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#16083862   2005/08/15 Save this To Up

Cloning and expression of ligand-gated ion-channel receptor L2 in central nervous system.

An orphan receptor of ligand-gated ion-channel type (L2, also termed ZAC according to the presence of zinc ion for channel activation) was identified by computer-assisted search programs on human genome database. The L2 protein shares partial homology with serotonin receptors 5HT3A and 5HT3B. We have cloned L2 cDNA derived from human caudate nucleus and characterized the exon-intron structure as follows: (1) The L2 protein has four transmembrane regions (M1-M4) and a long cytoplasmic loop between M3 and M4. (2) The sequence is conserved in species including chimpanzee, dog, cow, and opossum. (3) Nine exons form its protein-coding region and especially exon 5 corresponds to a disulfide bond region on the amino-terminal side. Our analysis using multiple tissue cDNA panels revealed that at least two splicing variants of L2 mRNA are present. The cDNA PCR amplification study revealed that L2 mRNA is expressed in tissues including brain, pancreas, liver, lung, heart, kidney, and skeletal muscle while 5HT3A mRNA could be detected in brain, heart, placenta, lung, kidney, pancreas, and skeletal muscle, and 5HT3B mRNA in brain, kidney, and skeletal muscle, suggesting different significance in tissue expression of these receptors. Regional expression of L2 mRNA and protein was examined in brain. The RT-PCR studies confirmed L2 mRNA expression in hippocampus, striatum, amygdala, and thalamus in adult brain. The L2 protein was immunolocalized by using antipeptide antibodies. Immunostained tissue sections revealed that L2-like immunoreactivity was dominantly expressed in the hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus. We analyzed the expression of L2 protein in HEK293 cells using GFP fusion protein reporter system. Western blots revealed that L2 protein confers sugar chains on the extracellular side. In transfected HEK293 cells, cellular membranes and intracellular puncta were densely labeled with GFP, suggesting selective dispatch to the final destination.

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Anti VGLUT 1 Rat, polyclo Anti Rat VGLUT 2, Rabbit DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Interferon-a Receptor Typ Mouse Anti-Human Interleu Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge RANK Ligand Soluble, Huma Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 interleukin 17 receptor C

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#12372408   2002/10/09 Save this To Up

Novel human cDNAs homologous to Drosophila Orct and mammalian carnitine transporters.

The molecular basis of the transport of organic ions (which include such medically important compounds as drugs, toxins, and metabolites) has been intensively studied ever since the identification of the prototypical anion and cation transporters, OAT1 (originally cloned by us as NKT) and OCT1. Here we report the cloning of two novel putative organic ion transporters with 12 predicted membrane spanning segments that are most homologous to mammalian OCTNs (carnitine transporters) and to the Drosophila putative transporter, Orct, an intriguing correspondence that led us to name our sequences Fly-like putative transporters (Flipts). Another transporter we cloned has recently been identified as OAT5. Inclusion of Flipts reveals that the organic ion transporter family tree has trifurcated into three branches, one bearing Flipts, OCTNs, and fly transporters, and the other two bearing OATs and OCTs. Flipts are widely expressed in adult kidney, brain, muscle, and other tissues; in contrast, OAT1 is largely in kidney, and OAT5, in liver. In the embryo as well, Flipts are broadly distributed, whereas OAT5 was found only in fetal liver. Flipt expression patterns resemble those of the phylogenetically related OCTNs, suggesting that Flipts might also participate in carnitine transport, particularly in brain, which has relatively high Flipt expression, including EST matches from amygdala, hippocampus, and hypothalamus.

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#11572484   2001/09/26 Save this To Up

Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XXI. The complete sequences of 60 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins.

As an extension of a sequencing project of human cDNA clones which encode large proteins of unidentified genes, we herein present the entire sequences of 60 cDNA clones for the genes named KIAA1879-KIAA1938. The cDNA clones were isolated from size-fractionated cDNA libraries derived from human fetal brain, adult whole brain and amygdala, and their protein-coding sequences were predicted. Thirty-seven cDNA clones entirely sequenced in this study were selected as cDNAs which have coding potentiality by in vitro transcription/translation experiments, and the remaining 23 cDNA clones were chosen by computer-assisted analysis of terminal sequences of cDNAs. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of cDNA clones analyzed here were 4.5 kb and 2.2 kb (733 amino acid residues), respectively. Sequence analyses against the public databases enabled us to annotate the functions of the predicted products of the 25 genes; 84% of these predicted gene products (21 gene products) were classified into proteins related to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, and cell structure/motility. In addition to the sequence information about these 60 genes, their expression profiles were also studied in some human tissues including brain regions by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Bone Morphogenetic Protei TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Human RO-60 P Recombinant Human RO-60 P Recombinant Human RO-60 P cDNA Library Human Adult Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Native Human Lactoferrin, Tissue array of ovarian g

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#11503141   2001/08/14 Save this To Up

Distribution of androgen and estrogen receptor mRNA in the brain and reproductive tissues of the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

