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           Search results for: hHR23A,Homo sapiens,HR23A,Human,RAD23A,UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog A   

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Two mammalian homologs of yeast Rad23, HR23A and HR23B, as multifunctional proteins.

Mammalian cells express two homologs of yeast Rad23, the so-called homolog of Rad23 (HR23) proteins. The HR23 proteins were identified more than two decades ago as factors involved in initiation of global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) along with their interacting partner, xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) protein. Because the HR23 genes encode proteins harboring ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains at their N-termini and two ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domains in their central- and C-terminal regions, the link between HR23 proteins and proteolytic degradation has been widely explored by several methods, including yeast two-hybrid screening and co-affinity purification. To date, various HR23 protein partners have been identified, and these proteins are involved not only in DNA repair, but also in ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation, transcriptional regulation, and cell cycle control. In addition, establishment of mouse strains lacking the HR23 genes and RNA silencing of these genes in human cells demonstrated their significance in animal development and cell growth. Through these studies, the functional differences between the two HR23 proteins have been gradually revealed. Furthermore, recent comprehensive proteomic analyses will help to elucidate the functional protein-protein networks involving the HR23 proteins.

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Dataset of liver proteins of eu- and hypothyroid rats affected in abundance by any of three factors: in vivo exposure to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), thyroid status, gender differences.

Male Wistar rats with different thyroid status (eu-, hypothyroid) were exposed to 0, 3 or 30 mg/kg body weight of the flame retardant HBCD for 7 days and obtained data compared with a previous study in females, "Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) induced changes in the liver proteome of eu- and hypothyroid female rats" (Miller et al., 2016) [1]. Specifically, proteomic investigation of liver protein patterns obtained by 2D-DIGE was performed and differences between animals groups recorded, based on the factors exposure, thyroid status and gender. All proteins with significantly changed abundance in any of these comparisons were identified by mass spectrometry. General, hormone and proteomic data of both the present and the previous studies are discussed in Miller et al. (2016) [1] and in "Gender specific differences in the liver proteome of rats exposed to hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)" Miller et al. (2016) [2].

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Screening diagnostic candidates for schistosomiasis from tegument proteins of adult Schistosoma japonicum using an immunoproteomic approach.

Schistosomiasis is one of the world's most prevalent zoonotic diseases and a serious worldwide public health problem. Since the tegument (TG) of Schistosoma japonicum is in direct contact with the host and induces a host immune response against infection, the identification of immune response target molecules in the schistosome TG is crucial for screening diagnostic antigens for this disease.

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Human RAD23 homolog A is required for the nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor during induction of cell death.

During the initiation of cell death, mitochondrial protein, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), is transported to the nucleus. The mechanism of AIF nuclear translocation, however, is not clear. After protein synthesis, the AIF is originally targetted to the mitochondria, and the nuclear targetting is a secondary event. Therefore, we hypothesised that the nuclear translocation of AIF could be achieved by a novel pathway.

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Identification of miR-494 direct targets involved in senescence of human diploid fibroblasts.

Cellular senescence is a permanent cell cycle arrest triggered by different stimuli. We recently identified up-regulation of microRNA (miR)-494 as a component of the genetic program leading to senescence of human diploid IMR90 fibroblasts. Here, we used 2-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled to mass spectrometry to profile protein expression changes induced by adoptive overexpression of miR-494 in IMR90 cells. miR-494 induced robust perturbation of the IMR90 proteome by significantly (P≤0.05) down-regulating a number of proteins. Combination of mass spectrometry-based identification of down-regulated proteins and bioinformatic prediction of the miR-494 binding sites on the relevant mRNAs identified 26 potential targets of miR-494. Among them, computational analysis identified 7 potential evolution-conserved miR-494 targets. Functional miR-494 binding sites were confirmed in 3'-untranslated regions (UTRs) of 4 of them [heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3 (hnRNPA3), protein disulfide isomerase A3 (PDIA3), UV excision repair protein RAD23 homolog B (RAD23B), and synaptotagmin-binding cytoplasmic RNA-interacting protein (SYNCRIP)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Q (hnRNPQ)]. Their reduced expression correlated with miR-494 up-regulation in senescent cells. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of hnRNPA3 and, to a lesser extent, RAD23B mirrored the senescent phenotype induced by miR-494 overexpression, blunting cell proliferation and causing up-regulation of SA-β-galactosidase and DNA damage. Ectopic expression of hnRNPA3 or RAD23B slowed the appearance of the senescent phenotype induced by miR-494. Overall, these findings identify novel miR-494 direct targets that are involved in cellular senescence.

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Binding of HIV-1 Vpr protein to the human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23 (hHR23A) requires its xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C binding (XPCB) domain as well as the ubiquitin-associated 2 (UBA2) domain.

The human homolog of the yeast DNA repair protein RAD23, hHR23A, has been found previously to interact with the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 accessory protein Vpr. hHR23A is a modular protein containing an N-terminal ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain and two ubiquitin-associated domains (UBA1 and UBA2) separated by a xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C binding (XPCB) domain. All domains are connected by flexible linkers. hHR23A binds ubiquitinated proteins and acts as a shuttling factor to the proteasome. Here, we show that hHR23A utilizes both the UBA2 and XPCB domains to form a stable complex with Vpr, linking Vpr directly to cellular DNA repair pathways and their probable exploitation by the virus. Detailed structural mapping of the Vpr contacts on hHR23A, by NMR, revealed substantial contact surfaces on the UBA2 and XPCB domains. In addition, Vpr binding disrupts an intramolecular UBL-UBA2 interaction. We also show that Lys-48-linked di-ubiquitin, when binding to UBA1, does not release the bound Vpr from the hHR23A-Vpr complex. Instead, a ternary hHR23A·Vpr·di-Ub(K48) complex is formed, indicating that Vpr does not necessarily abolish hHR23A-mediated shuttling to the proteasome.

