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Triptonide acts as a novel potent anti-lymphoma agent with low toxicity mainly through inhibition of proto-oncogene Lyn transcription and suppression of Lyn signal pathway.

Lyn is a proto-oncogene overexpressed and constitutively activated in lymphoma, and plays an important role in lymphoma initiation and malignant progression. Hence, the oncogenic Lyn has recently been targeted for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery; however, the effective Lyn-targeted drug for lymphoma treatment with low toxicity is absent in the clinical setting. The goal of this study is to explore powerful and low toxic Lyn-targeted anti-lymphoma agent. Here we show that triptonide, a small molecule purified from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, potently inhibits the proliferation of human B-lymphoma Raji and T-lymphoma Jurkat cells with IC50 of 5.7nM and 4.8nM, respectively. Strikingly, triptonide at a dose of 5mg/kg/day almost completely inhibited the lymphoma growth in human lymphoma cells-xenografted mice without obvious side effects, particularly; the tumors in 6 mice among the 8 xenografted mice were completely eradicated in vivo. Cell biological studies showed that triptonide at the doses of 2.5-10nM notably suppressed B-lymphoma cell colony-forming capability, and that triptonide at the dose of 20nM promoted apoptosis through activation of PARP and caspase 3, but reduction of BCL2 protein levels in the lymphoma cells. Molecular studies revealed that triptonide markedly inhibited oncogenic Lyn transcription through suppressing the promoter activity of the gene, and that it remarkably reduced both total and phosphorylated Lyn proteins, and diminished Lyn downstream ERK and ATK signal pathways. Additionally, triptonide significantly enhanced p38 phosphorylation. Together, triptonide exerts potent anti-lymphoma effect with low toxicity mainly through inhibition of proto-oncogene Lyn transcription and suppression of Lyn downstream ERK and ATK signal pathways, providing an attractive drug candidate for development of novel anti-lymphoma therapeutics.

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Establishment a CHO Cell Line Expressing Human CD52 Molecule.

CD52 is a small glycoprotein with a GPI anchor at its C-terminus. CD52 is expressed by Normal and malignant T and B lymphocytes and monocytes. There are detectable amounts of soluble CD52 in plasma of patients with CLL and could be used as a tumor marker. Although the biological function of CD52 is unknown but it seems that CD52 may be involved in migration and activation of T-cells .The aim of this study was to clone and express human CD52 gene in CHO cell line and studying its function in more details.

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Differential expression of CD150/SLAMF1 in normal and malignant B cells on the different stages of maturation.

Within B-cell lineage cell surface receptor CD150/SLAMF1 is broadly expressed starting from pre-B cells with upregulation toward plasma cells. However, expression of CD150 is rather limited on the surface of malignant B cells with the block of differentiation at the different stages of maturation. The aim of our work was to explore CD150 expression both on protein and mRNA levels with the emphasis on CD150 isoforms in malignant B-cell lines at the different stages of maturation in comparison with their normal B cell counterparts.

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[Optimization of the method to cultivate NK cells from abandoned white cells].

Using abandoned white cells separated from preparation of blood products to cultivate NK cells in vitro, and to optimize the method of cultivation of allogeneic NK cells for clinical application.

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A tetravalent bispecific TandAb (CD19/CD3), AFM11, efficiently recruits T cells for the potent lysis of CD19(+) tumor cells.

