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           Search results for: Rabbit Anti-JIP1_MAPK8IP1 Polyclonal Antibody   

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Glycan microarray reveal induced IgGs repertoire shift against a dietary carbohydrate in response to rabbit anti-human thymocyte therapy.

Humans have circulating antibodies against diverse glycans containing N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) due to function-loss mutation of the CMAH gene. This xenogenic non-human carbohydrate is abundant in red meat, xenografts and biotherapeutics. Low levels of diet-derived Neu5Gc is also present on normal human endothelial cells, and together with anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate "xenosialitis" chronic-inflammation. Rabbit anti-human thymocyte globulin (ATG) is a drug containing polyclonal IgG glycoproteins commonly used as an immunosuppressant in human transplantation and autoimmune diseases. In type-1 diabetes patients, infusion of Neu5Gc-glycosylated ATG caused increased global anti-Neu5Gc response. Here, for the first time we explore changes in anti-Neu5Gc IgG repertoire following the immunization elicited by ATG, compared with the basal antibodies repertoire that reflect exposure to dietary-Neu5Gc. We used glycan microarrays with multiple Neu5Gc-glycans and controls to elucidate eventual differences in ATG-elicited repertoire, before/after ATG administration and track their kinetics (0, 1, 18 and 24 months). Response of all basal-pre-existing Neu5Gc-specific antibodies rapidly increased. This response peaked at one month post-ATG, with enhanced affinity, then resolved at 18-24 months. Induced-antibodies showed expanded diversity and de-novo recognition of different Neu5Gc-glycans, including endogenous glycolipids, that was further validated by affinity-purified anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from patients' sera. These findings strongly suggest that ATG-induced anti-Neu5Gc IgGs represent a secondary exposure to this dietary carbohydrate-antigen in humans, with immune memory. Given their modified recognition patterns, ATG-evoked anti-Neu5Gc antibodies could potentially mediate biological effects different from pre-existing antibodies.

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Generation and Characterization of Siglec-F-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies.

Siglec-F (SF) is a surface glycoprotein expressed by mouse eosinophils and induces caspase- and mitochondria-dependent apoptosis after engagement with its cognate ligand or specific antibodies. This targeting eosinophils by monoclonal antibodies may help diverse diseases associated with increased frequency of eosinophils including allergy and asthma. In this paper, production of murine and rat monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against Siglec-F has been addressed. Balb/c mice were immunized with siglec-F1 (SF1) and siglec-F2 (SF2) synthetic peptides conjugated to a carrier protein. Rats were immunized with Chinese hamster ovary CHO cells overexpressing Siglec-F (CHO-SF) or with Siglec-F-human immunoglobulin FC fusion protein (CHO-SF-Ig). Hybridomas were produced by standard protocol and screened for their reactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blotting (WB), and flow cytometry. In parallel, polyclonal antibodies were generated in New Zealand White rabbits immunized with SF1 and SF2 peptides. Three mouse and three rat mAbs were generated against synthetic peptides and SF-Ig, respectively. All mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies reacted well with immunizing molecules in ELISA and detected specific band of Siglec-F in WB. However, they failed to detect native molecule in flow cytometry analysis. Quite the contrary, rat mAbs did not reacted with the denatured protein in WB, instead exhibited significant reactivity with CHO-SF cells in flow cytometry. Based on the heavily glycosylated nature of Siglec-F, it seems that generation of anti-SF antibodies able to detect native protein needs a properly folded molecule for immunization. Monoclonal antibodies reported here are invaluable tools for studying linear and conformation epitopes of SF and tracing mouse eosinophils.

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Production and purification of polyclonal antibody against F(ab')2 fragment of human immunoglobulin G.

