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           Search results for: SHEEP ANTI ERYTHROSIN-POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY   

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#29043108   2017/10/18 Save this To Up

Mysterious inhibitory cell regulator investigated and found likely to be secretogranin II related.

In the context of a hunt for a postulated hormone that is tissue-mass inhibiting and reproductively associated, there is described probable relatedness to a granin protein. A 7-8 kDa polypeptide candidate (gels/MS) appeared in a bioassay-guided fractionation campaign involving sheep plasma. An N-terminal sequence of 14 amino acids was obtained for the polypeptide by Edman degradation. Bioinformatics and molecular biology failed to illuminate any ovine or non-ovine protein which might relate to this sequence. The N-terminal sequence was synthesized as the 14mer EPL001 peptide and surprisingly found to be inhibitory in an assay in vivo of compensatory renal growth in the rat and modulatory of nematode fecundity, in line with the inhibitory hormone hypothesis. Antibodies were raised to EPL001 and their deployment upheld the hypothesis that the EPL001 amino acid sequence is meaningful and relevant, notwithstanding bioinformatic obscurity. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in sheep, rodents and humans yielded staining of seeming endocrine relevance (e.g. hypothalamus, gonads and neuroendocrine cells in diverse tissues), with apparent upregulation in certain human tumours (e.g. pheochromocytoma). Discrete IHC staining in Drosophila melanogaster embryo brain was seen in glia and in neuroendocrine cells, with staining likely in the corpus cardiacum. The search for the endogenous antigen involved immunoprecipitation (IP) followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Feedstocks were PC12 conditioned medium and aqueous extract of rat hypothalamus-both of which had anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in an assay in vitro involving rat bone marrow cells, which inhibition was subject to prior immunodepletion with an anti-EPL001 antibody-together with fruit fly embryo material. It is concluded that the mammalian antigen is likely secretogranin II (SgII) related. The originally seen 7-8 kDa polypeptide is suggested to be a new proteoform of secretogranin II of ∼70 residues, SgII-70, with the anti-EPL001 antibody seeing a discontinuous epitope. The fly antigen is probably Q9W2X8 (UniProt), an uncharacterised protein newly disclosed as a granin and provisionally dubbed macrogranin I (MgI). SgII and Q9W2X8 merit further investigation in the context of tissue-mass inhibition.

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#28993171   2017/10/10 Save this To Up

Cross-sectional study of MERS-CoV-specific RNA and antibodies in animals that have had contact with MERS patients in Saudi Arabia.

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is associated with a severe respiratory disease in humans in the Middle East. The epidemiological profiles of the MERS-CoV infections suggest zoonotic transmission from an animal reservoir to humans.

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#28861677   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

Seroepidemiological survey on Leptospira spp. infection in wild and domestic mammals in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil.

Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonotic disease that causes severe reproductive problems in livestock and generates economic losses for farmers. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in small mammals, both wild and domestic, in two distinct areas of the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil: the National Park of Serra das Confusões (NPSC), state of Piauí, a preserved area; and rural areas in the municipalities of Petrolina and Lagoa Grande, state of Pernambuco, non-preserved areas. Serum samples were evaluated using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Approximately 4% (6/152) of the wild animals were positive, all of them in the non-preserved area. Overall, the seroprevalence rates among goats and sheep were 13.4 (77/576) and 4.6% (24/518), respectively, confirmed in both areas. The seroprevalence rates in dogs and cats were 5.6 (10/180) and 4.7% (2/43) and were determined only in the non-preserved area. The risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection were as follows: ages of 1-3 and > 3 years for goats and sheep, region (preserved area) for goats, intensive management system for sheep, and region (non-preserved area) for dogs and wildlife. The present study confirmed the presence of circulation of Leptospira spp. in both of these areas of the Caatinga biome, as well as a variety of serotypes in these areas.

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#28848294   2017/08/29 Save this To Up

Isolation and characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from small ruminants (sheep and goats) in Chennai City, South India.

The present study aimed for the isolation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii from small ruminants (sheep and goats). 14 out of 193 tissue samples (either brain and heart) tested positive by MDAT for anti-T. gondii antibodies, were selected and bioassayed, which resulted 4 samples positive for T. gondii after 40 days of post inoculation. Four samples consisting of 3 numbers of sheep and 1 number of goat tissues out of 14 samples detected by B1 PCR, were genotyped at SAG3 locus by nested polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (nPCR-RFLP). The results of the present study revealed that the four isolates designated as TgShIn19, TgShIn76, TgShIn77 and TgGtIn27 were circulating in small ruminants, were belonged to genotypes of type II (TgShIn19) and type III (TgShIn76, TgShIn77 and TgGtIn27) which are in concordance with the previously reported genotypes from other animal species and further this presumptive results indicating that the genotype II and III could be the predominant in different animal species including birds and humans in India.

