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#28802157   2017/08/12 Save this To Up

Droplet digital PCR for rapid enumeration of viral genomes and particles from cells and animals infected with orthopoxviruses.

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was adapted for quantifying the number of orthopoxviral genomes in purified virus samples, infected cell lysates and tissues of infected animals. In contrast to the more commonly used qPCR, the newer ddPCR provides absolute numbers of DNA copies in samples without need for standard curves and has the ability to detect rare mutants in a population. The genome/infectious unit ratio for several sucrose gradient-purified orthopoxviruses varied from 5 to 10, which correlated well with values obtained using the Virocyt, a dedicated fluorescence flow cytometer. By employing a nuclease step to digest unencapsulated DNA, the genome/infectious unit ratios of virus in crude cell lysates approached that of purified virus particles. The speed, accuracy, sensitivity, and dynamic range of less than one to millions of infectious units in a sample make this semi-automated method well suited to a variety of laboratory, animal and clinical studies.

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MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m anti HCMV gB IgG1 (monocl Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2

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#28771197   2017/08/03 Save this To Up

The Susceptibilities of Respiratory Syncytial Virus to Nucleolin Receptor Blocking and Antibody Neutralization are Dependent upon the Method of Virus Purification.

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) that is propagated in cell culture is purified from cellular contaminants that can confound experimental results. A number of different purification methods have been described, including methods that utilize fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and gradient ultracentrifugation. Thus, the constituents and experimental responses of RSV stocks purified by ultracentrifugation in sucrose and by FPLC were analyzed and compared by infectivity assay, Coomassie stain, Western blot, mass spectrometry, immuno-transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and ImageStream flow cytometry. The FPLC-purified RSV had more albumin contamination, but there was less evidence of host-derived exosomes when compared to ultracentrifugation-purified RSV as detected by Western blot and mass spectrometry for the exosome markers superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] (SOD1) and the tetraspanin CD63. Although the purified virus stocks were equally susceptible to nucleolin-receptor blocking by the DNA aptamer AS1411, the FPLC-purified RSV was significantly less susceptible to anti-RSV polyclonal antibody neutralization; there was 69% inhibition (p = 0.02) of the sucrose ultracentrifugation-purified RSV, 38% inhibition (p = 0.03) of the unpurified RSV, but statistically ineffective neutralization in the FPLC-purified RSV (22% inhibition; p = 0.30). The amount of RSV neutralization of the purified RSV stocks was correlated with anti-RSV antibody occupancy on RSV particles observed by immuno-TEM. RSV purified by different methods alters the stock composition and morphological characteristics of virions that can lead to different experimental responses.

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Anti-BRSV(Bovine Respirat FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Monoclonal antibody Anti Measles Virus Nucleoprote Measles Virus nucleoprote Hepatitis C Virus antibod Feline Leukemia virus ant Feline Leukemia Virus p27 Feline Leukemia Virus gp7

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#28435908   2017/04/24 Save this To Up

Development of a Japanese encephalitis virus-like particle vaccine in silkworms using codon-optimised prM and envelope genes.

We have successfully prepared a Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) - Nakayama virus like particle (NVLP) vaccine using synthetic codon-optimized prM and E genes. The expression of the recombinant JEV Nakayama-BmNPV (JEV-NNPV) virus was determined in infected silkworm Bm-N cells by fluorescence and Western blot analysis. The recombinant was inoculated into silkworm pupae and the yield of Nakayama VLP (NVLP) reached a peak in the homogenates after 3 days. Additionally, in the peptide analysis of infected pupae homogenate, it appeared approximately 300-500 μg E protein/pupa were produced. When purified the above eluates on the discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, NVLP showed a strong hemagglutination (HA) activity by using chicken red blood cell in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) free from Mg(++) and Ca(++) ions. The immune antisera against NVLP strain could efficiently neutralize the plaque formation of Nakayama, Beijing-1 and Muar strains, showing tendency of much higher reaction with heterologous Muar strain than homologous Nakayama strain. Our findings suggest that the JEV-NVLP may be useful for JEV epidemic control in many endemic areas of Asian countries as a widely effective and less expensive JE vaccine.

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Adeno Associated Virus (A Adeno Associated Virus (A Tick born encephalitis vi West Nile Virus Envelope DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Recombinant Japanese Ence Recombinant Japanese Ence HA (Influenza A Virus Hem Breast various pathology Mouse Anti-St. Louis Ence Anti-Infectious Pancreati Anti-Infectious Pancreati

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#27311834   2016/09/27 Save this To Up

Recombinant measles virus incorporating heterologous viral membrane proteins for use as vaccines.

