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#27135918   // Save this To Up

A methodological approach for purification and characterization of human serum albumin.

As the most predominant protein in plasma, albumin is synthesized in the liver. Given to various applications of albumin as biopharmaceutical agent, the annual demand for it is 500 tons in the world, which is the highest in the biomedical solutions demand ranking. There exist different procedures for production of albumin. The aim of this study was the purification of human serum albumin (HSA) using immunoaffinity chromatography. After immunization of rabbits, passive immunodiffusion and indirect ELISA tests were applied for assessment of polyclonal antibody production against HSA. Purification was performed by ion exchange chromatography (IEC) and protein G affinity chromatography. The produced anti-HSA IgG was attached to the CNBR-activated Sepharose and applied for albumin purification from human serum. Western blotting (WB) analysis and heat-induced insolubility were performed for functional and stability measurement assessment of immunoaffinity purified HSA, respectively. The optimum titer of anti-HSA determined by indirect ELISA was 256000. The SDS-PAGE showed that the purity rate of albumin was approximately 98% and WB confirmed the HSA functionality. Also, the heat-induced insolubility of immunoaffinity purified HSA was the same as the commercial HSA. Affinity chromatography using produced polyclonal antibody would be a robust method for purification of HSA.

2091 related Products with: A methodological approach for purification and characterization of human serum albumin.

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Comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test with Western blot for the detection of serum antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cats.

Current clinical research indicates that Encephalitozoon (E.) cuniculi infections in cats may be underdiagnosed, especially in animals with typical ocular signs (cataract/anterior uveitis). Although molecular detection of the pathogen in tissue appears promising, serology remains the major diagnostic tool in the living animal. While serological tests are established for the main host of E. cuniculi, the rabbit, the routine serological diagnosis for cats still needs validation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the consistency of indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and Western blot (WB) for the detection of IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in the serum of 84 cats. In addition, PCR of liquefied lens material or intraocular fluid was performed in those of the cats with a suspected ocular E. cuniculi infection. Twenty-one cats with positive PCR results were considered as a positive reference group. Results obtained by IFAT and WB corresponded in 83/84 serum samples, indicating a very good correlation between both serological methods. Using WB as the standard reference, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of antibodies against E. cuniculi by the IFAT were 97.6 and 100%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values for the IFAT were 100 and 97.7%, respectively. The accuracy (correct classified proportion) for the detection of IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in cats was 98.8%. The comparison of both serological methods with the PCR results also revealed a good agreement as 20 out of 21 PCR-positive samples were seropositive both in IFAT and WB. Both tests can be considered as equally reliable assays to detect IgG antibodies against E. cuniculi in cats. As the IFAT is quicker and easier to perform, it is recommended for routine use in the diagnosis of feline encephalitozoonosis.

1749 related Products with: Comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test with Western blot for the detection of serum antibodies against Encephalitozoon cuniculi in cats.

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Diagnosis of Fasciola gigantica infection using a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating cathepsin B3 protease.

A reliable monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) was developed for the detection of circulating cathepsin B3 protease (CatB3) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica and cattle naturally infected with the same parasite. The MoAb 2F9 and biotinylated rabbit polyclonal anti-recombinant CatB3 antibody were selected due to their high reactivities and specificities to F. gigantica CatB3 antigen based on indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. The lower detection limit of the sandwich ELISA assay was 10, 100 and 400pg/ml, when applied for the detection of rCatB3 antigen and CatB3 in whole body (WB) of newly excysted juveniles (NEJ) and metacercariae (Met) of F. gigantica, respectively. This sandwich ELISA assay could detect F. gigantica infection from day 1 to 35 post infection and revealed that circulating level of CatB3 peaked at day 1 post infection. In contrast, the antibody detection by indirect ELISA could only demonstrate the antibody level from 35 days post infection. The reliability of the assay method was evaluated using serum samples from mice infected with F. gigantica or Schistosoma mansoni, and hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as normal mice and hamsters. In addition, sera from cattle infected with Paramphistomum cervi, Strongylid, Trichuris sp. and Strongyloides sp., as well as sera from normal cattle were also assessed. In experimental mice, the diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rate, false negative rate and accuracy of ELISA were 95%, 100%, 100%, 97.9%, 0%, 5.3% and 98.5%, while in natural cattle they were 96.7%, 100%, 100%, 98.5%, 0%, 3.4% and 98.9%, respectively. Hence, this assay method showed high efficient and precision for early diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica.

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Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on crude Leishmania histone proteins for serodiagnosis of human infantile visceral leishmaniasis.

