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Study of lung toxicity in rats exposed to silica powder with different hard metal constituents.

The objective of this study was to assess the lung toxicity induced by the inhalation of different hard metal constituents and silica powder and screen for potential toxicity biomarkers. Rats were randomly divided into saline, cobalt, tungsten carbide, silica, and hard metal (HM) groups and were administered a single 10-mg dose of the respective treatments. After 8 weeks, the lung tissue structure in the HM group was deformed, numerous nucleated giant and epithelial-like cells appeared in the stroma, and the computed tomography scanning images appeared abnormal. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and TGF-β2 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) significantly differed between the groups ( p < 0.05). Serum KL-6 and TGF-β1, but not TGF-β2, levels significantly differed between some groups ( p < 0.05). We observed multinucleated giant cells in the rat lung tissue. While the serum and BALF levels of KL-6 and TGF-β2 are not highly specific, TGF-β1 may be a valuable reference diagnostic marker in HM lung disease.

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Scutellarin protects against vascular endothelial dysfunction and prevents atherosclerosis via antioxidation.

Scutellarin is the major constituent responsible for the clinical benefits of Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz which finds a long history of ethnopharmacological use in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Scutellarin as a pure compound is now under investigation for its protections against various tissue injuries.

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The toxicity and efficacy evaluation of different fractions of Kansui fry-baked with vinegar on Walker-256 tumor-bearing malignant ascites effusion rats and normal rats.

Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui S.L.Liou ex S.B.Ho (E.kansui), is a classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with certain toxicity. According to the theory of TCM, kansui fry-baked wtith vinegar (VEK) possesses low toxicity and mild diuretic and purgative efficacy. In clinical practice, it is commonly used for the treatmtablent of ascites and oliguria. The present study aimed to evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of different fractions of VEK and reveal the underlying material basis by employing an animal model of malignant ascites effusion (MAE) in rats.

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Imaging prostate cancer (PCa) with [ Tc(CO) ]finasteride dithiocarbamate.

This investigation aimed to modify finasteride (1) to finasteride dithiocarbamate (2) for subsequent synthesis of the rhenium analogue (3) and [ Tc]tricarbonyl complexes (4), to assess its prostate cancer (PCa) targeting potential in a rat model. To validate the identity of (4), reference (3) has been synthesized by using fac-[Net ] [ReBr (CO) ] precursor and characterized by H-NMR, C-NMR, ESI-MS, and elemental analysis. The analogue (4) was synthesized by using fac-[ Tc(H O) (CO) ] precursor, and its structure was confirmed by comparative HPLC by using (3) as a reference. Further, the suitability of (4) as a PCa imaging agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. At room temperature, (4) had ≥99% radiochemical purity and remained ≥84% stable in serum. In preclinical studies, biodistribution of (4) in histopathologically established rat model showed adequately high in vivo uptake in the prostate attracting the possibility of using it for noninvasive imaging of PCa.

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[Effect of Different Concentrations of Moxa-smoke on Lung Function and TNF-α and IL-1 β Levels in Serum and Lung Tissues in Normal Rats].

To study the effect of moxa-smoke inhaling on the respiratory system, so as to provide experimental data and theoretical basis for evaluating the safety of moxa-smoke inhaling during moxibustion treatment.

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The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Wendelbo bulb on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress in rats.

Recent evidences have suggested the beneficial cardiovascular effects of some plants belonging to the genus . The present study is an attempt to investigate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of bulb on dexamethasone-induced dyslipidemia in rats. Total phenolic content of bulb hydroalcoholic extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats in 6 groups were studied. Group 1 (dyslipidemic control) received dexamethasone (10 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 7 days, groups 2-4 (treated) received dexamethasone and simultaneously treated orally with 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract, group 5 (normal control) received a single daily injection of normal saline (1 mL/kg, s.c.) and the vehicle orally, and group 6 (reference) received dexamethasone and atorvastatin (40 mg/kg) orally. At the end of experiment, blood glucose, lipid profile, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were assessed in serum samples. Livers were processed for histopathological examination. Total phenolic content of extract was estimated to be 33.52 ± 1.3% mg gallic acid equivalent/g of the dried plant extract. The plant extract significantly reduced serum blood glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and MDA levels and increased the high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level and also improved liver steatosis compared to the dyslipidemic control group. These results suggest the hydroalcoholic extract of bulb has anti-dyslipidemic, anti-hyperglycemic, and antioxidant effects on rats receiving high doses of dexamethasone.

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[Effect of Eletroacupuncture Intervention on Insulin Resistance, Lipid Metabolic Disorder and Expression of Hepatic SREBP-1 c and Fatty Acid Synthase Proteins in Rats with Hyperlipidemia].