To harness the potent tumor-killing capacity of T cells for the treatment of CD19(+) malignancies, we constructed AFM11, a humanized tetravalent bispecific CD19/CD3 tandem diabody (TandAb) consisting solely of Fv domains. The molecule exhibits good manufacturability and stability properties. AFM11 has 2 binding sites for CD3 and 2 for CD19, an antigen that is expressed from early B cell development through differentiation into plasma cells, and is an attractive alternative to CD20 as a target for the development of therapeutic antibodies to treat B cell malignancies. Comparison of the binding and cytotoxicity of AFM11 with those of a tandem scFv bispecific T cell engager (BiTE) molecule targeting the same antigens revealed that AFM11 elicited more potent in vitro B cell lysis. Though possessing high affinity to CD3, the TandAb mediates serial-killing of CD19(+) cells with little dependence of potency or efficacy upon effector:target ratio, unlike the BiTE. The advantage of the TandAb over the BiTE was most pronounced at lower effector:target ratios. AFM11 mediated strictly target-dependent T cell activation evidenced by CD25 and CD69 induction, proliferation, and cytokine release, notwithstanding bivalent CD3 engagement. In a NOD/scid xenograft model, AFM11 induced dose-dependent growth inhibition of Raji tumors in vivo, and radiolabeled TandAb exhibited excellent localization to tumor but not to normal tissue. After intravenous administration in mice, half-life ranged from 18.4 to 22.9 h. In a human ex vivo B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia study, AFM11 exhibited substantial cytotoxic activity in an autologous setting. Thus, AFM11 may represent a promising therapeutic for treatment of CD19(+) malignancies with an advantageous safety risk profile and anticipated dosing regimen.

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Effect of TIEG1 on apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2/Bax and Pten in leukemic cell lines.

We examined the effect of transforming growth factor-b inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) on the apoptosis of leukemic cell lines and expression of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). Four leukemic cell lines (HL-60, U937, Raji, and K562) were treated with 0, 1, 5, 10, and 20 ng/mL TIEG1, respectively. The cell growth inhibitory ratio was assessed using the MTT assay. An inhibitory curve was drawn, and half-maximal inhibitory concentration was calculated. Additionally, 1640 culture medium containing 10 ng/mL TIEG1 was used to culture leukemic cell lines for 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The apoptosis of each cell line at different time points was detected by flow cytometry. Total RNA was extracted before reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The products of this reaction were analyzed by electrophoresis, and the expression of Bcl-2/Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Pten were detected. After treatment with TIEG1, proliferation of the 4 leukemic cell lines was inhibited both time- and dose-dependently. During apoptosis induction, the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased and the expressions of Bax and Pten were increased in the 4 leukemic cell lines induced by TIEG1 (P < 0.05). TIEG1 can inhibit the proliferation of leukemic cells and induce their apoptosis in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A close relationship exists between Bcl-2/Bax and Pten expression and cell apoptosis induced by TIEG1.

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Proteomic analysis of exosomes derived from human lymphoma cells.

Exosomes secreted by tumor cells contain specific antigens that may have immunotherapeutic purposes. The aim of this study was to characterize the proteomic content of lymphoma cell-derived exosomes (LCEXs).

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The effect of ginger extract on glycoproteins of Raji cells.

Protein glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of specific diseases, including cancers. The ginger rhizome is known to have anti-cancer and anti-fungal properties. This investigation was carried out to study the effect of ginger on glycoproteins of Raji cells. A 10% yield of ginger extract was mixed with 0.01% DMSO and added to 6 x 10(4) Raji cells at different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 h at 37 degrees C. Their half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined and analyzed statistically using Graphpad prism software. Cell extracts were prepared and their glycoproteins purified using lectin-affinity chromatography (Q proteome total glycoprotein and O glycoprotein kits) and SDS PAGE was carried out. IC50 of ginger extract on Raji cells was 20 microg mL(-1) at 72 h with < 0.01 significance. Silver staining of purified glycoprotiens in Raji cells indicated the presence of O-glycans and N-glycans. N-linked mannose and N-linked sialic acids were detected with the total glycoprotein kit. O-linked galactose and O-linked sialic acids were identified with the O-glycoprotein. Ginger reduced the expression of O-linked sialic acid and also N-linked mannose on Raji cells but had no effect on other glycoproteins. Sialic acid is now well known as a cancer marker and investigations are on to use it as a drug-target in cancerous tissues.

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A lectin from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis has a highly novel primary structure and induces glycan-mediated cytotoxicity of globotriaosylceramide-expressing lymphoma cells.