Human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is routinely diagnosed by detecting IgG that specifically binds to Leishmania antigens. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) remains a widely used method. However, the biggest challenge remains the choice of antigen with the highest specificity and sensitivity. This study is aimed at assessing the diagnostic performances of crude Leishmania histone (CLH) protein-based ELISAs in Mediterranean VL patients. The CLH proteins were biochemically purified from promastigote nuclear extracts. Their reactivities were analyzed by Western blotting (WB) using rabbit polyclonal antibodies against Leishmania recombinant histones and sera from VL patients, respectively. Then, the diagnostic potential of CLH proteins was validated by the CLH-based ELISA using 42 infantile VL patients' sera and 70 control subjects. The CLH-based ELISA performance was compared to that of the soluble Leishmania antigen (SLA)- and the recombinant K39 (rK39)-based ELISAs. Analysis of the WB profile with the use of polyclonal antibodies confirmed the histone origin of low molecular mass proteins (12 to 16 kDa). All VL samples tested presented antibodies reacting against different antigen fractions; however, recognition patterns were different depending on the reactivity of each serum. CLH-based ELISA showed an excellent ability to discriminate between VL cases and healthy controls (97.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity). It had a diagnostic performance similar to that of rK39-based ELISA (97.6% sensitivity and 97.1% specificity, P = 0.5) and a better serodiagnosis accuracy than the SLA-based ELISA (85.7% sensitivity and 90% specificity, P < 0.05). Therefore, crude Leishmania histone extract could be a valuable antigen for clinical use.

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Elongation factor 1-alpha is released into the culture medium during growth of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

The molecular pathogenesis of the intestinal parasite Giardia intestinalis is still not fully understood but excretory-secretory products have been suggested to be important during host-parasite interactions. Here we used SDS-PAGE gels and MALDI-TOF analysis to identify proteins released by Giardia trophozoites during in vitro growth. Serum proteins (mainly bovine serum albumin) in the growth medium, bind to the parasite surface and they are continuously released, which interfere with parasite secretome characterization. However, we identified two released Giardia proteins: elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) and a 58 kDa protein, identified as arginine deiminase (ADI). This is the first description of EF-1α as a released/secreted Giardia protein, whereas ADI has been identified in an earlier secretome study. Two genes encoding EF-1α were detected in the Giardia WB genome 35 kbp apart with almost identical coding sequences but with different promoter and 3' regions. Promoter luciferase-fusions showed that both genes are transcribed in trophozoites. The EF-1α protein localizes to the nuclear region in trophozoites but it relocalizes to the cytoplasm during host-cell interaction. Recombinant EF-1α is recognized by serum from giardiasis patients. Our results suggest that released EF-1α protein can be important during Giardia infections.

2812 related Products with: Elongation factor 1-alpha is released into the culture medium during growth of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites.

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Fasciola gigantica: immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis by detection of circulating 28.5 kDa tegumental antigen.

A monoclonal antibody (MoAb)-based sandwich ELISA was developed for the detection of circulating 28.5 kDa tegumental antigen (28.5 kDa TA) in the sera from mice experimentally infected with Fasciola gigantica. The MoAb was immobilized on a microtiter plate, and the antigen in the serum was captured and detected with biotinylated polyclonal rabbit anti TA antibody. The test could detect 28.5 kDa in the extracts of tegument (TA), whole body (WB) and excretory-secretory (ES) fractions at the concentrations of these crude antigens as low as 600 pg/ml, 16 and 60 ng/ml, respectively. This sandwich ELISA assay could detect the infection from day 1 to 35 post infection and showed that circulating level of 28.5 kDa TA peaked at day 1 post infection. In contrast, the antibody detection by indirect ELISA could only demonstrate the antibody level from 35 days post infection. The reliability of the assay method was evaluated using sera from mice infected with F. gigantica or Schistosoma mansoni, and hamsters infected with Opisthorchis viverrini, as well as healthy mice and hamsters. The sandwich ELISA exhibited a sensitivity and specificity at 94.55% and 100%, respectively, and with a positive predictive value of 100%, a negative predictive value of 97.39%, false positive rate of 0%, false negative rate of 5.50% and an accuracy of 98.2%. Thus, this detection method exhibited high specificity and sensitivity as well as could be used for early diagnosis of fasciolosis by F. gigantica.

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A novel and easy method for the production of recombinant peptides for use in the generation of monospecific antisera against Lama glama IgG2b and IgG2c subclasses.

