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Inflammaging: Age and Systemic, Cellular, and Nuclear Inflammatory Biology in Older Adults.

Systemic inflammation is associated with increasing age. Yet, there are limited data about the association between age and systemic inflammation within older adults, and whether older age is also associated with cellular and nuclear signaling markers of inflammation. In community-dwelling older adults (N=262, 60-88 years), systemic levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor II (sTNF-RII); levels of toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) stimulated monocytic production of IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF); and resting nuclear levels of activated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1, STAT3, STAT5) were evaluated. Adjusting for demographic and clinical factors, multivariate linear regression tested the association between age and each inflammatory marker. Age was positively associated with increased levels of IL-6 and sTNF-RII (p's<0.05), and with increases in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 activation (p's<0.05). However, no relationship was found between age and CRP, TLR-4-stimulated IL-6/TNF-production, or NF-κB. Within a community-dwelling sample of older adults, older age is associated with increases in STAT activation along with increases of systemic inflammatory cytokines. In older adults, heterogeneity in age-related increases in inflammatory disease risk may be related to individual variability in inflammation.

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A novel STAT3 inhibitor, HJC0152, exerts potent antitumor activity in glioblastoma.

Aberrant expression and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is implicated in several malignancies, including glioblastoma, and is correlated with poor outcomes in patients with glioblastoma, rendering STAT3 a potential therapeutic target. However, few STAT3 inhibitors have been approved for clinical use. We recently developed an orally active small-molecule compound with anti-STAT3 activity, HJC0152. This study aimed to test the effect of this novel drug on glioblastoma cell lines, and provide possibility to improve clinic prognosis of patients with glioblastoma in the future. In the present study, we aimed to determine the effects of HJC0152 on the growth, proliferation, and chemosensitivity of glioblastoma cell lines and xenograft tumors. We found that HJC0152 inactivated STAT3 via inhibiting phosphorylation of the Tyr705 residue. , HJC0152 suppressed the proliferation and motility of glioblastoma cells, induced apoptosis, and enhanced the chemosensitivity of glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, HJC0152 inhibited the growth of glioblastoma xenograft tumors . This study provides a rationale for developing HJC0152 as a STAT3-targeting therapy for treating human glioblastoma in the future.

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Spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling mediates chronic itch in mice through the astrocytic JAK2-STAT3 cascade.

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) and its receptor ST2 contribute to spinal glial activation and chronic pain. A recent study showed that peripheral IL-33 plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic itch induced by poison ivy. However, how IL-33/ST2 signaling in the spinal cord potentially mediates chronic itch remains elusive. Here, we determined that St2 substantially reduced scratching behaviors in 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) as well as acetone and diethylether followed by water-induced dry skin in mice. Intrathecal administration of the neutralizing anti-ST2 or anti-IL-33 antibody remarkably decreased the scratching response in DNFB-induced ACD mice. Expression of spinal IL-33 and ST2 significantly increased in ACD mice, as evidenced by increased mRNA and protein levels. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization demonstrated that increased expression of spinal IL-33 was predominant in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, whereas ST2 was mainly expressed in astrocytes. Further studies showed that in ACD mice, the activation of astrocytes and increased phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) were markedly attenuated by St2 . Intrathecal injection of Janus Kinase 2 Inhibitor AG490 significantly alleviated scratching behaviors in ACD mice. rIL-33 pretreatment exacerbated gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP)-evoked scratching behaviors. This increased gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression was abolished by St2 . Tnf-α upregulation was suppressed by St2 . Our results indicate that the spinal IL-33/ST2 signaling pathway contributes to chronic itch via astrocytic JAK2-STAT3 cascade activation, promoting TNF-α release to regulate the GRP/GRPR signaling-related itch response. Thus, these findings provide a potential therapeutic option for treating chronic pruritus.

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Zelnorm, an agonist of 5-Hydroxytryptamine 4-receptor, acts as a potential antitumor drug by targeting JAK/STAT3 signaling.

The Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway plays central roles in cancer cell growth and survival. Drug repurposing strategies have provided a valuable approach for developing antitumor drugs. Zelnorm (tegaserod maleate) was originally designed as an agonist of 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (5-HT4R) and approved by the FDA for treating irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). Through the use of a high-throughput drug screening system, Zelnorm was identified as a JAK/STAT3 signaling inhibitor. Moreover, the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by Zelnorm was independent of its original target 5-HT4R. Zelnorm could cause G1 cell cycle arrest, induce cell apoptosis and inhibit the growth of a variety of cancer cells. The present study identifies Zelnorm as a novel JAK/STAT3 signaling inhibitor and reveals a new clinical application of Zelnorm upon market reintroduction.

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Phospho‑STAT1 expression as a potential biomarker for anti‑PD‑1/anti‑PD‑L1 immunotherapy for breast cancer.

In the present study, we evaluated the mechanisms of programmed death ligand 1 (PD‑L1) expression in the breast cancer microenvironment, focusing on the role of interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ), and the clinical indications for anti‑programmed cell death 1 (PD‑1) /anti‑PD‑L1 immunotherapy. We evaluated PD‑L1 expression in 4 breast cancer cell lines in the presence of 3 types of inhibitors, as well as IFN‑γ. The expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (p‑STAT1), one of the IFN‑γ signaling pathway molecules, was analyzed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) in relation to PD‑L1 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I expression on cancer cells and tumor‑infiltrating CD8‑positive T cells in 111 patients with stage II/III breast cancer. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, the correlation of the IFN‑γ signature with PD‑L1 expression was analyzed in breast invasive carcinoma tissues. As a result, the JAK/STAT pathway via IFN‑γ was mainly involved in PD‑L1 expression in the cell lines examined. IHC analysis revealed that the PD‑L1 and HLA class I expression levels were significantly upregulated in the p‑STAT1‑positive cases. TCGA analysis indicated that the PD‑L1 expression and IFN‑γ signature exhibited a positive correlation. On the whole, these findings suggest that PD‑L1 and HLA class I are co‑expressed in p‑STAT1‑positive breast cancer cells induced by IFN‑γ secreted from tumor infiltrating immune cells, and that p‑STAT1 expression may be a potential biomarker for patient selection for immunotherapy with anti‑PD‑1/anti‑PD‑L1 monoclonal antibodies.