Incubation temperature during embryonic development determines gonadal sex in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius. In addition, both incubation temperature and gonadal sex influence behavioral responses to androgen and estrogen treatments in adulthood. Although these findings suggest that temperature and sex steroids act upon a common neural substrate to influence behavior, it is unclear where temperature and hormone effects are integrated. To begin to address this question, we identified areas of the leopard gecko brain that express androgen receptor (AR) and estrogen receptor (ER) mRNA. We gonadectomized adult female and male geckos from an incubation temperature that produces a female-biased sex ratio and another temperature that produces a male-biased sex ratio. Females and males from both temperatures were then treated with equivalent levels of various sex steroids. Region-specific patterns of AR mRNA expression and ER mRNA expression were observed upon hybridization of radiolabeled (35S) cRNA probes to thin sections of reproductive tissues (male hemipenes and female oviduct) and brain. Labeling for AR mRNA was very intense in the epithelium, but not within the body, of the male hemipenes. In contrast, expression of ER mRNA was prominent in most of the oviduct but not in the luminal epithelium. Within the brain, labeling for AR mRNA was conspicuous in the anterior olfactory nucleus, the lateral septum, the medial preoptic area, the periventricular preoptic area, the external nucleus of the amygdala, the anterior hypothalamus, the ventromedial hypothalamus, the premammillary nucleus, and the caudal portion of the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Expression of ER mRNA was sparse in the septum and was prominent in the ventromedial hypothalamus, the caudal portion of the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, and a group of cells near the torus semicircularis. Many of these brain regions have been implicated in the regulation of hormone-dependent, sex-typical reproductive and agonistic behaviors in other vertebrates. Consequently, these nuclei are likely to control such behaviors in the leopard gecko and also are candidate neural substrates for mediating temperature effects on behavior.

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#11347906   2001/05/11 Save this To Up

Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XX. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

To accumulate information on the coding sequences of unidentified genes, we have carried out a sequencing project of human cDNA clones which encode large proteins. We herein present the entire sequences of 100 cDNA clones of unidentified human genes, named KIAA1776 and KIAA1780-KIAA1878, from size-fractionated cDNA libraries derived from human fetal brain, adult whole brain, hippocampus and amygdala. Most of the cDNA clones to be entirely sequenced were selected as cDNAs which were shown to have coding potentiality by in vitro transcription/translation experiments, and some clones were chosen by using computer-assisted analysis of terminal sequences of cDNAs. Three of these clones (fibrillin2/KIAA1776, MEGF10/KIAA1780 and MEGF11/KIAA1781) were isolated as genes encoding proteins with multiple EGF-like domains by motif-trap screening. The average sizes of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames of eDNA clones analyzed here reached 4.7 kb and 2.4 kb (785 amino acid residues), respectively. From the results of homology and motif searches against the public databases, the functional categories of the predicted gene products of 54 genes were determined; 93% of these predicted gene products (50 gene products) were classified as proteins related to cell signaling/communication, nucleic acid management, or cell structure/motility. To collect additional information on these genes, their expression profiles were also studied in 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions, spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human Inhibin Goat Anti-Human CKB Brain Proteins and Antibodies H Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Bone Morphogenetic Protei Goat Anti-Human Synaptota Goat Anti-Human STK39 SPA Goat Anti-Human SPHK1, (i

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#11043545   2001/01/26 Save this To Up

Mouse Tspan-5, a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, is highly expressed in brain cortical structures.

Using a subtractive hybridization method for the identification of genes related to the development of the murine cerebral cortex, we cloned a mouse homologue of a human tetraspanin family member, Tspan-5. We have isolated a 3.1 Kb cDNA fragment containing the entire coding region. Analysis of the cDNA nucleotide sequence revealed that mouse Tspan-5 shares 98% amino acid sequence identity with its human homologue. The predicted length of the mouse protein is 268 amino acids, with four putative hydrophobic domains with N- and C-intracellular tails, and two extracellular domains. Northern blot analysis of adult mouse tissues showed a single transcript, which is preferentially expressed in the brain. In situ hybridization showed prominent expression of Tspan-5 in the neocortex, the hippocampus, amygdala and in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. The pattern of expression of Tspan-5 in the mouse brain suggests a role for the tetraspanins in the maintenance of adult brain function.

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#10470851   1999/10/08 Save this To Up

Prediction of the coding sequences of unidentified human genes. XIV. The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro.