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Toxoplasma gondii GRA8, r Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P29 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P30 (SA TOXOPLASMA GONDII Culture Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Recombinant Sheep Interfe

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#28824636   2017/08/21 Save this To Up

Mice Immunized with IgG Anti-Sheep Red Blood Cells (SRBC) Together With SRBC Have a Suppressed Anti-SRBC Antibody Response but Generate Germinal Centers and Anti-IgG Antibodies in Response to the Passively Administered IgG.

Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered together with large particulate antigens such as erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antigen-specific antibody response. The mechanism behind has been elusive. Herein, we made the surprising observation that mice immunized with IgG anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and SRBC, in spite of a severely suppressed anti-SRBC response, have a strong germinal center (GC) response. This occurred regardless of whether the passively administered IgG was of the same allotype as that of the recipient or not. Six days after immunization, the GC size and the number of GC B cells were higher in mice immunized with SRBC alone than in mice immunized with IgG and SRBC, but at the other time points these parameters were similar. GCs in the IgG-groups had a slight shift toward dark zone B cells 6 days after immunization and toward light zone B cells 10 days after immunization. The proportions of T follicular helper cells (TFH) and T follicular regulatory cells (TFR) were similar in the two groups. Interestingly, mice immunized with allogeneic IgG anti-SRBC together with SRBC mounted a vigorous antibody response against the passively administered suppressive IgG. Thus, although their anti-SRBC response was almost completely suppressed, an antibody response against allogeneic, and probably also syngeneic, IgG developed. This most likely explains the development of GCs in the absence of an anti-SRBC antibody response.

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#28813459   2017/08/16 Save this To Up

β2-microglobulin gene duplication in cetartiodactyla remains intact only in pigs and possibly confers selective advantage to the species.

Several β2-microglobulin (B2M) -bound protein complexes undertake key roles in various immune system pathways, including the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) protein, non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and well-known MHC class I molecules. Therefore, the duplication of B2M may lead to an increase in the biological competence of organisms to the environment. Based on the pig genome assembly SSC10.2, a segmental duplication of ~45.5 kb, encoding the entire B2M protein, was identified in pig chromosome 1. Through experimental validation, we confirmed the functional duplication of the B2M gene with a completely identical coding sequence between two copies in pigs. Considering the importance of B2M in the immune system, we performed the phylogenetic analysis of B2M duplication in ten mammalian species, confirming the presence of B2M duplication in cetartioldactyls, like cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and whales, but non-cetartiodactyl species, like mice, cats, dogs, horses, and humans. The density of long interspersed nuclear element (LINE) at the edges of duplicated blocks (39 to 66%) was found to be 2 to 3-fold higher than the average (20.12%) of the pig genome, suggesting its role in the duplication event. The B2M mRNA expression level in pigs was 12.71 and 7.57 times (2-ΔΔCt values) higher than humans and mice, respectively. However, we were unable to experimentally demonstrate the difference in the level of B2M protein because species specific anti-B2M antibodies are not available. We reported, for the first time, the functional duplication of the B2M gene in animals. The identification of partially remaining duplicated B2M sequences in the genomes of only cetartiodactyls indicates that the event was lineage specific. B2M duplication could be beneficial to the immune system of pigs by increasing the availability of MHC class I light chain protein, B2M, to complex with the proteins encoded by the relatively large number of MHC class I heavy chain genes in pigs. Further studies are necessary to address the biological meaning of increased expression of B2M.

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FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu DNA (cytosine 5) methyltr Human Epstein-Barr Virus Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Interferon-a Receptor Typ Akt Inhibitor, Isozyme Se Mouse Epstein-Barr Virus Rat TGF-beta-inducible ea

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#28807307   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

Significance of anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody in first grazing season cattle naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes.

A carbohydrate larval surface antigen (CarLA) present on infective larvae of all trichostrongylid nematodes is a target antigen for host immunoglobulins (Ig). Levels of anti-CarLA salivary IgA antibody (CarLA-IgA) have been shown to be correlated to the level of protective immunity to GIN in sheep and deer but no information is available in cattle. The first objective of this study was to assess the pattern of CarLA-IgA response in 7 groups (G1-G7) of first grazing season cattle (FGSC) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. The second objective was to assess the phenotypic correlations between CarLA-IgA level, 3 parasitological indicators (faecal egg count-FEC, pepsinogen level, serum anti-O. ostertagi IgG antibody level-OstertagiaIgG), a clinical indicator (diarrhea score) and average daily weight gain (ADWG). Overall, CarLA-IgA response gradually increased over grazing season and showed large variations in speed and magnitude both between and within groups. Based on the mean group CarLA-IgA response pattern, the 7 groups could be allocated to 3 different classes: (i) 'Late High' class characterized by a high response at housing (G1 and G2); (ii) 'Low' class with a low response over time (G3, G4 and G5); and (iii) 'Early' class with an high initial then stable response (G6 and G7). This classification was consistent with the grazing management practices. In the 'Late High' class, the mean CarLA-IgA at housing was 6.05units/mL and negatively correlated with FEC while no correlation was seen with the other indicators nor ADWG. In the 'Low' class, CarLA response at housing was low (1.95units/mL) and mainly positively correlated with OstertagiaIgG. In the 'Early' class, mean CarLA-IgA ranged from 1.32 to 1.86units/mL during the grazing season and positive correlations were seen with parasitological and clinical indicators. These results suggest that, according to the intensity of larval challenge occurring during the first grazing season, CarLA-IgA response in cattle could be either an indicator of the early manifestation of immunity (FEC decreases) or the reflection of exposure to GIN.

