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Anti-melanoma activity of T cells redirected with a TCR-like chimeric antigen receptor.

Genetically modified T cells to recognize tumor-associated antigens by transgenic TCRs or chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have been successfully applied in clinical trials. However, the disadvantages of either TCR mismatching or the requirement of a surface tumor antigen limit their wider applications in adoptive T cell therapy. A TCR-like chimeric receptor, specific for the melanoma-related gp100/HLA-A2 complex was created by joining a TCR-like antibody GPA7 with the endodomains of CD28 and CD3-ζ chain. This TCR-like CAR, GPA7-28z, was subsequently introduced into human T cells. Retargeted T cells expressing GPA7-28z could exhibit efficient cytotoxic activities against human melanoma cells in vitro in the context with HLA-A2. Furthermore, infusion of GPA7-28z-transduced T cells suppressed melanoma progression in a xenograft mouse model. Redirecting human T cells with TCR-like CARs would be a promising alternative approach to TCR-mediated therapy for melanoma patients, which is also feasible for targeting a variety of other tumor antigens.

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anti Transferrin receptor anti CD38 Hematopoietic p Mouse Anti Progesterone R Mouse Anti Progesterone R Mouse Anti Progesterone R Mouse Anti Progesterone R Mouse Anti Progesterone R Mouse Anti DO11.10 T cell Mouse Anti-Lipoprotein Li Mouse Anti-Human CD34 Tar Rat monoclonal anti mouse Rat monoclonal anti mouse

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Amphiregulin exosomes increase cancer cell invasion.

Autocrine, paracrine, and juxtacrine are recognized modes of action for mammalian EGFR ligands including EGF, TGF-α (TGFα), amphiregulin (AREG), heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF), betacellulin, epiregulin, and epigen. We identify a new mode of EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes. Human breast and colorectal cancer cells release exosomes containing full-length, signaling-competent EGFR ligands. Exosomes isolated from MDCK cells expressing individual full-length EGFR ligands displayed differential activities; AREG exosomes increased invasiveness of recipient breast cancer cells 4-fold over TGFα or HB-EGF exosomes and 5-fold over equivalent amounts of recombinant AREG. Exosomal AREG displayed significantly greater membrane stability than TGFα or HB-EGF. An average of 24 AREG molecules are packaged within an individual exosome, and AREG exosomes are rapidly internalized by recipient cells. Whether the composition and behavior of exosomes differ between nontransformed and transformed cells is unknown. Exosomes from DLD-1 colon cancer cells with a mutant KRAS allele exhibited both higher AREG levels and greater invasive potential than exosomes from isogenically matched, nontransformed cells in which mutant KRAS was eliminated by homologous recombination. We speculate that EGFR ligand signaling via exosomes might contribute to diverse cancer phenomena such as field effect and priming of the metastatic niche.

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Epigen, the last ligand of ErbB receptors, reveals intricate relationships between affinity and mitogenicity.

Four ErbB receptors and multiple growth factors sharing an epidermal growth factor (EGF) motif underlie transmembrane signaling by the ErbB family in development and cancer. Unlike other ErbB proteins, ErbB-2 binds no known EGF-like ligand. To address the existence of a direct ligand for ErbB-2, we applied algorithms based on genomic and cDNA structures to search sequence data bases. These searches reidentified all known EGF-like growth factors including Epigen (EPG), the least characterized ligand, but failed to identify novel factors. The precursor of EPG is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that undergoes cleavage at two sites to release a soluble EGF-like domain. A recombinant EPG cannot stimulate cells singly expressing ErbB-2, but it acts as a mitogen for cells expressing ErbB-1 and co-expressing ErbB-2 in combination with the other ErbBs. Interestingly, soluble EPG is more mitogenic than EGF, although its binding affinity is 100-fold lower. Our results attribute the anomalous mitogenic power of EPG to evasion of receptor-mediated depletion of ligand molecules, as well as to inefficient receptor ubiquitylation and down-regulation. In conclusion, EPG might represent the last EGF-like growth factor and define a category of low affinity ligands, whose bioactivity differs from the more extensively studied high affinity ligands.

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Peptoid Ligand Affinity O c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein c-erbB-3 Oncoprotein; Cl c-erbB-2 Oncoprotein; Cl

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