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2-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone induces apoptosis via ROS-mediated MAPK and STAT3 signaling pathway in human gastric cancer cells.

The 1,4-naphthoquinones and their derivatives have garnered great interest due to their antitumor pharmacological properties in various cancers; however, their clinical application is limited by side effects. In this study, to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy, a novel 1,4-naphthoquinone derivative-2-(4-methoxyphenylthio)-5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (MPTDMNQ) was synthesized. We investigated the effects and underlying mechanisms of MPTDMNQ on cell viability, apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human gastric cancer cells. Our results showed that MPTDMNQ decreased cell viability in nine human gastric cancer cell lines. MPTDMNQ significantly induced apoptosis accompanied by the accumulation of ROS in GC cells. However, pre-treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) attenuated the MPTDMNQ-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MPTDMNQ decreased the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3); and increased the phosphorylation levels of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. However, phosphorylation was inhibited by NAC and a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor. These findings showed that MPTDMNQ induced AGS cell apoptosis via ROS-mediated MAPK and STAT3 signaling pathways. Thus, MPTDMNQ may be a promising candidate for treating gastric cancer.

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Anti-Migration and Anti-Invasion Effects of Curcumin via Suppression of Fascin Expression in Glioblastoma Cells.

The natural compound curcumin was known to inhibit migration and invasion of glioblastoma (GBM) cells. Fascin, a kind of actin-binding proteins, is correlated with migration and invasion of GBM cells. The purpose of this study was to investigate anti-migration and anti-invasion effects of curcumin via suppression of fascin expression in GBM cells.

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Phosphorylation of Hsp20 Promotes Fibrotic Remodeling and Heart Failure.

Cardiomyocyte-specific increases in phosphorylated Hsp20 (S16D-Hsp20) to levels similar to those observed in human failing hearts are associated with early fibrotic remodeling and depressed left ventricular function, symptoms which progress to heart failure and early death. The underlying mechanisms appear to involve translocation of phosphorylated Hsp20 to the nucleus and upregulation of interleukin (IL)-6, which subsequently activates cardiac fibroblasts in a paracrine fashion through transcription factor STAT3 signaling. Accordingly, treatment of S16D-Hsp20 mice with a rat anti-mouse IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody (MR16-1) attenuated interstitial fibrosis and preserved cardiac function. These findings suggest that phosphorylated Hsp20 may be a potential therapeutic target in heart failure.

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2,4,5-Trichloro-6-((2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)amino)isophthalonitrile, Exerts Anti-bladder Activities through IGF-1R/STAT3 Signaling.

2,4,5-Trichloro-6-((2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)amino)isophthalonitrile (SYD007) is a small molecule compound that was synthesized according to the structure of diarylamine. In this study, we evaluated the anti-bladder activities of SYD007, and determined its cytotoxic mechanism. We found that SYD007 exerted cytotoxicity to bladder cancer cells. Furthermore, SYD007 induced bladder cancer cell early apoptosis and arrested cell cycle. Mechanistically, SYD007 suppressed phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) (Tyr705) level in parallel with increases of p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p-AKT. SYD007 significantly inhibited insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-induced STAT3 activation through down-regulation of total IGF-1R level. No dramatic changes in IGF-1R mRNA levels were observed in SYD007-treated cells, suggesting that SYD007 acted primarily at a posttranscriptional level. Using molecular docking analysis, SYD007 was identified as an IGF-1R inhibitor. In summary, we reported that SYD007 exerted anti-bladder activities, and these effects were partially due to inhibition of IGF-1R/STAT3 signaling.

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Discovery of a New STAT3 Inhibitor Acting on the Linker Domain.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent transcription factor that contributes to tumor cell growth and survival and is often constitutively active in several types of cancers, which makes it an attractive target for cancer therapy. We identified 5,5'-(pentane-1,5'-diyl)bis(2-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) (BPMB) as a new STAT3 inhibitor. BPMB inhibited the transcriptional activities of STAT3, despite its inability to reduce the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT3. BPMB selectively inhibited the proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines with constitutively activated STAT3. Furthermore, a gel retardation pattern was obtained by immunoblotting only when those STAT3-activated cell lines were treated with BPMB. The shifted bands could be immunoblotted with anti-STAT3 antibody but not with anti-STAT1/STAT5 antibody, and were stable under reducing conditions. The purified recombinant STAT3 protein treated with BPMB afforded a similar band shift pattern. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry analysis of the component comprising the main shifted band suggested that the complex is a STAT3 homodimer crosslinked by BPMB through a Michael addition with Cys550 in the linker domain. Alanine replacement at this position resulted in reduction of the STAT3 dimer formation in the gel retardation assay. Thus, our results suggest that BPMB inhibits the proliferation of STAT3-activated cell lines, presumably through acylation of the linker domain and subsequent induction of the inactive STAT3 complexes.

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