Recombinant measles virus (rMV) vectors expressing heterologous viral membrane protein antigens are potentially useful as vaccines. Genes encoding the mumps virus haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (MuV-HN), the influenza virus haemagglutinin (Flu-HA) or the respiratory syncytial virus fusion (RSV-F) proteins were inserted into the genome of a live attenuated vaccine strain of measles virus. Additionally, in this case rMV with the MuV-HN or the influenza HA inserts, chimeric constructs were created that harboured the measles virus native haemagglutinin or fusion protein cytoplasmic domains. In all three cases, sucrose-gradient purified preparations of rMV were found to have incorporated the heterologous viral membrane protein on the viral membrane. The possible utility of rMV expressing RSV-F (rMV.RSV-F) as a vaccine was tested in a cotton rat challenge model. Vaccination with rMV.RSV-F efficiently induced neutralizing antibodies against RSV and protected animals from infection with RSV in the lungs.

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Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Measles Virus Recombinant Viral Antige Recombinant Human ASF1A P Recombinant Human ASF1A P Recombinant Human ASF1A P Recombinant Dengue Virus Recombinant Dengue Virus

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#27307452   2016/08/06 Save this To Up

Development and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies to Yellow Fever Virus and Application in Antigen Detection and IgM Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay.

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute hemorrhagic viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes in Africa and South America. The major challenge in YF disease detection and confirmation of outbreaks in Africa is the limited availability of reference laboratories and the persistent lack of access to diagnostic tests. We used wild-type YF virus sequences to generate recombinant envelope protein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Both the recombinant protein and sucrose gradient-purified YF vaccine virus 17D (YF-17D) were used to immunize BALB/c mice to generate monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Eight MAbs were established and systematically characterized by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The established MAbs showed strong reactivity with wild-type YF virus and recombinant protein with no detectable cross-reactivity to dengue virus or Japanese encephalitis virus. Epitope mapping showed strong binding of three MAbs to amino acid positions 1 to 51, while two MAbs mapped to amino acid positions 52 to 135 of the envelope protein. The remaining three MAbs did not show reactivity to envelope fragments. The established MAbs exert no neutralization against wild-type YF and 17D viruses (titer of <10 for both strains). The applicability of MAbs 8H3 and 3F4 was further evaluated using IgM capture ELISA. A total of 49 serum samples were analyzed, among which 12 positive patient and vaccinee samples were correctly identified. Using serum samples that were 2-fold serially diluted, the IgM capture ELISA was able to detect all YF-positive samples. Furthermore, MAb-based antigen detection ELISA enabled the detection of virus in culture supernatants containing titers of about 1,000 focus-forming units.

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Mouse Anti-Insulin-Like G Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Goat Anti-Human Androgen Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Mouse AntiInfluenza B Nuc FIV Core Ag, recombinant Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Viral antibodies, anti-R HIV1 integrase antibody,

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#27283882   2016/08/22 Save this To Up

Artificial feeding Rice stripe virus enables efficient virus infection of Laodelphax striatellus.

Rice stripe virus (RSV), the causative agent of rice stripe disease, is transmitted by Laodelphax striatellus in a persistent-propagative manner. Efficient virus acquisition is primary for studies of virus transmission and virus-insect vector interactions. However, under greenhouse conditions, less than 30% of the L. striatellus population, on average, become viruliferous during feeding on RSV-infected plants. Here, we explored a method for efficient RSV acquisition by feeding the insects with a virus-containing artificial diet. Virus particles were partially purified from frozen infected rice leaves. A series of RSV concentrations in a 5% sucrose solution were tested in the feed of L. striatellus nymphs. The percentage of infected insects increased along with the increasing viral concentration, and the highest infection percentage 96% was achieved using a 1200ngμL(-1) crude RSV suspension after 48h feeding. RSV particles acquired in this manner were able to spread to L. striatellus salivary glands. This improved method of obtaining viruliferous insects should assist the study of RSV transmission mechanisms in L. striatellus.

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HbcAg - Hepatitis B Viru HbcAg - Hepatitis B Viru HbcAg - Hepatitis B Viru Gag Polymerase (Retro Vir Recombinant Viral Antige Tick born encephalitis vi Rubella virus E1 mosaic r Rubella virus E2 recombin Rubella virus capsid (C) West Nile Virus Envelope West Nile Virus Pre M rec anti Adenovirus E11 IgG2a

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#27257648   2016/06/02 Save this To Up

The proteome of the infectious bronchitis virus Beau-R virion.

Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious respiratory disease of poultry caused by the coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). It was thought that coronavirus virions were composed of three major viral structural proteins until investigations of other coronaviruses showed that the virions also include viral non-structural and genus-specific accessory proteins as well as host-cell proteins. To study the proteome of IBV virions, virus was grown in embryonated chicken eggs, purified by sucrose-gradient ultracentrifugation and analysed by mass spectrometry. Analysis of three preparations of purified IBV yielded the three expected structural proteins plus 35 additional virion-associated host proteins. The virion-associated host proteins had a diverse range of functional attributions, being involved in cytoskeleton formation, RNA binding and protein folding pathways. Some of these proteins were unique to this study, while others were found to be orthologous to proteins identified in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virions and also virions from a number of other RNA and DNA viruses.

