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#28851636   2017/08/30 Save this To Up

SLE autoantibodies are well recognized by peroxynitrite-modified-HSA: Its implications in the pathogenesis of SLE.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder where the role of inflammatory processes in the etiopathogenesis is well documented. Despite extensive research, the trigger for initiation of the disease has not been identified. Peroxynitrite, a strong nitrating/oxidizing agent has been reported in SLE and other autoimmune diseases. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was exposed to peroxynitrite for 30min at 37°C. The structure of HSA was grossly perturbed when examined by various physico-chemical techniques. Peroxynitrite mediated nitration of HSA was confirmed by LCMS/MS. Furthermore, increase in hydrodynamic radius of peroxynitrite-modified-HSA suggests the attachment of nitro group(s). Aggregation in peroxynitrite-modified-HSA was evident in a TEM scan. Nitration, oxidation, cross linking, aggregation etc conferred immunogenicity on peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. High titre antibodies were elicited in rabbits immunized with peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. Induced antibodies were highly specific for peroxynitrite-modified-HSA but showed considerable binding with other nitrated molecules. Direct binding/inhibition ELISA carried out with autoantibodies in SLE sera showed preferential binding with peroxynitrite-modified-HSA. Anti-nDNA positive IgG from SLE sera showed preference for peroxynitrite-modified-HSA when subjected to immunoassay (direct binding and inhibition) and mobility shift assay. Our results reinforce the role of augmented inflammation in SLE progression.

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#28804549   2017/08/14 Save this To Up

Treatment effect of low intensity pulsed ultrasound on leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide in rabbits.

This study aims to examine the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) on leukopenia induced by cyclophosphamide in a rabbit model.

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#28798366   2017/08/11 Save this To Up

Elevated serum antibody against Schistosoma japonicum HSP60 as a promising biomarker for liver pathology in schistosomiasis.

The pathology associated with Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection in humans is attributed to parasite egg-induced granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the host liver. Currently, a marker that is reliable, cheap, less device-dependent, and can be easily and repeatedly used on a large scale to monitor the progression of liver pathology in schistosomiasis japonica endemic areas is lacking. The levels of serum S. japonicum heat shock protein 60 (SjHSP60)-specific IgG and its subtype antibodies in animals (mice and rabbits) or patients with schistosomiasis were measured by ELISA. Liver pathologies in mice and rabbits were evaluated by gross pathology and histopathology, and hepatic fibrosis in patients was examined with ultrasound imaging. The results revealed that the titers of the total IgG and subtype IgG1 anti-SjHSP60 antibodies were positively correlated with the severity of liver pathology after S. japonicum infection. Our findings indicate that the SjHSP60 IgG and IgG1 antibody levels can be used as potential candidate biomarkers for evaluation of liver pathology in schistosomiasis; however, validation remains to be explored in further work.

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#28793850   2017/08/10 Save this To Up

Glycation, oxidation and glycoxidation of IgG: a biophysical, biochemical, immunological and hematological study.

Glycation and oxidation induce structural alterations in the proteins in an interdependent manner with consequent pathological implications. The published literature presents wide range of modifications in conformational characteristics of proteins by glycation and oxidation; however, there is little data that could elaborate the cumulative effect of both the processes. This study has analysed the modifications in IgG by methylglyoxal (MG) (glycative stress), hydroxyl radical ([Formula: see text]) (oxidative stress) and by their combined action i.e. [Formula: see text] treatment of MG glycated IgG (glycoxidation). It further addresses the implications of the altered structural integrity of IgG on its immunological characteristics and impact on haematological parameters in rabbits. Using circular dichroism, FTIR, SDS-PAGE analysis, thioflavin-T fluorescence assay, congo red absorbance analysis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, ELISA, blood cell counts and rectal temperature studies, we report that the glycoxidative modification caused maximum alteration in the IgG as compared to the glycatively and oxidatively modified protein. Far-UV CD results confirmed the highest decline in the beta-pleated sheet content of the protein by glycoxidation. The damage led to the reduced flexibility and enhanced electronic interactions in IgG as observed by near-UV CD. Modifications caused cross-linking and adduct formation in the serum protein. The electron micrograph confirmed amorphous aggregation in modified IgG. The modifications increased the hydrodynamic radius of IgG by allowing the attachment of [Formula: see text] and MG residues. The glycoxidatively modified IgG induced the maximum antibody titres that showed high specificity towards the altered IgG. The glycoxidation of IgG leads to activation of inflammatory pathways.

