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#29042438   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

The Serum Protein Renalase Reduces Injury in Experimental Pancreatitis.

Acute pancreatitis is a disease associated with inflammation and tissue damage. One protein that protects against acute injury, including ischemic injury to both the kidney and heart, renalase, which is secreted into the blood by the kidney and other tissues. However, whether renalase reduces acute injury associated with pancreatitis is unknown. Here, we used both in vitro and in vivo murine models of acute pancreatitis to study renalase effects on this condition. In isolated pancreatic lobules, pretreatment with recombinant human renalase (rRNLS) blocked zymogen activation caused by cerulein, carbachol, and a bile acid. Renalase also blocked cerulein-induced cell injury and histological changes. In the in vivo cerulein model of pancreatitis, genetic deletion of renalase resulted in more severe disease, and administering rRNLS to cerulein-exposed WT mice after pancreatitis onset was protective. Because pathological increases in acinar cell cytosolic calcium levels are central to the initiation of acute pancreatitis, we also investigated whether rRNLS could function through its binding protein, calcium ATPase 4b (PMCA4b), which excretes calcium from cells. We found that PMCA4b is expressed in both murine and human acinar cells and that a PMCA4b selective inhibitor worsens pancreatitis-induced injury and blocked the protective effects of rRNLS. These findings suggest that renalase is a protective plasma protein that reduces acinar cell injury through a plasma membrane calcium ATPase. Since exogenous rRNLS reduces the severity of acute pancreatitis, it has the potential as a therapeutic agent.

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#28750064   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

Modified human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) produced in E. coli has a long-acting therapeutic effect in type 2 diabetic mice.

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a very potent insulinotropic hormone secreted into the blood stream after eating. Thus, it has potential to be used in therapeutic treatment of diabetes. The half-life of GLP-1, however, is very short due to its rapid cleavage by dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV). This presents a great challenge if it is to be used as a therapeutic drug. GLP-1, like many other small peptides, is commonly produced through chemical synthesis, but is limited by cost and product quantity. In order to overcome these problems, a sequence encoding a six codon-optimized tandem repeats of modified GLP-1 was constructed and expressed in the E. coli to produce a protease-resistant protein, 6×mGLP-1. The purified recombinant 6×mGLP-1, with a yield of approximately 20 mg/L, could be digested with trypsin to obtain single peptides. The single mGLP-1 peptides significantly stimulated the proliferation of a mouse pancreatic β cell line, MIN6. The recombinant peptide also greatly improved the oral glucose tolerance test of mice, exerted a positive glucoregulatory effect, and most notably had a glucose lowering effect for as long as 16.7 hours in mice altered to create a type 2 diabetic condition and exerted a positive glucoregulatory effect in db/db mice. These results indicate that recombinant 6×mGLP-1 has great potential to be used as an effective and cost-efficient drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

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#28672221   2017/07/03 Save this To Up

Designing structural-motifs for the preparation of acylated proinsulin and their regiospecific conversion into insulin modified at Lys(29) (K(29)).

Eight proinsulin encoding genes were prepared and their translation products, when treated with a cocktail of trypsin and carboxypeptidase B, analyzed for the following features. One, their ability to undergo facile removal of the N-terminal linker, generating the phenylalanine residue destined to be the N-terminal of the B-chain of insulin, at a rate similar to that involved in the removal of the C-peptide. Two, processing of diarginyl insulin, produced in the latter process, by carboxypeptidase B then needed to be rapid to remove the two arginine residues, Three, both these operations were to be efficient whether the N-terminal methionine was acylated or not. Four, the proinsulin constructs needed to contain a minimum number of sites for acylation. The aforementioned features were monitored by mass spectrometry and the proinsulin derivative containing MRR at the N-terminal and K(64) mutated to Q(64), designated as MRR-(Q(64)) human proinsulin [MRR-(Q(64)) hpi] optimally fulfilled these requirements. The derivative was smoothly acylated with reagents of two chain lengths (acetyl and dodecanoyl) to give acetyl/dodecanoyl MRR-(Q(64)) hpi. Acetyl MRR-(Q(64)) hpi, using the cocktail of the two enzymes, was smoothly converted into, acetyl insulin. However, when dodecanoyl MRR-(Q(64)) hpi was processed with the above cocktail, carboxypeptidase B (whether from animal pancreas or recombinant) showed an unexpected specificity of acting on the K(29)-T(30) bond of the insulin derivatives when K(29) contained a large hydrophobic acyl group, generating dodecanoyl des-30 insulin.

