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#28934132   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Surface Modification of Polymer Substrates for Biomedical Applications.

While polymers are widely utilized materials in the biomedical industry, they are rarely used in an unmodified state. Some kind of a surface treatment is often necessary to achieve properties suitable for specific applications. There are multiple methods of surface treatment, each with their own pros and cons, such as plasma and laser treatment, UV lamp modification, etching, grafting, metallization, ion sputtering and others. An appropriate treatment can change the physico-chemical properties of the surface of a polymer in a way that makes it attractive for a variety of biological compounds, or, on the contrary, makes the polymer exhibit antibacterial or cytotoxic properties, thus making the polymer usable in a variety of biomedical applications. This review examines four popular methods of polymer surface modification: laser treatment, ion implantation, plasma treatment and nanoparticle grafting. Surface treatment-induced changes of the physico-chemical properties, morphology, chemical composition and biocompatibility of a variety of polymer substrates are studied. Relevant biological methods are used to determine the influence of various surface treatments and grafting processes on the biocompatibility of the new surfaces-mammalian cell adhesion and proliferation is studied as well as other potential applications of the surface-treated polymer substrates in the biomedical industry.

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#28898864   2017/09/12 Save this To Up

What happens with organic micropollutants during UV disinfection in WWTPs? A global perspective from laboratory to full-scale.

The phototransformation of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs) commonly detected in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents was examined attempting to explain their fate during UV disinfection in WWTPs. For this purpose, a lab-scale UV reactor (lamp emitting at 254nm) was used to study the influence of the operational conditions (UV dose, temperature and water matrix) on OMPs abatement and disinfection efficiency. Chemical properties of OMPs and the quality of treated effluent were identified as key factors affecting the phototransformation rate of these compounds. Sampling campaigns were carried out at the inlet and outlet of UV systems of three WWTPs, and the results evidenced that only the most photosensitive compounds, such as sulfamethoxazole and diclofenac, are eliminated. Therefore, despite UV treatment is an effective technology to phototransform OMPs, the UV doses typically applied for disinfection (10-50mJ/cm(2)) are not sufficient to remove them. Consequently, small modifications (increase of UV dose, use of catalysts) should be applied in WWTPs to enhance the abatement of OMPs in UV systems.

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#28862452   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Phototriggered Dehydration Condensation Using an Aminocyclopropenone.

A phototriggered dehydration condensation using an aminocyclopropenone has been developed. The UV irradiation of an aminocyclopropenone generated a highly reactive ynamine in situ and the dehydration condensation of a carboxylic acid and an amine coexisting in the reaction solution smoothly proceeded to afford an amide. This reaction is completely controllable by the ON/OFF states of a UV lamp.

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#28862077   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0-192 mJ/cm(2)) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm(2), a significant inactivation (p < .05) of 3 log (99.9%) or more was obtained in only 5 of the 14 strains. To obtain a complete inactivation of all strains an irradiation of 192 mJ/cm(2) was needed, a dose that is much higher than the limits recommended by the international standards for UV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

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#28861992   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Flow Injection Photochemical Vapor Generation Coupled with Miniaturized Solution-Cathode Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry for Determination and Speciation Analysis of Mercury.

A novel, compact, and green method was developed for the determination and speciation analysis of mercury, based on flow injection photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with miniaturized solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectroscopy (SCGD-AES). The SCGD was generated between a miniature hollow titanium tube and a solution emerging from a glass capillary. Cold mercury vapor (Hg(0)) was generated by PVG and subsequently delivered to the SCGD for excitation, and finally the emission signals were recorded by a miniaturized spectrograph. The detection limits (DLs) of Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) were both determined to be 0.2 μg L(-1). Moreover, mercury speciation analysis could also be performed by using different wavelengths and powers from the UV lamp and irradiation times. Both Hg(II) and MeHg can be converted to Hg(0) for the determination of total mercury (T-Hg) with 8 W/254 nm UV lamp and 60 s irradiation time; while only Hg(II) can be reduced to Hg(0) and determined selectively with 4 W/365 nm UV lamp and 20 s irradiation time. Then, the concentration of MeHg can be calculated by subtracting the Hg(II) from the T-Hg. Because of its similar sensitivity and DL at 8 W/254 nm, the simpler and less toxic Hg(II) was used successfully as a primary standard for the quantification of T-Hg. The novel PVG-SCGD-AES system provides not only a 365-fold improvement in the DL for Hg(II) but also a nonchromatographic method for the speciation analysis of mercury. After validating its accuracy, this method was successfully used for mercury speciation analysis of water and biological samples.

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#28856047   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

High-sensitivity detection of cardiac troponin I with UV LED excitation for use in point-of-care immunoassay.

