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#28918076   2017/09/17 Save this To Up

Simultaneous detection of wheat dwarf virus, northern cereal mosaic virus, barley yellow striate mosaic virus and rice black-streaked dwarf virus in wheat by multiplex RT-PCR.

Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), barley yellow striate mosaic virus (BYSMV), rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and northern cereal mosaic virus (NCMV) are four viruses infecting wheat and causing similar symptoms. In this paper, a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (m-RT-PCR) method has been developed for the simultaneous detection and discrimination of these viruses. The protocol uses specific primer set for each virus and produces four distinct fragments (273, 565, 783 and 1296bp), detecting the presence of RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV and NCMV, respectively. Annealing temperature, concentrations of dNTP, Taq polymerase and Mg(2+) were optimized for the m-RT-PCR. The detection limit of the assay was up to 10(-2) dilution. The amplification specificity of these primers was tested against a range of field samples from different regions of China, where RBSDV, BYSMV, WDV have been detected. This study fulfills the need for a rapid and specific wheat virus detection that also has the potential for investigating the epidemiology of these new viral diseases.

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Avian Influenza virus H5N Avian Influenza Virus H5N Avian Influenza virus H5N Avian Influenza virus H5N Influenza virus A&B Real Recombinant Viral Antige Rubella virus E1 mosaic r Norwalk virus Real Time R Chikungunya Virus Real Ti West Nile virus Real Time Chikungunya Virus Real Ti West Nile virus Real Time

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#28911333   2017/09/15 Save this To Up

Profiling bacterial communities by MinION sequencing of ribosomal operons.

An approach utilizing the long-read capability of the Oxford Nanopore MinION to rapidly sequence bacterial ribosomal operons of complex natural communities was developed. Microbial fingerprinting employs domain-specific forward primers (16S rRNA subunit), reverse primers (23S rRNA subunit), and a high-fidelity Taq polymerase with proofreading capabilities. Amplicons contained both ribosomal subunits for broad-based phylogenetic assignment (~ 3900 bp of sequence), plus the intergenic spacer (ITS) region (~ 300 bp) for potential strain-specific identification.

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S6 Ribosomal Protein (Pho S6 Ribosomal Protein (Pho MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD pOET sequencing primers S6 Ribosomal Protein(Ab 2 ribosomal protein S10 ant ribosomal protein S3a ant Native Bacterial DNase Pr Native Bacterial DNase Pr Native Bacterial DNase Pr Recombinant Bacterial Omp Recombinant Bacterial Omp

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#28906012   2017/09/14 Save this To Up

PacBio metabarcoding of Fungi and other eukaryotes: errors, biases and perspectives.

Second-generation, high-throughput sequencing methods have greatly improved our understanding of the ecology of soil microorganisms, yet the short barcodes (< 500 bp) provide limited taxonomic and phylogenetic information for species discrimination and taxonomic assignment. Here, we utilized the third-generation Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) RSII and Sequel instruments to evaluate the suitability of full-length internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcodes and longer rRNA gene amplicons for metabarcoding Fungi, Oomycetes and other eukaryotes in soil samples. Metabarcoding revealed multiple errors and biases: Taq polymerase substitution errors and mis-incorporating indels in sequencing homopolymers constitute major errors; sequence length biases occur during PCR, library preparation, loading to the sequencing instrument and quality filtering; primer-template mismatches bias the taxonomic profile when using regular and highly degenerate primers. The RSII and Sequel platforms enable the sequencing of amplicons up to 3000 bp, but the sequence quality remains slightly inferior to Illumina sequencing especially in longer amplicons. The full ITS barcode and flanking rRNA small subunit gene greatly improve taxonomic identification at the species and phylum levels, respectively. We conclude that PacBio sequencing provides a viable alternative for metabarcoding of organisms that are of relatively low diversity, require > 500-bp barcode for reliable identification or when phylogenetic approaches are intended.

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#28892676   2017/09/11 Save this To Up

A small-molecule acts as a 'roadblock' on DNA, hampering its fundamental processes.