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#28750668   2017/07/28 Save this To Up

From hybridomas to a robust microalgal-based production platform: molecular design of a diatom secreting monoclonal antibodies directed against the Marburg virus nucleoprotein.

The ideal protein expression system should provide recombinant proteins in high quality and quantity involving low production costs only. However, especially for complex therapeutic proteins like monoclonal antibodies many challenges remain to meet this goal and up to now production of monoclonal antibodies is very costly and delicate. Particularly, emerging disease outbreaks like Ebola virus in Western Africa in 2014-2016 make it necessary to reevaluate existing production platforms and develop robust and cheap alternatives that are easy to handle.

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Measles Virus Nucleoprote Measles Virus nucleoprote Viral antibodies, anti-R Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M Hepatitis C Virus antibod Cholera toxin antibody, M Clostridium botulinum D T Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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#28652573   2017/06/27 Save this To Up

Extraordinarily potent proinflammatory properties of lactoferrin-containing immunocomplexes against human monocytes and macrophages.

Lactoferrin (LTF), an important first line defense molecule against infection, is a common target for humoral autoimmune reactions in humans. Since LTF is a multifunctional protein capable of activating innate immune cells via various surface receptors, we hypothesized that LTF-containing immune complexes (ICs) (LTF-ICs), likely formed in patients with high titer anti-LTF autoantibodies, could possess unique monocyte/macrophage-activating properties compared with other ICs. ELISA analysis on serum samples from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 80) and healthy controls (n = 35) for anti-LTF autoantibodies confirmed a positive correlation between circulating LTF-specific IgG and RA. ICs between human LTF and LTF-specific IgG purified from patient sera or immunized rabbits and mice, but not control ICs, LTF or Abs alone, elicited strong production of TNF-α and IL-1β by freshly fractionated human peripheral blood monocytes and monocytes-derived macrophages. Furthermore, LTF-ICs utilized both membrane-anchored CD14 and CD32a (FcγRIIa) to trigger monocyte activation in an internalization-, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4- and TLR9-dependent manner, and also that LTF-IC-induced cytokine production was blocked by specific inhibitors of caspase-1, NF-κB and MAPK. These results uncover a possible pathway for LTF-ICs perpetuating local inflammation and contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by triggering activation of infiltrating monocytes or tissue macrophages in vivo.

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#28627716   2017/06/19 Save this To Up

A Cherry Seed-Derived Spice, Mahleb, is Recognized by Anti-Almond Antibodies Including Almond-Allergic Patient IgE.

There are a number of examples of immunologic cross-reactivity elicited by pollens, fruits, seeds, and nuts of closely related plant species. Such cross-reactivity is of particular concern for patients with food allergies. In this report, we investigated a spice (mahleb) that is prepared from the kernel of the St. Lucie cherry, Prunus mahaleb, for cross-reactivity with almond (Prunus dulcis), using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Almond and mahleb are members of the same genus. Cross-reactivity between the mahleb and almond was demonstrated by reaction of cherry and almond kernel protein extracts with antibodies raised against almond proteins. Almond-specific murine monoclonal IgG, rabbit polyclonal IgG, and almond-allergic serum IgE each exhibited cross-reactivity with cherry kernel protein. Because of the demonstrated cross-reactivity between almond and mahleb, these findings should be of special concern to almond-allergic patients and attending medical personnel.

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#28625525   2017/06/19 Save this To Up

Recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing Clostridium perfringens toxoids α, β2, ε and β1 gives protection against Clostridium perfringens in rabbits.

