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Using Statistical Modeling to Understand and Predict Pediatric Stem Cell Function.

Congenital heart defects (CHD) are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and despite advanced surgical treatments, many patients progress to heart failure. Currently, transplantation is the only effective cure and is limited by donor availability and organ rejection. Recently, cell therapy has emerged as a novel method for treating pediatric heart failure with several ongoing clinical trials. However, efficacy of stem cell therapy is variable and choosing stem cells with highest reparative effects has been a challenge.

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Mesenchymal Progenitors Derived from Different Locations in Long Bones Display Diverse Characteristics.

Mesenchymal progenitors within bone marrow have multiple differentiation potential and play an essential role in the maintenance of adult skeleton homeostasis. Mesenchymal progenitors located in bone regions other than the bone marrow also display bone-forming properties. However, owing to the differences in each distinct microenvironment, the mesenchymal characteristics of skeletal progenitor cells within different regions of long bones may show some differences. In order to clearly elucidate these differences, we performed a comparative study on mesenchymal progenitors from different regions of long bones. Here, we isolated mesenchymal progenitors from the periosteum, endosteum, and bone marrow of rat long bones. The three groups exhibited similar cellular morphologies and expressed the typical surface markers associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, after cell proliferation assays and bidirectional differentiation analysis, periosteal mesenchymal progenitors showed a higher proliferative ability and adipogenic differentiation potential. In contrast, endosteal mesenchymal progenitors were more prone to osteogenic differentiation. Using osteoclast culture systems, conditioned media from different mesenchymal progenitor cultures were used to induce osteoclastic differentiation. Osteoclast formation was found to be significantly promoted by the secretion of RANKL and IL-6 by endosteal progenitors. Overall, our results provide strong evidence for the importance of selecting the appropriate source of skeletal progenitors for applications in future skeleton regeneration therapies.

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Conditioned media from dental pulp stem cells improved diabetic polyneuropathy through anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and angiogenic actions: Cell-free regenerative medicine for diabetic polyneuropathy.

Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be easily obtained from teeth for general orthodontic reasons. We have previously reported the therapeutic effects of DPSC transplantation for diabetic polyneuropathy. As abundant secretomes from DPSCs are considered to play a central role in the improvement of diabetic polyneuropathy, we investigated whether direct injection of DPSC-conditioned media (DPSC-CM) into hindlimb skeletal muscles ameliorates diabetic polyneuropathy in diabetic rats.

2938 related Products with: Conditioned media from dental pulp stem cells improved diabetic polyneuropathy through anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and angiogenic actions: Cell-free regenerative medicine for diabetic polyneuropathy.

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Cryogel composites based on hyaluronic acid and halloysite nanotubes as scaffold for tissue engineering.

We present here preparation of mechanically strong and biocompatible cryogel composites based on hyaluronic acid (HA) and halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) of various compositions, and their applications as scaffold for different cell growing media. Uniaxial compression tests reveal that the incorporation of HNTs into HA cryogels leads to a ~2.5-fold increase in their Young moduli, e.g., from 38 ± 1 to 99 ± 4 kPa at a HA:HNTs weight ratio of 1:2. Although HA:HNTs based cryogels were found to be blood compatible with 1.37 ± 0.11% hemolysis ratio at a HA:HNTs weight ratio of 1:2, they trigger thrombogenic activity with a blood clotting index of 17.3 ± 4.8. Remarkably, HA:HNTs cryogel composites were found to be excellent scaffold materials in the proliferation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa), and human colon cancer cells (HCT116). The cell studies revealed that an increased amount of HNT embedding into HA cryogels leads to an increase of MSC proliferation.

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Dioscin Attenuates Myocardial Damages in Diabetic Rats maybe by Regulating NO-sGC-cGMP-PKG Pathway.

This study aimed to evaluate the use of Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium (ITS) medium in place of fetal bovine serum (FBS) to culture human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). Cell morphology, ultrastructure, proliferation, migration and MSC related markers were assessed accordingly. The hAMSCs were induced to osteocyte, chondrocyte, adipocyte and keratinocyte by culturing in appropriate induction medium. hAMSCs mRNA expression was detected for the matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP2), keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), Platelet-derived Growth Factor (PDGF), and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β) by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Our results showed that hAMSCs cultured in ITS medium exhibited similar proliferation rates, demonstrated a statistically significant increased migration and expressed similar levels of MSC markers(CD73+, CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, CD34-) compared with those cultured in FBS. Osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes and keratinocytes were differentiated. Results of transmission electron microscope (TEM) revealed that hAMSCs cultured in ITS medium underwent active metabolism. The mRNA expression of MMP2, VEGF, KGF, TGF-β, IGF-I and PDGF upregulated in ITS medium. In conclusion, ITS medium has the potential to be used for the expansion of hAMSCs before clinical application.

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Novel magnetic calcium phosphate-stem cell construct with magnetic field enhances osteogenic differentiation and bone tissue engineering.

Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) are promising bioactive additives to fabricate magnetic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. To date, there has been no report on osteoinductivity of IONP-incorporated calcium phosphate cement (IONP-CPC) scaffold on stem cells using an exterior static magnetic field (SMF). The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop a novel magnetic IONP-CPC construct for bone tissue engineering, and (2) investigate the effects of IONP-incorporation and SMF application on the proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and bone mineral synthesis of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) seeded on IONP-CPC scaffold for the first time. The novel magnetic IONP-CPC under SMF enhanced the cellular performance of hDPSCs, yielding greater alkaline phosphatase activities (about 3-fold), increased expressions of osteogenic marker genes, and more cell-synthesized bone minerals (about 2.5-fold), compared to CPC control and nonmagnetic IONP-CPC. In addition, IONP-CPC induced more active osteogenesis than CPC control in rat mandible defects. These results were consistent with the enhanced cellular performance by magnetic IONP in media under SMF. Moreover, nano-aggregates were detected inside the cells by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Therefore, the enhanced cell performance was attributed to the physical forces generated by the magnetic field together with cell internalization of the released magnetic nanoparticles from IONP-CPC constructs.

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Hepatocyte growth factor plays a dual role in tendon-derived stem cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation.

Heterotopic ossification is common in tendon healing after trauma, but the detailed mechanisms remain unknown. Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are a type of progenitor cell found in the tendon niche, and their incorrect differentiation after trauma may lead to tendon calcification. The expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) presents drastic fluctuations in serum/tissue after trauma and was found to activate quiescent stellate cells and contribute to wound healing; however, its potential role in TDSCs remains elusive. In this study, TDSCs isolated from rats were cultured in media containing HGF with or without a signaling inhibitor, and the proliferation, migration, and differentiation ability of TDSCs were measured to determine the role and mechanism of HGF in TDSCs. We showed that HGF promotes TDSC proliferation and migration but inhibits TDSC osteogenic differentiation ability. HGF activated-HGF/c-Met, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT) signaling, which was positively correlated with TDSCs proliferation and migration but negatively related to TDSC osteogenic differentiation ability. The phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was also negatively related to HGF/c-Met, MAPK/ERK1/2, and PI3K/AKT signaling, which demonstrated that the inhibition of osteogenic differentiation was dependent on BMP/Smad1/5/8 signaling. Overall, we showed that HGF could promote TDSCs proliferation and migration and inhibit osteogenic differentiation in vitro, suggesting a potential role for HGF as a cytokine treatment of tendon trauma.

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Establishing an osteoimmunomodulatory coating loaded with aspirin on the surface of titanium primed with phase-transited lysozyme.

To improve osseointegration and enhance the success rate of implanted biomaterials, the surface modification technology of bone implants has developed rapidly. Intensive research on osteoimmunomodulation has shown that the surfaces of implants should possess favorable osteoimmunomodulation to facilitate osteogenesis.

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Construction and Use of an Electrical Stimulation Chamber for Enhancing Osteogenic Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells In Vitro.

Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been used extensively to promote bone healing in tissue engineering approaches. Electrical stimulation (EStim) has been demonstrated to increase MSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro and promote bone healing in clinical settings. Here we describe the construction of an EStim cell culture chamber and its use in treating rat bone-marrow-derived MSC to enhance osteogenic differentiation. We found that treating MSCs with EStim for 7 days results in a significant increase in the osteogenic differentiation, and importantly, this pro-osteogenic effect persists long after (7 days) EStim is discontinued. This approach of pretreating MSCs with EStim to enhance osteogenic differentiation could be used to optimize bone tissue engineering treatment outcomes and, thus, help them to achieve their full therapeutic potential. In addition to this application, this EStim cell culture chamber and protocol can also be used to investigate other EStim-sensitive cell behaviors, such as migration, proliferation, apoptosis, and scaffold attachment.

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Corneal regeneration by conditioned medium of human uterine cervical stem cells is mediated by TIMP-1 and TIMP-2.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect and the mechanism of action of the conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESC) on corneal wound healing in a rabbit dry eye model. To do this, dry eye and corneal epithelial injuries were induced in rabbits by topical administration of atropine sulfate and NaOH. Hematoxylin-Eosin (H&E) and Ki-67 immunostaining were carried out to evaluate corneal damage and cell proliferation, and real-time PCR was used to evaluate proinflammatory cytokines in the cornea. In addition, in order to investigate possible factors involved in corneal regeneration, primary cultures of rat corneal epithelial cells (rCECs) were used to evaluate cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis before and after immunoprecipitation of specific factors from the CM-hUCESC. Results showed that CM-hUCESC treatment significantly improved epithelial regeneration in rabbits with dry eye induced by atropine and reduced corneal pro-inflammatory TNF-α, MCP-1, MIP-1α and IL-6 cytokines. In addition, metalloproteinase inhibitors TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, which are present at high levels in CM-hUCESC, mediated corneal regenerative effects by both inducing corneal epithelial cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. In summary, CM-hUCESC induces faster corneal regeneration in a rabbit model of dry eye induced by atropine than conventional treatments, being TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 mediators in this process. The results indicate that an alternative CM-based treatment for some corneal conditions is achievable, although future studies would be necessary to investigate other factors involved in the multiple observed effects of CM-hUCESC.

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