DNA replication, RNA and protein synthesis are the most fundamental housekeeping processes involved in an organism's growth. Failure or dysregulation of these pathways are often deleterious to life. Therefore, selective inhibition of such processes can be crucial for the inhibition of the growth of any cell, including cancer cells, pathogenic bacteria or other deadly microbes. In the present study, a Zn(2+) complex is shown to act as a roadblock of DNA. The Zn(2+) complex inhibited DNA taq polymerase activity under the in vitro conditions of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Under in vivo conditions, it readily crosses the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli), leading to the reduction of RNA levels as well as protein content. Growth of pathogenic bacteria (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was also significantly retarded. The Zn(2+) complex binds to the grooves of the DNA without inducing conformational changes or exhibiting chemical nuclease activity. To the best current knowledge, this is first coordination complex exhibiting a 'roadblock' property under both in vitro and in vivo conditions (show at all three levels - DNA, RNA and protein). The label-free approach used in this study may offer an alternative route towards fighting pathogenic bacteria or cancer cells by hampering fundamental cellular processes.

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#28863186   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Fusion of Taq DNA polymerase with single-stranded DNA binding-like protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans-Expression and characterization.

DNA polymerases are present in all organisms and are important enzymes that synthesise DNA molecules. They are used in various fields of science, predominantly as essential components for in vitro DNA syntheses, known as PCR. Modern diagnostics, molecular biology and genetic engineering need DNA polymerases which demonstrate improved performance. This study was aimed at obtaining a new NeqSSB-TaqS fusion DNA polymerase from the Taq DNA Stoffel domain and a single-stranded DNA binding-like protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans in order to significantly improve the properties of DNA polymerase. The DNA coding sequence of Taq Stoffel DNA polymerase and the nonspecific DNA-binding protein of Nanoarchaeum equitans (NeqSSB-like protein) were fused. A novel recombinant gene was obtained which was cloned into the pET-30 Ek/LIC vector and introduced into E. coli for expression. The recombinant enzyme was purified and its enzymatic properties including DNA polymerase activity, PCR amplification rate, thermostability, processivity and resistance to inhibitors, were tested. The yield of the target protein reached approximately 18 mg/l after 24 h of the IPTG induction. The specific activity of the polymerase was 2200 U/mg. The recombinant NeqSSB-TaqS exhibited a much higher extension rate (1000 bp template in 20 s), processivity (19 nt), thermostability (half-life 35 min at 95°C) and higher tolerance to PCR inhibitors (0.3-1.25% of whole blood, 0.84-13.5 μg of lactoferrin and 4.7-150 ng of heparin) than Taq Stoffel DNA polymerase. Furthermore, our studies show that NeqSSB-TaqS DNA polymerase has a high level of flexibility in relation to Mg2+ ions (from 1 to 5 mM) and KCl or (NH4)2SO4 salts (more than 60 mM and 40 mM, respectively). Using NeqSSB-TaqS DNA polymerase instead of the Taq DNA polymerase could be a better choice in many PCR applications.

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Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein 7 (DB DNA Binding Protein-7 (DB Taq DNA Polymerase Taq DNA Polymerase500 u

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#28856424   2017/08/31 Save this To Up

Comparison of different methods for repairing damaged DNA from buffered and unbuffered formalin-fixed tissues.

Formalin fixation is considered an important process for preservation of human tissue samples for long periods. However, this process not only results in cross-linking complicating isolation of nucleic acid but also introduces polymerase "blocks" during polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At present, many protocols have already been developed aiming at extracting high amounts of amplifiable DNA from formalin-fixed tissues (FFTs). However, there are few methods for repairing formalin-damaged DNA. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of several post-extraction enzymatic repair techniques, including Taq DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase I and T4 DNA ligase, the PreCR™ Repair Mix and Restorase® DNA Polymerase, in restoring STR profiles from formalin-damaged DNA. Our results indicated that formalin-damaged DNA may be repaired partly with Taq DNA polymerase and the Restorase® DNA Polymerase, and lost alleles may be restored and STR peak heights may increase upon repair with them. Moreover, the repair ability of the protocol 2 with Taq DNA polymerase surpasses the Restorase® DNA Polymerase.

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#28796824   2017/08/10 Save this To Up

Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) assays integrated with an internal control for quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey species in food and feed.