To extend our cDNA project for accumulating basic information on unidentified human genes, we newly determined the sequences of 100 cDNA clones from a set of size-fractionated human adult and fetal brain cDNA libraries, and predicted the coding sequences of the corresponding genes, named KIAA1019 to KIAA1118. The sequencing of these clones revealed that the average size of the inserts and corresponding open reading frames were 5.0 kb and 2.6 kb (880 amino acid residues), respectively. Database search of the predicted amino acid sequences classified 58 predicted gene products into the five functional categories, such as cell signaling/communication, cell structure/motility, nucleic acid management, protein management and cell division. It was also found that, for 34 gene products, homologues were detected in the databases, which were similar in sequence through almost the entire regions. The chromosomal locations of the genes were determined by using human-rodent hybrid panels unless their mapping data were already available in the public databases. The expression profiles of all the genes among 10 human tissues, 8 brain regions (amygdala, corpus callosum, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, hippocampus, substania nigra, subthalamic nucleus, and thalamus), spinal cord, fetal brain and fetal liver were also examined by reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction, products of which were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

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TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human Inhibin Goat Anti-Human CKB Brain Proteins and Antibodies H Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Bone Morphogenetic Protei Goat Anti-Human Synaptota Goat Anti-Human STK39 SPA Goat Anti-Human SPHK1, (i

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#9314579   1997/11/21 Save this To Up

Distribution of aromatase cytochrome P450 messenger ribonucleic acid in adult rhesus monkey brains.

The conversion of androgens to estrogens by aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) is an important step in the mechanism of androgen action in the brain. However, the distribution of P450arom mRNA in adult rhesus monkey brains has not been studied because specific probes have not been available. To address this deficit, we cloned and sequenced a 455-basepair segment of the 5' coding region of the rhesus P450arom cDNA. Total RNA was extracted from a rhesus monkey placenta (Day 47 of gestation and subjected to reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus oligonucleotide primers selected from published human and rat P450arom DNA sequences. The RT-PCR product was subcloned into a vector and sequenced. The monkey P450arom cDNA was 97% identical to the human sequence but shared only 86% homology with the rat sequence. We then developed a ribonuclease protection assay using a monkey P450arom cDNA and studied the distribution of P450arom mRNA in adult monkey brains. This assay protected two RNA fragments, one 455 nucleotides (nt) in length and the second approximately 300 nt. The relative distribution of P450arom mRNA (the 455-nt fragment) between brain areas of the adult (n = 3) was high in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis > medial preoptic/anterior hypothalamus > amygdala; intermediate in the medial basal hypothalamus (infundibular nucleus, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus) > lateral preoptic/anterior hypothalamus; and low in the septum > lateral-dorsal-medial hypothalamus. P450arom mRNA was undetectable in cingulate and parietal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. P450arom activity, as measured by the 3H2O assay, correlated well with the distribution of P450arom mRNA (the 455-nt protected fragment; r = 0.9) in the same tissues. A shorter protected RNA fragment was found in the medial basal hypothalamus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the amygdala, and the cingulate and parietal cortex but not in the other brain areas investigated. Its presence did not correlate with aromatase activity in brain tissue. This study describes the development of a ribonuclease protection assay using a monkey cDNA produced by RT-PCR and its usefulness for studying the distribution of P450arom mRNA in brains of nonhuman primates.

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#8824884   1996/12/05 Save this To Up

A candidate gene for mild mental handicap at the FRAXE fragile site.

The cytogenetic expression of the folate sensitive fragile site, FRAXE, is due to the expansion of a GCC repeat in proximal Xq28 of the human X chromosome and is associated with a mild form of mental handicap. Normal individuals have 6-35 copies of the repeat whereas cytogenetically positive, developmentally delayed males have > 200 copies and show methylation of the associated CpG island. Through the use of conserved sequences adjacent to the FRAXE GCC repeat, we have isolated a 1495 bp cDNA which begins 331 bp distal to the FRAXE site and extends to a region > 170 kb distal in Xq28. The cDNA sequence possesses both a putative start of translation and a poly-A tail. The predicted protein has amino acid motifs which share significant homologies with the human AF-4 gene which encodes a putative transcription factor. On northern analysis, the cDNA detects a 9.5 kb transcript in human brain, placenta and lung. This transcript is present in multiple human brain tissues, but is more abundant in the hippocampus and the amygdala, thus providing possible functional insights. RT-PCR of normal adult brain RNA provides evidence for the existence of the 1495 bp transcript represented by the isolated cDNA.

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#2678868   1989/11/01 Save this To Up

Expression and function of protein kinase C isozymes.

Three protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes, type I, II, and III, have been identified as the major Ca2+/phospholipid-stimulated protein kinases in the various animal tissues. Based on the immunochemical analysis it was demonstrated that PKC I was encoded by gamma cDNA, PKC II by the alternatively spliced beta I and beta II cDNAs, and PKC III by alpha cDNA. The expression of these enzymes appears to be tissue-specific and developmentally regulated. The central nervous system expresses high level of all three isozymes and the peripheral tissues mainly PKC II and III. During brain development, the expression of PKC I appears to follow the progress of synaptogenesis, whereas PKC II and III increase progressively from fetus up to 2-3 weeks of age. The level of PKC I in adult brain is highest in the cerebellum, hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex especially in those cortical regions being important for visual information processing and storage. The role of PKC II and III in cellular regulation was investigated by treatment of rat basophilic leukemia cells with the phorbol ester, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. This phorbol ester caused a faster degradation of PKC II than III, indicating a differential down-regulation of these two enzymes by this compound. The results presented in this study support the contention that each species of PKC has a distinct function in the regulation of a variety of cellular processes.

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