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TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Thermostable Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Single Strand DNA Ligase, Single Strand DNA Ligase, Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab

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#27061053   2016/05/28 Save this To Up

Isolation and characterization of a novel mycovirus from Penicillium digitatum.

A novel double-stranded RNA virus designated Penicillium digitatum virus 1 (PdV1) was isolated from the citrus fruit rot pathogen P. digitatum (HS-RH1). The full-length cDNA sequence of the dsRNA/PdV1 (5211bp) possesses two partially overlapping open reading frames, which encode a coat protein (CP) and a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on multiple alignments of the amino acid sequences of the RdRp and CP indicated that PdV1 tentatively belongs to the genus Victorivirus in the Totiviridae family. Electron micrographs of negatively stained viral particles purified from the peak fraction of sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed spherical particles ~35nm in diameter. Transfection experiments with purified virions indicated that PdV1 could reduce the vegetative growth and virulence of P. digitatum strain HS-F6. In summary, we report the first isolation and characterization of a mycovirus from P. digitatum that contributes to the hypovirulence phenotypes of the host strain.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 microRNA Isolation kit, H microRNA Isolation kit, H AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst-

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#27009954   2016/05/13 Save this To Up

Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Inhibitor of cGAS (KicGAS), Encoded by ORF52, Is an Abundant Tegument Protein and Is Required for Production of Infectious Progeny Viruses.

Although Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF52 (also known as KSHV inhibitor of cGAS [KicGAS]) has been detected in purified virions, the roles of this protein during KSHV replication have not been characterized. Using specific monoclonal antibodies, we revealed that ORF52 displays true late gene expression kinetics and confirmed its cytoplasmic localization in both transfected and KSHV-infected cells. We demonstrated that ORF52 comigrates with other known virion proteins following sucrose gradient centrifugation. We also determined that ORF52 resides inside the viral envelope and remains partially associated with capsid when extracellular virions are treated with various detergents and/or salts. There results indicate that ORF52 is a tegument protein abundantly present in extracellular virions. To characterize the roles of ORF52 in the KSHV life cycle, we engineered a recombinant KSHV ORF52-null mutant virus and found that loss of ORF52 results in reduced virion production and a further defect in infectivity. Upon analysis of the virion composition of ORF52-null viral particles, we observed a decrease in the incorporation of ORF45, as well as other tegument proteins, suggesting that ORF52 is important for the packaging of other virion proteins. In summary, our results indicate that, in addition to its immune evasion function, KSHV ORF52 is required for the optimal production of infectious virions, likely due to its roles in virion assembly as a tegument protein.

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#26792734   2016/03/12 Save this To Up

During Infection, Theiler's Virions Are Cleaved by Caspases and Disassembled into Pentamers.

Infected macrophages in spinal cords of mice persistently infected with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) undergo apoptosis, resulting in restricted virus yields, as do infected macrophages in culture. Apoptosis of murine macrophages in culture occurs via the intrinsic pathway later in infection (>10 h postinfection [p.i.]) after maximal virus titers (150 to 200 PFU/cell) have been reached, with loss of most infectious virus (<5 PFU/cell) by 20 to 24 h p.i. Here, we show that BeAn virus RNA replication, translation, polyprotein processing into final protein products, and assembly of protomers and pentamers in infected M1-D macrophages did not differ from those processes in TMEV-infected BHK-21 cells, which undergo necroptosis. However, the initial difference from BHK-21 cell infection was seen at 10 to 12 h p.i., where virions from the 160S peak in sucrose gradients had incompletely processed VP0 (compared to that in infected BHK-21 cells). Thereafter, there was a gradual loss of the 160S virion peak in sucrose gradients, with replacement by a 216S peak that was observed to contain pentamers among lipid debris in negatively stained grids by electron microscopy. After infection or incubation of purified virions with activated caspase-3 in vitro, 13- and 17-kDa capsid peptide fragments were observed and were predicted by algorithms to contain cleavage sites within proteins by cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases. These findings suggest that caspase cleavage of sites in exposed capsid loops of assembled virions occurs contemporaneously with the onset and progression of apoptosis later in the infection.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 YKL-39 antibody Source Ra Anti-Cleaved-Caspase-3 PC Anti Cleaved Caspase 3 PC TC Treated Flasks, 250ml, BYL-719 Mechanisms: PI3K- 6-Amino-5-(4-sulfonamidob Arecoline-d5 Hydrobromide Bovine Androstenedione,AS CCND3 & AREG Protein Prot

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