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#28780000   2017/08/06 Save this To Up

Systemic infusions of anti-interleukin-1β neutralizing antibodies reduce short-term brain injury after cerebral ischemia in the ovine fetus.

Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic reperfusion (I/R)-related brain injury is a leading cause of neurologic morbidity and life-long disability in children. Infants exposed to I/R brain injury develop long-term cognitive and behavioral deficits, placing a large burden on parents and society. Therapeutic strategies are currently not available for infants with I/R brain damage, except for hypothermia, which can only be used in full term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Moreover, hypothermia is only partially protective. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to the pathogenesis of perinatal I/R brain injury. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a critical pro-inflammatory cytokine, which has been shown to predict the severity of HIE in infants. We have previously shown that systemic infusions of mouse anti-ovine IL-1β monoclonal antibody (mAb) into fetal sheep resulted in anti-IL-1β mAb penetration into brain, reduced I/R-related increases in IL-1β expression and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction in fetal brain. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of systemic infusions of anti-IL-1β mAb on short-term I/R-related parenchymal brain injury in the fetus by examining: 1) histopathological changes, 2) apoptosis and caspase-3 activity, 3) neuronal degeneration 4) reactive gliosis and 5) myelin basic protein (MBP) immunohistochemical staining. The study groups included non-ischemic controls, placebo-treated ischemic, and anti-IL-1β mAb treated ischemic fetal sheep at 127days of gestation. The systemic intravenous infusions of anti-IL-1β mAb were administered at fifteen minutes and four hours after in utero brain ischemia. The duration of each infusion was two hours. Parenchymal brain injury was evaluated by determining pathological injury scores, ApopTag® positive cells/mm(2), caspase-3 activity, Fluoro-Jade B positive cells/mm(2), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and MBP staining in the brains of fetal sheep 24h after 30min of ischemia. Treatment with anti-IL-1β mAb reduced (P<0.05) the global pathological injury scores, number of apoptotic positive cells/mm(2), and caspase-3 activity after ischemia in fetal sheep. The regional pathological scores and Fluoro-Jade B positive cells/mm(2) did not differ between the placebo- and anti-IL-1β mAb treated ischemic fetal sheep. The percent of the cortical area stained for GFAP was lower (P<0.05) in the placebo ischemic treated than in the non-ischemic group, but did not differ between the placebo- and anti-IL-1β mAb treated ischemic groups. MBP immunohistochemical expression did not differ among the groups. In conclusion, infusions of anti-IL-1β mAb attenuate short-term I/R-related histopathological tissue injury, apoptosis, and reduce I/R-related increases in caspase-3 activity in ovine fetal brain. Therefore, systemic infusions of anti-IL-1β mAb attenuate short-term I/R-related parenchymal brain injury in the fetus.

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#28716099   2017/07/18 Save this To Up

Xenoantigenicity of porcine decellularized valves.

The xenoantigenicity of porcine bioprosthetic valves is implicated as an etiology leading to calcification and subsequent valve failure. Decellularization of porcine valves theoretically could erase the antigenicity of the tissue leading to more durable prosthetic valves, but the effectiveness of decellularization protocols in regard to completely removing antigens has yet to be verified. Our hypothesis was that decellularization would remove the more abundant α-gal antigens but not remove all the non α-gal antigens, which could mount a response.

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#28673457   2017/07/04 Save this To Up

Incidence and vertical transmission rate of Neospora caninum in sheep.

The infection by Neospora caninum in sheep can lead to abortion and the birth of weak and debilitated lambs. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of natural infection by Neospora caninum and the vertical transmission rate among sheep. A flock of 50 sheep was monitored for serum antibody titres against N. caninum and seroconversion over a period of six months using an indirect ELISA technique. The offspring of the herd was also investigated regarding anti-N. caninum antibodies to determine the vertical transmission rate through the indirect immunofluorescence technique. The initial and final prevalences of infection by N. caninum were 26.0% (13/50) and 72.0% (36/50), respectively, and the incidence of infection by N. caninum in the present study was 62.2% (23/37). The vertical transmission rate found was 15.4% (2/13). A high incidence of infection by N. caninum in sheep was observed, and this is the first report assessing the incidence of N. caninum among naturally infected sheep.

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