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Free energy profiles of base flipping in intercalative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-damaged DNA duplexes: energetic and structural relationships to nucleotide excision repair susceptibility.

The crystal structure of Rad4/Rad23, the yeast homolog of the human nucleotide excision repair (NER) lesion recognition factor XPC-RAD23B ( Min , J. H. and Pavletich , N. P. ( 2007 ) Nature 449 , 570 - 575 ) reveals that the lesion-partner base is flipped out of the helix and binds to amino acids of the protein. This suggests the hypothesis that the flipping of this partner base must overcome a free energy barrier, which constitutes one element contributing to changes in the thermodynamic properties induced by the DNA damage and sensed by the recognition protein. We explored this hypothesis by computing complete flipping free energy profiles for two lesions derived from the procarcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), R-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-N(6)-dA (R-DB[a,l]P-dA) and R-trans-anti-B[a]P-N(6)-dA (R-B[a]P-dA), and the corresponding unmodified duplex. The DB[a,l]P and B[a]P adducts differ in number and organization of their aromatic rings. We integrate these results with prior profiles for the R-trans-anti-DB[a,l]P-dG adduct ( Zheng , H. et al. ( 2010 ) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23 , 1868 - 1870 ). All adopt conformational themes involving intercalation of the PAH aromatic ring system into the DNA duplex; however, R-DB[a,l]P-dA and R-B[a]P-dA intercalate from the major groove, while R-DB[a,l]P-dG intercalates from the minor groove. These structural differences produce different computed van der Waals stacking interaction energies between the flipping partner base with the lesion aromatic ring system and adjacent bases; we find that the better the stacking, the higher the relative flipping free energy barrier and hence lower flipping probability. The better relative NER susceptibilities correlate with greater ease of flipping in these three differently intercalated lesions. In addition to partner base flipping, the Rad4/Rad23 crystal structure shows that a protein-β-hairpin, BHD3, intrudes from the major groove side between the DNA strands at the lesion site. We present a molecular modeling study for the R-DB[a,l]P-dG lesion in Rad4/Rad23 showing BHD3 β-hairpin intrusion with lesion eviction, and we hypothesize that lesion steric effects play a role in the recognition of intercalated adducts.

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Novel breast cancer susceptibility locus at 9q31.2: results of a genome-wide association study.

Genome-wide association studies have identified several common genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk. It is likely, however, that a substantial proportion of such loci have not yet been discovered.

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Cross-species divergence of the major recognition pathways of ubiquitylated substrates for ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis.

The recognition of ubiquitylated substrates is an essential element of ubiquitin/26S proteasome-mediated proteolysis (UPP), which is mediated directly by the proteasome subunit RPN10 and/or RPN13, or indirectly by ubiquitin receptors containing ubiquitin-like and ubiquitin-associated domains. By pull-down and mutagenesis assays, we detected cross-species divergence of the major recognition pathways. RPN10 plays a major role in direct recognition in Arabidopsis and yeast based on the strong affinity for the long and K48-linked ubiquitin chains. In contrast, both the RPN10 and RPN13 homologs play major roles in humans. For indirect recognition, the RAD23 and DSK2 homologs (except for the human DSK2 homolog) are major receptors. The human RAD23 homolog is targeted to the 26S proteasome by the RPN10 and RPN13 homologs. In comparison, Arabidopsis uses UIM1 and UIM3 of RPN10 to bind DSK2 and RAD23, respectively. Yeast uses UIM in RPN10 and LRR in RPN1. Overall, multiple proteasome subunits are responsible for the direct and/or indirect recognition of ubiquitylated substrates in yeast and humans. In contrast, a single proteasome subunit, RPN10, is critical for both the direct and indirect recognition pathways in Arabidopsis. In agreement with these results, the accumulation of ubiquitylated substrates and severe pleiotropic phenotypes of vegetative and reproductive growth are associated with the loss of RPN10 function in an Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutant. This implies that the targeting and proteolysis of the critical regulators involved are affected. These results support a cross-species mechanistic and functional divergence of the major recognition pathways for ubiquitylated substrates of UPP.

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Interaction of nucleotide excision repair factors XPC-HR23B, XPA, and RPA with damaged DNA.

The interaction of nucleotide excision repair factors--xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C protein in complex with human homolog of yeast Rad23 protein (XPC-HR23B), replication protein A (RPA), and xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A protein (XPA)--with 48-mer DNA duplexes imitating damaged DNA structures was investigated. All studied proteins demonstrated low specificity in binding to damaged DNA compared with undamaged DNA duplexes. RPA stimulates formation of XPC-HR23B complex with DNA, and when XPA and XPC-HR23B are simultaneously present in the reaction mixture a synergistic effect in binding of these proteins to DNA is observed. RPA crosslinks to DNA bearing photoreactive 5I-dUMP residue on one strand and fluorescein-substituted dUMP analog as a lesion in the opposite strand of DNA duplex and also stimulates cross-linking with XPC-HR23B. Therefore, RPA might be one of the main regulation factors at various stages of nucleotide excision repair. The data are in agreement with the cooperative binding model of nucleotide excision repair factors participating in pre-incision complex formation with DNA duplexes bearing damages.

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