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assay development enables determination of biological variation in healthy populations, more accurate interpretation of clinical results and points towards earlier diagnosis and rule-out of acute myocardial infarction. In this paper, we report on preliminary tests of an immunoassay analyzer employing an optimized LED excitation to measure on a standard troponin I and a novel research high-sensitivity troponin I assay. The limit of detection is improved by factor of 5 for standard troponin I and by factor of 3 for a research high-sensitivity troponin I assay, compared to the flash lamp excitation. The obtained limit of detection was 0.22 ng/L measured on plasma with the research high-sensitivity troponin I assay and 1.9 ng/L measured on tris-saline-azide buffer containing bovine serum albumin with the standard troponin I assay. We discuss the optimization of time-resolved detection of lanthanide fluorescence based on the time constants of the system and analyze the background and noise sources in a heterogeneous fluoroimmunoassay. We determine the limiting factors and their impact on the measurement performance. The suggested model can be generally applied to fluoroimmunoassays employing the dry-cup concept.

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#28850914   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Efficient mineralization of antibiotic ciprofloxacin in acid aqueous medium by a novel photoelectro-Fenton process using a microwave discharge electrodeless lamp irradiation.

In this study, a novel photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process using microwave discharge electrodeless lamp (MDEL) as a UV irradiation source was developed for the removal of antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CIP) in water. Comparative degradation of 200mgL(-1) CIP was studied by direct MDEL photolysis, anodic oxidation (AO), AO in presence of electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), AO-H2O2 under MDEL irradiation (MDEL-AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and MDEL-PEF processes. Higher oxidation power was found in the sequence: MDEL photolysis < AO < AO-H2O2< MDEL-AO-H2O2< EF < MDEL-PEF. Effects of current density, pH, initial Fe(2+) concentration and initial CIP concentration on TOC removal in MDEL-PEF process were examined, and the optimal conditions were ascertained. The releases of three inorganic ions (F(-), NH4(+) and NO3(-)) and two carboxylic acids (oxalic and formic acids) were qualified. Seven aromatic intermediates mainly generated from hydroxylation, dealkylation and defluorination of CIP were detected by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS technology. Therefore, plausible degradation sequences for CIP degradation in MDEL-PEF process including all detected products were proposed.

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#28847465   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Evaluating tear clearance rate with optical coherence tomography.

To assess the early-phase of tear clearance rate (TCR) with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and to determine the association between TCR and other clinical measures of the tear film in a group of young subjects with different levels of tear film quality.

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#28844113   2017/08/27 Save this To Up

Effect of UV irradiation on aflatoxin reduction: a cytotoxicity evaluation study using human hepatoma cell line.

In this proof-of-concept study, the efficacy of a medium-pressure UV (MPUV) lamp source to reduce the concentrations of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and aflatoxin G1 (AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1) in pure water is investigated. Irradiation experiments were conducted using a collimated beam system operating between 200 to 360 nm. The optical absorbance of the solution and the irradiance of the lamp are considered in calculating the average fluence rate. Based on these factors, the UV dose was quantified as a product of average fluence rate and treatment time. Known concentrations of aflatoxins were spiked in water and irradiated at UV doses ranging from 0, 1.22, 2.44, 3.66, and 4.88 J cm(-2). The concentration of aflatoxins was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. LC-MS/MS product ion scans were used to identify and semi-quantify degraded products of AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1. It was observed that UV irradiation significantly reduced aflatoxins in pure water (p < 0.05). Irradiation doses of 4.88 J cm(-2) reduced concentrations 67.22% for AFG1, 29.77% for AFB2, and 98.25% for AFB1 (p < 0.05). Using this technique, an overall reduction of total aflatoxin content of ≈95% (p < 0.05) was achieved. We hypothesize that the formation of ˙OH radicals initiated by UV light may have caused photolysis of AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 molecules. In cell culture studies, our results demonstrated that the increase of UV dosage decreased the aflatoxin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. Therefore, our research finding suggests that UV irradiation can be used as an effective technique for the reduction of aflatoxins.

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#28840685   2017/08/25 Save this To Up

[Application of rapid PCR to authenticate Ranae Oviductus].

Rapid allele-specific PCR primer was designed base on Cytb 155 A/T single nucleotide polymorphism, DNA was extracted by alkaline lysis and the PCR reaction systems including denatured and annealing temperature and cycle numbers were optimized. The results were performed to authenticate Ranae Oviductus and its 4 adulterants. When 100×SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product at 90 ℃ denatured 3 s, 62 ℃ annealing 20 s and 32 cycle. Ranae Oviductus visualized strong green fluorescence under 365 nm UV lamp whereas adulterants appeared negative. The whole process can be completed in 40 minutes.The established method provides the technical support for authentication of the Ranae Oviductus.

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