD4 targeted chimeric antigen receptor modified T cell with anti-lymphoma activity].To study the specific killing effect of CD4 membrane protein targeted chimeric antigen receptor modified T (CAR-T) cell.The second generation CD4 targeted chimeric antigen receptor containing 4-1BB costimulation domain was insert into lentiviral vector through recombinant DNA technology. Lentivirus was prepared and packaged by 293T cells with four plasmids. Beads activated T cells were transduced with lentivirus and the transduction efficiency was checked with Protein L and flow cytometry. T cell subsets and IFN-γ concentrations were detected with probe-tagged antibody and cytometric bead assay.①The transduction efficiency of activated T cells with prepared lentivirus were 50.0%-70.0%. A subset of CD8T cell acquired dim expression of CD4 membrane protein after activation. CD4T cell and CD8CD4T cell were gradually killed by CD4 targeted CAR-T post lentivirus transduction. ②The kill efficacy of CD4 targeted CAR-T cell and control T cell toward KARPAS 299 T cell at an E∶T ratio of 8∶1 for 24 h was (96.9±2.1)% and (11.2±3.1)%, CAR-T cell has a higher killing efficacy than control T cell (=7.137,=0.028). The IFN-γ concentrations in culture supernatant of CAR-T cell with K562-CD4 cell, CAR-T cell with K562 cell and CAR-T cell alone were (15 648±2 168), (1 978±354) and (1 785±268) pg/ml, CAR-T cell cocultured with K562-CD4 cell produced more IFN-γ than the other two controls (<0.01).CD4 targeted CAR-T has an immunophenotype of CD8CD4T cell. CD4 targeted CAR-T cell has killing efficacy toward normal CD4T cell and CD4T lymphoma cell. CD4 targeted CAR-T cell also has a killing efficacy toward CD4target cell.
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