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#26733201   2016/02/27 Save this To Up

Histone Deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) Negatively Regulates Thermogenic Program in Brown Adipocytes via Coordinated Regulation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) Deacetylation and Methylation.

Inhibiting class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increases energy expenditure, reduces adiposity, and improves insulin sensitivity in obese mice. However, the precise mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that HDAC1 is a negative regulator of the brown adipocyte thermogenic program. The Hdac1 level is lower in mouse brown fat (BAT) than white fat, is suppressed in mouse BAT during cold exposure or β3-adrenergic stimulation, and is down-regulated during brown adipocyte differentiation. Remarkably, overexpressing Hdac1 profoundly blocks, whereas deleting Hdac1 significantly enhances, β-adrenergic activation-induced BAT-specific gene expression in brown adipocytes. β-Adrenergic activation in brown adipocytes results in a dissociation of HDAC1 from promoters of BAT-specific genes, including uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (Pgc1α), leading to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27), an epigenetic mark of gene activation. This is followed by dissociation of the polycomb repressive complexes, including the H3K27 methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue (EZH2), suppressor of zeste 12 (SUZ12), and ring finger protein 2 (RNF2) from (and concomitant recruitment of H3K27 demethylase ubiquitously transcribed tetratricopeptide repeat on chromosome X (UTX) to) Ucp1 and Pgc1α promoters, leading to decreased H3K27 trimethylation, a histone transcriptional repression mark. Thus, HDAC1 negatively regulates the brown adipocyte thermogenic program, and inhibiting Hdac1 promotes BAT-specific gene expression through a coordinated control of increased acetylation and decreased methylation of H3K27, thereby switching the transcriptional repressive state to the active state at the promoters of Ucp1 and Pgc1α. Targeting HDAC1 may be beneficial in prevention and treatment of obesity by enhancing BAT thermogenesis.

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#22589717   2012/05/16 Save this To Up

KSHV PAN RNA associates with demethylases UTX and JMJD3 to activate lytic replication through a physical interaction with the virus genome.

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the cause of Kaposi's sarcoma and body cavity lymphomas. KSHV lytic infection produces PAN RNA, a highly abundant noncoding polyadenylated transcript that is retained in the nucleus. We recently demonstrated that PAN RNA interacts with several viral and cellular factors and can disregulate the expression of genes that modulate immune response. In an effort to define the role of PAN RNA in the context of the virus genome we generated a recombinant BACmid that deleted the PAN RNA locus. Because of the apparent duplication of the PAN RNA locus in BAC36, we generated BAC36CR, a recombinant BACmid that removes the duplicated region. BAC36CR was used as a template to delete most of the PAN RNA locus to generate BAC36CRΔPAN. BAC36CRΔPAN failed to produce supernatant virus and displayed a general decrease in mRNA accumulation of representative immediate early, early and late genes. Most strikingly, K-Rta expression was decreased in lytically induced BAC36CRΔPAN-containing cell lines at early and late time points post induction. Expression of PAN RNA in trans in BAC36CRΔPAN containing cells resulted in an increase in K-Rta expression, however K-Rta over expression failed to rescue BAC36CRΔPAN, suggesting that PAN RNA plays a wider role in virus replication. To investigate the role of PAN RNA in the activation of K-Rta expression, we demonstrate that PAN RNA physically interacts with the ORF50 promoter. RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that PAN RNA interacts with demethylases JMJD3 and UTX, and the histone methyltransferase MLL2. Consistent with the interaction with demethylases, expression of PAN RNA results in a decrease of the repressive H3K27me3 mark at the ORF50 promoter. These data support a model where PAN RNA is a multifunctional regulatory transcript that controls KSHV gene expression by mediating the modification of chromatin by targeting the KSHV repressed genome.

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#20212086   2010/04/27 Save this To Up

The H3K27me3 demethylase dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rb-dependent tumors in Drosophila.

Trimethylated lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) is an epigenetic mark for gene silencing and can be demethylated by the JmjC domain of UTX. Excessive H3K27me3 levels can cause tumorigenesis, but little is known about the mechanisms leading to those cancers. Mutants of the Drosophila H3K27me3 demethylase dUTX display some characteristics of Trithorax group mutants and have increased H3K27me3 levels in vivo. Surprisingly, dUTX mutations also affect H3K4me1 levels in a JmjC-independent manner. We show that a disruption of the JmjC domain of dUTX results in a growth advantage for mutant cells over adjacent wild-type tissue due to increased proliferation. The growth advantage of dUTX mutant tissue is caused, at least in part, by increased Notch activity, demonstrating that dUTX is a Notch antagonist. Furthermore, the inactivation of Retinoblastoma (Rbf in Drosophila) contributes to the growth advantage of dUTX mutant tissue. The excessive activation of Notch in dUTX mutant cells leads to tumor-like growth in an Rbf-dependent manner. In summary, these data suggest that dUTX is a suppressor of Notch- and Rbf-dependent tumors in Drosophila melanogaster and may provide a model for UTX-dependent tumorigenesis in humans.

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#17761849   2007/10/19 Save this To Up

Demethylation of H3K27 regulates polycomb recruitment and H2A ubiquitination.

Methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) is a posttranslational modification that is highly correlated with genomic silencing. Here we show that human UTX, a member of the Jumonji C family of proteins, is a di- and trimethyl H3K27 demethylase. UTX occupies the promoters of HOX gene clusters and regulates their transcriptional output by modulating the recruitment of polycomb repressive complex 1 and the monoubiquitination of histone H2A. Moreover, UTX associates with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) 2/3 complexes, and during retinoic acid signaling events, the recruitment of the UTX complex to HOX genes results in H3K27 demethylation and a concomitant methylation of H3K4. Our results suggest a concerted mechanism for transcriptional activation in which cycles of H3K4 methylation by MLL2/3 are linked with the demethylation of H3K27 through UTX.

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