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           Search results for: Secretoneurin Rat - Secretogranin II; SgII; Chromogranin C    

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#22655045   2012/06/01 Save this To Up

Secretogranin II; a protein increased in the myocardium and circulation in heart failure with cardioprotective properties.

Several beneficial effects have been demonstrated for secretogranin II (SgII) in non-cardiac tissue. As cardiac production of chromogranin A and B, two related proteins, is increased in heart failure (HF), we hypothesized that SgII could play a role in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

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#18221483   2008/02/28 Save this To Up

Immunohistochemical staining of human islet cells with region-specific antibodies against secretogranins II and III.

Chromogranins and secretogranins belong to the granin family of proteins, which are expressed in neuroendocrine and nervous tissue. In earlier publications we have described the development of region-specific antibodies against CgA and CgB. In this study we describe antibodies to SgII and SgIII and their usefulness for immunohistochemical staining. Peptides homologous to defined parts of secretogranins II and III were selected and synthesized. Antibodies were raised and immunostainings were performed on normal human pancreas. The SgII 154-165 (N-terminal secretoneurin), SgII 172-186 (C-terminal secretoneurin) and SgIII antibodies immunostained all insulin-immunoreactive cells, most of the glucagon cells and some of the pancreatic polypeptide cells. The SgII 225-242 antibody immunostained only the insulin-containing cells. None of the antibodies immunostained the somatostatin cells. This study is the first observation of the expression of SgIII in human tissues, where we show expression of SgIII in three of the four major islet cell types in human pancreas.

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#18186540   2008/05/22 Save this To Up

Recently identified a novel neuropeptide manserin colocalize with the TUNEL-positive cells in the top villi of the rat duodenum.

We recently isolated a novel 40 amino acid neuropeptide designated manserin from the rat brain. Manserin is derived from secretogranin II, a member of granin acidic secretory protein family by proteolytic processing, as previously reported secretoneurin and EM66. Manserin peptide are localized in the endocrine cells of the pituitary. In this study, we further investigated the manserin localization in the digestive system by immunohistochemical analysis using antimanserin antibody. In the duodenum, manserin immunostaining was exclusively observed in the nuclei of top villi instead of cytosol as observed in neurons in our previous study. Interestingly, manserin-positive cells in the duodenum are colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells, the cells whose DNA was damaged. Since the top villi of duodenum epithelial cells are known to undergo spontaneous apoptosis during epithelial cell turn over, and since other peptides such as secretoneurin and EM66 derived from SgII have been reported to be cancer-related, these results indicated that manserin peptide may have a role in apoptosis and/or cancer pathogenesis in the digestive organ.

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#15257142   2004/07/16 Save this To Up

Manserin, a novel peptide from secretogranin II in the neuroendocrine system.

We have isolated a novel 40 amino acid neuropeptide, designated manserin, from the rat. Manserin is derived from secretogranin II (SgII), a member of granin acidic secretory protein family by proteolytic processing, as previously reported secretoneurin and EM66. Immunohistochemical analysis using anti-manserin antibody revealed that manserin localized in the endocrine cells of the pituitary anterior lobe, but not in the posterior lobe. Interestingly, manserin never co-localized with ACTH in the anterior pituitary, which is in contrast with SgII, suggesting specific immunoreactivity of the antiserum against manserin. Manserin immunostaining was also observed in the neuronal cells of several hypothalamic nuclei and the neurons in the median eminence. These results suggest that manserin exerts a specific role in the neuroendocrine system.

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#12871990   2003/07/21 Save this To Up

Biochemical characterization and immunocytochemical localization of EM66, a novel peptide derived from secretogranin II, in the rat pituitary and adrenal glands.

Characterization of secretogranin II (SgII) mRNA in various vertebrates has revealed selective conservation of the amino acid sequences of two regions of the protein, i.e., the bioactive peptide secretoneurin and a flanking novel peptide that we named EM66. To help elucidate the possible role of EM66, we examined the occurrence as well as the cellular and subcellular distribution of EM66 in rat pituitary and adrenal glands by using a polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant human EM66 peptide. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of rat pituitary and adrenal extracts combined with a radioimmunoassay resolved EM66-immunoreactive material exhibiting the same retention time as recombinant EM66. In the rat pituitary, double-labeling immunohistochemical (IHC) studies showed that EM66 immunoreactivity (IR) was present in gonadotrophs, lactotrophs, thyrotrophs, and melanotrophs, whereas corticotrophs were devoid of labeling. EM66-IR was also observed in nerve endings in the neural lobe. Immunocytochemical staining at the electron microscopic level revealed that EM66-IR is sequestered in the secretory granules within gonadotrophs and lactotrophs. In the adrenal medulla, double IHC labeling showed that EM66-IR occurs exclusively in epinephrine-synthesizing cells. At the ultrastructural level, EM66-IR was seen in chromaffin vesicles of adrenomedullary cells. These results demonstrate that post-translational processing of SgII generates a novel peptide that exhibits a cell-specific distribution in the rat pituitary and adrenal glands where it is stored in secretory granules, supporting the notion that EM66 may play a role in the endocrine system.

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#8075827   1994/10/03 Save this To Up

Human and rat primary C-fibre afferents store and release secretoneurin, a novel neuropeptide.

Secretoneurin is a recently discovered neuropeptide derived from secretogranin II (SgII). Since this peptide could be detected in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord we studied whether it is localized in and released from primary afferent neurons. Secretoneurin was investigated with immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay in spinal cord, dorsal root ganglia and peripheral organs. SgII mRNA was determined in dorsal root ganglia. Normal rats and rats pre-treated neonatally with capsaicin to destroy selectively polymodal nociceptive (C-) fibres were used. Slices of dorsal spinal cord were perfused in vitro for release experiments. Immunocytochemistry showed a distinct distribution of secretoneurin-immunoreactivity (IR) in the spinal cord and, lower brainstem. A particularly high density of fibres was found in lamina I and outer lamina II of the caudal trigeminal nucleus and of the spinal cord. This distribution was qualitatively identical in rat and human post-mortem tissue. Numerous small diameter and some large dorsal root ganglia neurons were found to contain SgII mRNA. Capsaicin treatment led to a marked depletion of secretoneurin-IR in the substantia gelatinosa, but not in other immunopositive areas of the spinal cord and to a substantial loss of small (< 25 microns) SgII-mRNA-containing dorsal root ganglia neurons. Radioimmunoassay revealed a significant decrease of secretoneurin-IR in the dorsal spinal cord, the trachea, heart and urinary bladder of capsaicin-treated rats. Perfusion of spinal cord slices with capsaicin as well as with 60 mM potassium led to a release of secretoneurin-IR. In conclusion, secretoneurin is a neuropeptide which is stored in and released from capsaicin-sensitive, primary afferent (C-fibre) neurons.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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