Food adulteration and feed contamination are significant issues in the food/feed industry, especially for meat products. Reliable techniques are needed to monitor these issues. Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) assays were developed and evaluated for detection and quantification of bovine, porcine, chicken and turkey DNA in food and feed samples. The ddPCR methods were designed based on mitochondrial DNA sequences and integrated with an artificial recombinant plasmid DNA to control variabilities in PCR procedures. The specificity of the ddPCR assays was confirmed by testing both target species and additional 18 non-target species. Linear regression established a detection range between 79 and 33200 copies of the target molecule from 0.26 to 176 pg of fresh animal tissue DNA with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.997-0.999. The quantification ranges of the methods for testing fortified heat-processed food and feed samples were 0.05-3.0% (wt/wt) for the bovine and turkey targets, and 0.01-1.0% (wt/wt) for pork and chicken targets. Our methods demonstrated acceptable repeatability and reproducibility for the analytical process for food and feed samples. Internal validation of the PCR process was monitored using a control chart for 74 consecutive ddPCR runs for quantifying bovine DNA. A matrix effect was observed while establishing calibration curves with the matrix type under testing, and the inclusion of an internal control in DNA extraction provides a useful means to overcome this effect. DNA degradation caused by heating, sonication or Taq I restriction enzyme digestion was found to reduce ddPCR readings by as much as 4.5 fold. The results illustrated the applicability of the methods to quantify meat species in food and feed samples without the need for a standard curve, and to potentially support enforcement activities for food authentication and feed control. Standard reference materials matching typical manufacturing processes are needed for future validation of ddPCR assays for absolute quantification of meat species.

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#28752470   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

Comparative Study of Novel Fluorescent Cyanine Nucleotides: Hybridization Analysis of Labeled PCR Products Using a Biochip.

This study investigated the synthesis and substrate properties of Cy5-labeled dUTP derivatives with different substituents, linkers between the dye unit and pyrimidine heterocycle and fluorophore charges. Fluorescently labeled nucleoside triphosphates were studied as substrates using multiplex PCR with Taq and Vent (exo-) DNA polymerases, the typical representatives of the A and B polymerase families. The efficiency of nucleotide incorporation during PCR was assessed with a multi-parameter hybridization analysis using a diagnostic DNA microarray. The hybridization analysis indirectly estimates the incorporation efficiency of dye-labeled nucleotides in multiplex PCR. Our results demonstrated higher efficiencies of substrates with electrically neutral dyes than electropositive and electronegative Cy5 residues.

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#28748911   2017/07/27 Save this To Up

A novel and quick PCR-based method to genotype mice with a leptin receptor mutation (db/db mice).

db/db mice is one of most widely used animal models in studying the cellular and molecular mechanisms of metabolic disorders, such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. The mice carry spontaneous point mutations in the gene encoding the leptin receptor, leading to leptin receptor inactivation. Since homozygous db/db mice are sterile, the maintenance of db/db mice requires breeding between heterozygous pairs, which makes genotyping essential for the identification of offspring. The aim of this study was to develop a quick and highly repeatable method for genotyping db/db mice, which comprised only three simple steps: Genomic DNA is extracted from either tail tips or ear notches via alkaline lysis (∼20 min); Samples are then subjected to tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) using specially designed and validated primer sets (∼1.5 h); Finally, genotypes are be determined by resolving PCR products on regular DNA electrophoresis (∼10 min). The entire db/db mice genotyping procedure can be performed using regular Taq polymerase and PCR amplification within 2 h. Other advantages of this method include high sensitivity and reproducibility. Minimal amounts of tissue from mice are required, and genomic DNA samples can be stably stored at room temperature for up to one month. In conclusion, the method is simple, cost effective, sensitive and reliable, which will greatly facilitate studies using db/db mice.

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Anti C Reactive Protein A Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Leptin Receptor Antibody AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr Rabbit Anti-Leptin recept Rabbit Anti-Leptin recept Rabbit Anti-Leptin recept Rabbit Anti-Leptin recept

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#28739347   2017/07/25 Save this To Up

Association of Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in the Kashmir Valley.

Approx 1 billion people across various ethnic and age groups have vitamin D deficiency. The high prevalence of such a deficiency is an imperative public health issue because hypovitaminosis D is an autonomous risk factor for mortality in the general population. Beyond bone integrity and calcium homeostasis, it is involved in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes. The role of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus has sparked universal interest.

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