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#28536777   2017/05/24 Save this To Up

Genetic Risk in Chronic Pancreatitis: The Trypsin-Dependent Pathway.

Genetic investigations have provided unique insight into the mechanism of chronic pancreatitis in humans and firmly established that uncontrolled trypsin activity is a central pathogenic factor. Mutations in the PRSS1, SPINK1, and CTRC genes promote increased activation of trypsinogen to trypsin by stimulation of autoactivation or by impairing protective trypsinogen degradation and/or trypsin inhibition. Here we review key genetic and biochemical features of the trypsin-dependent pathological pathway in chronic pancreatitis.

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#28406494   2017/04/13 Save this To Up

Laser Capture Microdissection of Pancreatic Acinar Cells to Identify Proteomic Alterations in a Murine Model of Caerulein-Induced Pancreatitis.

Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas, leading to pain, parenchymal damage, and loss of exocrine and endocrine function. There are currently no curative therapies; diagnosis remains difficult and aspects of pathogenesis remain unclear. Thus, there is a need to identify novel biomarkers to improve diagnosis and understand pathophysiology. We hypothesize that pancreatic acinar regions contain proteomic signatures relevant to disease processes, including secreted proteins that could be detected in biofluids.

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#28385584   2017/04/07 Save this To Up

A study of the clinical utility of a 20-minute secretin-stimulated endoscopic pancreas function test and performance according to clinical variables.

Direct pancreas juice testing of bicarbonate, lipase, or trypsin after stimulation by secretin or cholecystokinin is used to determine exocrine function, a surrogate for diagnosing chronic pancreatitis (CP). Endoscopic pancreas function tests (ePFTs), where a peak bicarbonate concentration (PBC) ≥80 mEq/L in pancreas juice is considered normal, are now used more frequently. In this ePFT, aspirates start 35 minutes after secretin administration because pancreas output peaks 30 minutes after secretagogue administration. The performance of ePFT in a cohort of patients with a presumptive diagnosis of CP referred to a pancreas clinic for consideration of an intervention including total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation was studied, compared with EUS, ERCP, histology, and consensus diagnosis. The effect of sedation, narcotic use, aspirate volume, body mass index, age, and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on test performance is reported.

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#28360028   2017/03/31 Save this To Up

Detection of human elastase isoforms by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Test.

Determination of fecal pancreatic elastase content by ELISA is a reliable, noninvasive clinical test for assessing exocrine pancreatic function. Despite the widespread use of commercial tests, their exact molecular targets remain poorly characterized. This study was undertaken to clarify which human pancreatic elastase isoforms are detected by the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Stool Test and whether naturally occurring genetic variants influence the performance of this test. Using recombinantly expressed and purified human pancreatic proteinases, we found that the test specifically measured chymotrypsin-like elastases (CELA) 3A and 3B (CELA3A and CELA3B), while CELA2A was not detected. Inactive proelastases, active elastases, and autolyzed forms were detected with identical efficiency. CELA3B elicited approximately four times higher ELISA signal than CELA3A, and we identified Glu(154) in CELA3B as the critical determinant of detection. Common genetic variants of CELA3A and CELA3B had no effect on test performance, with the exception of the CELA3B variant W79R, which increased detection by 1.4-fold. Finally, none of the human trypsin and chymotrypsin isoforms were detected. We conclude that the ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Stool Test is specific for human CELA3A and CELA3B, with most of the ELISA signal attributable to CELA3B.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The ScheBo Pancreatic Elastase 1 Stool Test is widely used to assess pancreatic exocrine function, yet its molecular targets have been poorly defined. We demonstrate that, among the human pancreatic proteinases, the test measures the elastase isoform CELA3B and, to a lesser extent, CELA3A. Genetic variants of the human CELA3 isoforms have no significant effect on test performance.

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#28269737   2017/03/08 Save this To Up

The autodigestion hypothesis: Proteolytic receptor cleavage in rheological and cardiovascular cell dysfunction1.