To observe the effect of electroacupuncture(EA) of "Fenglong" (ST 40) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) on lipid metabolic disorder, insulin resistance (IR) and expression of sterol regulatory element blinding protein-1 (SREBP-1) c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) proteins in the liver tissue in hyperlipidemia rats with IR, so as to reveal its mechanisms underlying improvement of IR.

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High-fat/high-sucrose diet results in higher bone mass in aged rats.

Intake of high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) diet or high fat diet influences bone metabolism in young rodents, but its effects on bone properties of aged rodents still remain unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of HFS diet intake on trabecular bone architecture (TBA) and cortical bone geometry (CBG) in aged rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats over 1 year were randomly divided into two groups. One group was fed a standard laboratory diet (SLD) and the other group was fed a HFS diet for six months. The femur/tibia, obtained from both groups at the end of experimental period, were scanned by micro-computed tomography for TBA/CBG analyses. Serum biochemical analyses were also conducted. Body weight was significantly higher in the HFS group than in the SLD group. In both femur and tibia, the HFS group showed higher trabecular/cortical bone mass in reference to bone mineral content, volume bone mineral density and TBA/CBG parameters compared with the SLD group. In addition, serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, total protein, triacylglycerol, HDL and TRACP-5b levels were significantly higher in the HFS group than in the SLD group. There were good correlations between body weight and bone parameters in the femur and tibia. These results suggest that HFS diet intake results in higher bone mass in aged rats. Such effects of HFS diet intake might have been induced by increased body weight.

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Abrogation of carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats by Ajwa date fruit extract through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis.

Ajwa, a variety of date palme Phoenix dactylifera L., has long been used and considered as one of the most popular fruits in the North Africa and Middle East region. For Muslims this fruit is of religious importance and is mentioned several times in Quran. Besides being a part of the Arabian essential diet, dates have been used traditionally for number of complications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible potential of Ajwa date extract to guard against carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced liver damage in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given Ajwa date extract and silymarin (a standard reference drug) at doses of 300 & 50mg/kg, p.o., respectively for 2 weeks before CCl4 (2 ml/kg, s. c., twice weekly for 8 consecutive weeks), and concomitantly administered with CCl4 for 8 consecutive weeks. Like silymarin, Ajwa date extract produced significant decrease in serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total cholesterol, triglycerides (TG) and LDL-cholesterol as well as lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroxyproline and caspase-3 contents of liver tissue with marked increase in serum albumin, HDL-cholesterol and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as enzyme activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). In conclusion, Ajwa date extract afforded significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatocellular injury; an effect that could be attributed to its antioxidant, antiapoptotic and antifibrotic activities.

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Defective insulin signaling and the protective effects of dimethyldiguanide during follicular development in the ovaries of polycystic ovary syndrome.

It is established that the physiological effects of insulin are primarily mediated by the insulin signaling pathway. However, a defective insulin signaling is closely associated with the clinical manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which include excess androgen levels, insulin resistance and anovulation, and is involved in the pathophysiology of PCOS at the molecular level. Dimethyldiguanide (DMBG) has been widely employed to alleviate reproduction dysfunction in women with PCOS, however, the exact mechanism of this effect remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of DMBG on the expression of the insulin signaling pathway in the ovaries of rats with PCOS, and to identify the potential underlying molecular mechanisms of these effects in PCOS. In the present study, a PCOS rat model was induced by letrozole, and successful establishment of the model was confirmed by examining ovarian histology and determining serum testosterone levels, by hematoxylin and eosin staining and ELISA, respectively. Subsequently, the expression of two key elements of insulin signaling, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)‑2 and phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K), was determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that IRS‑2 and PI3K expression was markedly decreased in PCOS ovaries, which was rescued by DMBG treatment. These results indicate that IRS‑2/PI3K signaling may be involved in the development of PCOS and the therapeutic effects of DMBG on PCOS. To further confirm the effects of DMBG on insulin signaling expression during this process, the expression of an additional two downstream proteins, phosphoinositide‑dependent kinase‑1 (PDK‑1) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), was also investigated in the present study, and the results demonstrated that the expression of PDK‑1 and mTOR was significantly reduced in PCOS ovaries and increased following DMBG treatment, further indicating that altered insulin signaling may have an important role in the development and treatment of PCOS. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that the reduced expression of proteins involved in insulin signaling may contribute to the development of the clinical features of PCOS, and DMBG reverses reduced expression of insulin signaling components, by a mechanism that is yet to be determined, to attenuate certain symptoms of PCOS, such as obesity. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to provide data regarding the detailed changes of insulin signaling during the development and treatment of PCOS, and may provide an important reference for clinical PCOS treatment.

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