A novel lectin structure was found for a 17-kDa α-D-galactose-binding lectin (termed "MytiLec") isolated from the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. The complete primary structure of the lectin was determined by Edman degradation and mass spectrometric analysis. MytiLec was found to consist of 149 amino acids with a total molecular mass of 16,812.59 Da by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, in good agreement with the calculated value of 16,823.22 Da. MytiLec had an N terminus of acetylthreonine and a primary structure that was highly novel in comparison with those of all known lectins in the structure database. The polypeptide structure consisted of three tandem-repeat domains of ∼50 amino acids each having 45-52% homology with each other. Frontal affinity chromatography technology indicated that MytiLec bound specifically to globotriose (Gb3; Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc), the epitope of globotriaosylceramide. MytiLec showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect on human Burkitt lymphoma Raji cells (which have high surface expression of Gb3) but had no such effect on erythroleukemia K562 cells (which do not express Gb3). The cytotoxic effect of MytiLec was specifically blocked by the co-presence of an α-galactoside. MytiLec treatment of Raji cells caused increased binding of anti-annexin V antibody and incorporation of propidium iodide, which are indicators of cell membrane inversion and perforation. MytiLec is the first reported lectin having a primary structure with the highly novel triple tandem-repeat domain and showing transduction of apoptotic signaling against Burkitt lymphoma cells by interaction with a glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomain containing Gb3.

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Systemic administration of 3-bromopyruvate in treating disseminated aggressive lymphoma.

The Warburg hypothesis states that aggressive cancers obtain much of their adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by metabolizing glucose directly to lactic acid. As a result of its high tumor selectivity, 3-bromopyruvic acid (3-BrPA), a well-known inhibitor of energy metabolism, has been proposed as a specific anticancer agent. We investigated the effect of 3-BrPA in a mouse model of aggressive metastatic lymphoma. Epstein-Barr-virus-infected human Raji lymphoma cells with lentivirally transfected green fluorescent protein and luciferase were incubated with RPMI/fetal bovine serum, and various concentrations of 3-BrPA were used to determine the LD50 in vitro. In total, 18 severely combined immunodeficient mice were injected with 1 million human Raji lymphoma cells via the tail vein. Using bioluminescent imaging, tumor growth was measured daily for 12 days to determine the tumor burden. At day 0 (start of treatment), the mice were randomized. Six mice received 10 mg/kg 3-BrPA i.p. daily for 7 days, 6 mice received 1 treatment at day 0, and 6 mice received the control buffer. Tumor growth was assessed daily from day 0 until day 7 using bioluminescent imaging. All data were normalized to acquisition time (luminescence/second; L/s). Body weight was measured daily to determine the toxicity of 3-BrPA. The LD50 for Raji lymphoma cells exposed to 3-BrPA in vitro was 11 μM with an extremely steep dose response curve. At day 0, tumor activity medians in the group with daily treatment was 2131 L/s (244-12,725), with a 1-day dose of 3095 L/s (523-9650) and in the nontreated control group, 2997 L/s (1521-6911). In mice treated with a daily dose of 10 mg/kg 3-BrPa for 7 days, a significant reduction in tumor activity was found during the whole treatment period compared with the control mice (P = 0.0043 at day 7). In mice with a single treatment at day 0, growth delay was only evident at day 2 (P = 0.0152 at day 2) but not for the rest of the observation period. The only manifestation of toxicity of the daily administration of 10 mg/kg 3-BrPA was a reduction in body weight. Body weight at day 0 was 17.22 g ± 0.84 g in the treatment group and 17.58 g ± 0.86 g in the control group. Body weight at day +6 was 15.02 g ± 2.04 g in the treated group and 19.4 g ± 0.63 g in the control group. 3-BrPA demonstrated a significant positive tumor response both in vitro and in vivo. This, to our knowledge, is the first report of the use of 3-BrPA in a systemic tumor model. Based on these data, 3-BrPA holds promise for treatment of systemic metastatic cancers.

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