Transformation of circulating leukocytes from a dormant into an activated state with changing rheological properties leads to a major shift of their behavior in the microcirculation. Low levels of pseudopod formation or expression of adhesion molecules facilitate relatively free passage through microvessels while activated leukocytes with pseudopods and enhanced levels of adhesion membrane proteins become trapped in microvessels, attach to the endothelium and migrate into the tissue. The transformation of leukocytes into an activated state is seen in many diseases. While mechanisms for activation due to infections, tissue trauma, as well as non-physiological biochemical or biophysical exposures are well recognized, the mechanisms for activation in many diseases have not been conclusively liked to these traditional mechanisms and remain unknown. We summarize our recent evidence suggesting a major and surprising role of digestive enzymes in the small intestine as root causes for leukocyte activation and microvascular disturbances. During normal digestion of food digestive enzymes are compartmentalized in the lumen of the intestine by the mucosal epithelial barrier. When permeability of this barrier increases, these powerful degrading enzymes leak into the wall of the intestine and into the systemic circulation. Leakage of digestive enzymes occurs for example in physiological shock and multi-organ failure. Entry of digestive enzymes into the wall of the small intestine leads to degradation of the intestinal tissue in an autodigestion process. The digestive enzymes and tissue/food fragments generate not only activate leukocytes but also cause numerous cell dysfunctions. For example, proteolytic destruction of membrane receptors, plasma proteins and other biomolecules occurs. We conclude that escape of digestive enzymes from the intestinal track serves as a major source of cell dysfunction, morbidity and even mortality, including abnormal leukocyte activation seen in rheological studies.

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#28242761   2017/02/28 Save this To Up

Ex vivo human pancreatic slice preparations offer a valuable model for studying pancreatic exocrine biology.

A genuine understanding of human exocrine pancreas biology and pathobiology has been hampered by a lack of suitable preparations and reliance on rodent models employing dispersed acini preparations. We have developed an organotypic slice preparation of the normal portions of human pancreas obtained from cancer resections. The preparation was assessed for physiologic and pathologic responses to the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cch) and cholecystokinin (CCK-8), including 1) amylase secretion, 2) exocytosis, 3) intracellular Ca(2+) responses, 4) cytoplasmic autophagic vacuole formation, and 5) protease activation. Cch and CCK-8 both dose-dependently stimulated secretory responses from human pancreas slices similar to those previously observed in dispersed rodent acini. Confocal microscopy imaging showed that these responses were accounted for by efficient apical exocytosis at physiologic doses of both agonists and by apical blockade and redirection of exocytosis to the basolateral plasma membrane at supramaximal doses. The secretory responses and exocytotic events evoked by CCK-8 were mediated by CCK-A and not CCK-B receptors. Physiologic agonist doses evoked oscillatory Ca(2+) increases across the acini. Supraphysiologic doses induced formation of cytoplasmic autophagic vacuoles and activation of proteases (trypsin, chymotrypsin). Maximal atropine pretreatment that completely blocked all the Cch-evoked responses did not affect any of the CCK-8-evoked responses, indicating that rather than acting on the nerves within the pancreas slice, CCK cellular actions directly affected human acinar cells. Human pancreas slices represent excellent preparations to examine pancreatic cell biology and pathobiology and could help screen for potential treatments for human pancreatitis.

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#27987701   2016/12/18 Save this To Up

Magnetically modified bacterial cellulose: A promising carrier for immobilization of affinity ligands, enzymes, and cells.

Bacterial cellulose (BC) produced by Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans was magnetically modified using perchloric acid stabilized magnetic fluid. Magnetic bacterial cellulose (MBC) was used as a carrier for the immobilization of affinity ligands, enzymes and cells. MBC with immobilized reactive copper phthalocyanine dye was an efficient adsorbent for crystal violet removal; the maximum adsorption capacity was 388mg/g. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were also determined. Model biocatalysts, namely bovine pancreas trypsin and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells were immobilized on MBC using several strategies including adsorption with subsequent cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and covalent binding on previously activated MBC using sodium periodate or 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether. Immobilized yeast cells retained approximately 90% of their initial activity after 6 repeated cycles of sucrose solution hydrolysis. Trypsin covalently bound after MBC periodate activation was very stable during operational stability testing; it could be repeatedly used for ten cycles of low molecular weight substrate hydrolysis without loss of its initial activity.

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