The present study used Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 as antigen delivery system to express C. perfringens toxoids α-β2-ε-β1 to construct the recombination Lactobacillus casei pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393. After being induced by 1% xylose, the specificity and integrity of recombinant strain were determined by Western-blotting. Rabbits as native animal model were immunized orally with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 and the titers of specific IgG and sIgA were determined by ELISA. The result showed that oral administration with the recombinants could elicit both local mucosal and systemic immune responses. The proliferation of spleen lymphocytes in rabbits immunized with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 was observed. Levels of IL-4 and IFN-γ produced were significantly higher in lymphocytes isolated from the vaccine group than those from the control groups. Flow cytometry assay showed that both the percentages of CD4+T cells and CD8+T cells from the vaccine group were significantly increased than the control groups. All these results showed that immunizing with recombinants can elicit both humoral immunity and cellular immunity. Besides, in order to determine the effectiveness of oral immunization with pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393, rabbits of vaccine group and control groups were challenged with 1×LD100 unit of culture filtrate of C. perfringens type C and type D toxins respectively. After challenge, 100% of the immunized rabbits survived, while the rabbits of the control group were killed within 48h. Observation on histopathology showed that histopathological changes were obviously found in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, intestine and brain of rabbits from the control groups, while no apparent histopathological change was observed in the vaccine group. All the results show that pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 can eliciteffective immunoprotection against C. perfringens. All of these suggest that the use of pPG-2-α-β2-ε-β1/L. casei 393 can be regarded as candidate for the development of a vaccine against C. perfringens.

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BACTERIOLOGY CLOSTRIDIUM CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE NAP Clostridium botulinum D T Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Integrin β1 (CD29) Antib Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant Influenza HA Recombinant HIV-1 pol Int Recombinant HIV-1 pol Int Recombinant HIV-1 pol Int

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#28429896   2017/04/21 Save this To Up

Production of a conjugate between the rK346 antigen from Leishmania infantum and the horseradish peroxidase C for the detection of rK346 antibodies.

It was designed and characterized a reporter system to be captured by an- tibodies bound to ELISA plates. The system was designed with the rK346 from Leishmania infantum, a highly antigenic and specific protein. The rK346 was coupled to the horseradish peroxidase C (HRPc) from Armoracia rusticana using glutaraldehyde or sulfo-SMCC. Gluta- raldehyde conjugation was performed in two steps. Separation of conjugates was carried out using a Sepharose S-200 in size exclusion chromatography (SEC); fractions were analyzed via HRPc activity and through ELISA plates sensitized with polyclonal anti-rK346 IgG puri- fied from rabbit serum. A heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346-HRPc was obtained with molecular weights ranging between 109.7 ± 16.5 to 67.6 ± 10.1 kDa; with rK346-HRPe stoichiometries of 1:2; 2:1; 3:1; and 2:2. Conjugation using sulfo-SMCC was carried out first by introducing -SH groups onto the HRPc using the SATA reagent and the antigen was modi- fied with sulfo-SMCC during 45 min. Separation and analysis of conjugates was performed similarly as with glutaraldehyde, resulting in a heterogeneous population of conjugates rK346- HRPc with molecular weights between 150.5 ± 22.6 to 80.0 ± 12.0 kDa; with rK346-HRPC stoichiometries of 2:1; 1:2; 2:2; and 1:3, with an increased conjugation efficiency in compari- son with glutaraldehyde. This enables sulfo-SMCC to be used as a potential reagent for cou- pling the antigen to the HRPc, to design an economic, specific and easy method to apply as a reporter system, available to assess individuals at risk and/or at early and late stages of visceral leishmaniasis.

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#28399040   2017/04/11 Save this To Up

A New Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for a Total Anti-T Lymphocyte Globulin Determination: Development, Analytical Validation, and Clinical Applications.

Anti-T lymphocyte globulin (ATLG) modulates the alloreactivity of T lymphocytes, reducing the risk of immunological posttransplant complications, in particular rejection and graft-versus-host disease, after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We developed and validated a new enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to measure serum levels of total ATLG and evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of the drug in children with β-Thalassemia, receiving allogeneic HSCT.

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