We describe an easy method for the production of small recombinant peptides of 8 amino acid residues expressed as a fusion peptide with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and employed in an immunisation schedule to obtain polyclonal antibodies. The chosen peptides corresponded to specific fragments of the hinge regions of llama (Lama glama) IgG2 subisotypes b (2bH) and c (2cH). The DNA sequences encoding each peptide were ligated individually into pGEX-5X-2, which encodes GST. Once purified from a bacterial lysate by glutathione affinity chromatography, GST-2bH and GST-2cH were used to immunize rabbits. In parallel, polyclonal antibodies were generated against specific synthetic fragments of the hinge regions of llama IgG2a (2aH) and IgG3 (3H) coupled to keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH). Polyclonal antibodies raised against GST-peptides and KLH-peptides were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot (WB) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). The results obtained by ELISA demonstrated that monospecific anti-IgG2 and anti-IgG3 antisera were obtained using KLH-2aH, GST-2bH, GST-2cH and KLH-3H as antigens. All antisera showed reactivity with their specific IgG isotype by WB and IIF. This simple and novel recombinant DNA methodology for the generation of two monospecific anti-isotype antisera using small peptides expressed as fusion peptides with GST offers the possibility of large scale peptide production as an alternative to chemical peptide synthesis.

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Wuchereria bancrofti: cloning and characterization of heat shock protein 70 from the human lymphatic filarial parasite.

Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was identified as an immunodominant antigen by screening a Wuchereria bancrofti (Wb) microfilarial cDNA library with pooled Wb-infected sera, with 28% of the immunopositive clones coding for Wb-HSP70. The deduced amino acid sequence showed greater than 97 and 85% identity with HSP70 from filarial nematodes and humans, respectively. Recombinant HSP70 (74 kDa) and a recombinant protein from the C-terminal portion (43 kDa) also reacted with pooled Wb-infected sera, suggesting that the C-terminal region of HSP70 contains at least one antibody epitope. Brugia malayi L3 larvae showed increasing levels of HSP70 with increasing temperatures. Further, a polyclonal mouse anti-Wb-HSP70 antibody had reactivity to the HSP70 of cattle filarial parasite Settaria digitata and to human HSP70 derived from a Hep-2 cell line. Immune reactivity to Wb-HSP70 was strong, with uninfected non-endemic normal sera showing significantly greater reactions than sera from filaria-infected individuals. Both immunodominant self-HSP70 and HSP70 from other microbial infections may be primary targets for developing autoantibodies naturally.

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Expression of recombinant Norwalk-like virus capsid proteins using a bacterial system and the development of its immunologic detection.

The capsid protein of Norwalk-like virus (NLV) isolates NLV-36 (Mexico virus type, genogroup II [GII]), NLV-21 (Lordsdale virus type, GII), NLV-114 (untyped GII virus), and NLV-96-908 (KY89 virus type, GI) have been expressed in an Escherichia coli system. The expressed recombinant NLV capsid proteins, fused with maltose binding protein (MBP-rV) and thioredoxin (TRX-rV) in E. coli lysate, were analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel eletrophoresis. Rabbit IgG (R-IgG) in hyperimmune serum has been raised against MBP-rV-36 capsid protein and was purified before further study. Detection of TRX-rVs using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that R-IgG had immunologic reactivity to GII as well as to the GI rV capsid proteins TRX-rV-36, TRX-rV-21, TRX-rV-114, and TRX-rV-96-908. Results of Western immunoblot (WB) analysis showed the same broad recognition of R-IgG when using the same samples. The results of the ELISA tests on serum samples obtained from patients involved in confirmed outbreaks of NLV proved that expressed NLV capsid proteins in E. coli can be detected by NLV-infected human serum. In addition, purified NLVs (LD virus types) derived from patients' stool could be detected using anti-NLV R-IgG, whereas normal R-IgG did not react when using WB. Our results strongly suggest that the immunologic detection of NLV antigens using anti-rV R-IgG is possible and seems a significant step toward simplification of an NLV detection test.

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Giardia duodenalis: analysis of humoral immune response in experimentally infected gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

In this work, we have analyzed the humoral immune response in Mongolian gerbils infected with Giardia duodenalis trophozoites of strains P-1 and WB. The course of infection in the animals was assessed by monitoring cyst shedding in feces, and serum samples were collected at weekly intervals to measure antibody levels by ELISA. Parallel studies were carried out to determine the patterns of total and surface antigens of the parasite recognized by antibodies using Western blot and radioimmunoprecipitation (RIP) assays with the use of homospecific enzyme conjugates. Typical patterns of cyst shedding were observed in the infected animals and cyst numbers per gram of feces were consistently higher in gerbils infected with WB strain. Antibody levels to G. duodenalis antigens were observed by week 2 post-infection and were still detectable 4 months after infection. G. duodenalis antigens showed a complex but quantitatively and qualitatively different recognition pattern by infection-induced antibodies in Western blot assays which related to infecting strain. However, RIP assays showed a more restricted and common pattern of recognition of surface antigens from either strain. Taken together, the data obtained in this study provides further information regarding direct comparisons among infecting strain, patterns of infectivity, and host immune response toward G. duodenalis antigens in the gerbil model.

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