Antibodies are essential tools of biomedical and biochemical researches. Polyclonal antibodies are produced against different epitopes of antigens. Purified F(ab')2 can be used for animal's immunization to produce polyclonal antibodies. Human immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified by ion exchange chromatography method. In all stages verification method of the purified antibodies was sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Purified IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme and F(ab')2 fragment was purified by gel filtration separation method. For production of polyclonal antibody, rabbit was immunized by purified F(ab')2 and antibody production was investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Purified anti-IgG F(ab')2 was conjugated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Ion exchange chromatography purification yielded 38 mg of human IgG antibody. The results of SDS-PAGE in reduced and non-reduced conditions showed bands with 25-30 kDa molecular weight (MW) and 50-kDa respectively and a distinct band with 150 kDa MW. The results of non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment showed one band in 90 kDa and a band in 150 kDa MW position. Purification by Ion exchange chromatography method resulted about 12 mg rabbit polyclonal antibody. Flow cytometry showed generated polyclonal antibody had an acceptable activity compared to commercial antibody. Taking together, purified IgG F(ab')2 and polyclonal anti-IgG F(ab')2 are useful tools in biomedical and biochemical researches and diagnostic kits.

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Expression of Elafin in Dermatitis Herpetiformis.

Elafin is a serine protease inhibitor that has various epithelial cell regulatory and immunomodulatory effects including inactivation of neutrophil elastases. This later role originated the interest of elafin in certain neutrophil-rich dermatoses. Interestingly, it has been speculated that elafin has a protective role by slowing the deamidation process of gliadin in celiac disease (CD), despite the typical absence of neutrophils in intestinal histologic samplings. Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic recurrent vesicular dermatitis associated with gluten hypersensitivity and also characterized by a neutrophilic infiltrate and granular immunoglobulin A deposits in papillary dermis.

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Efficient immunodiagnosis of Citrus yellow mosaic virus using polyclonal antibodies with an expressed recombinant virion-associated protein.

Citrus yellow mosaic virus (CYMV) is a member of genus Badnavirus of the family Caulimoviridae. It is the causal agent of citrus yellow mosaic disease in citrus and causes reduction in yield. As the virus is vegetative propagated by grafting, development of high-throughput diagnosis methods based on serological techniques is a prerequisite for production of healthy virus-free planting material. The current study describes the development of polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against purified recombinant virion-associated protein (rVAP) encoded by ORF-II of CYMV. The specificity of developed antiserum was evaluated in immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM), antigen-coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA) and immunocapture PCR (IC-PCR). The antiserum specifically reacted up to a dilution of 1:2000 in ACP-ELISA for detection of CYMV-infected plants. The antiserum was validated by screening CYMV-infected plants maintained in the glass house through ACP-ELISA. To the best for our knowledge, this is the first report on production of polyclonal antiserum using recombinant virion-associated protein as fusion protein, which could be used for screening CYMV-infected plants by ELISA and IC-PCR. These immunodiagnostic methods can be effectively employed in routine indexing of citrus and in quarantine process.

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Antigenic and pathogenicity activities of Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 molecularly identified and detected by indirect ELISA using polyclonal antibodies generated in rabbits.

Eight molecular-characterized isolates of Ralstonia solanacearum from potato belonging to race 3 biovar 2, their virulence were evaluated on potato cv. Lady Rosette, tomato cv. Strain B, eggplant cv. Balady and pepper cv. Balady and showed high virulence on potato and tomato, and lower virulence on eggplant and pepper. A laboratory study conducted to produce polyclonal antibodies against the potato brown rot bacterium; R. solanacearum cells were generated in female New Zealand white rabbits. A modification were made on the technique of indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to improve the sensitivity of detection, including antigenic and sensitivity to R. solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 isolates. Determination of the optimum period to collect the antiserum (including, polyclonal antibodies) showed that the best collection dates were at 14, 3 and 7 days, in that order. The efficiency of the antiserum was compared among 42 isolates that cause potato brown rot disease; our polyclonal antiserum (14 days) reacted positively with all tested isolates at a dilution of 1:6.4 × 103. Data indicated the different reactions of eight R. solanacearum isolates at various dilutions (1:1.6 × 103 to 1:5.12 × 106) at 14 days against polyclonal antiserumat a concentration of approximately 1 × 108 CFU/mL and we found the lowest detection level by the indirect ELISA technique was 106 CFU/mL. Finally we recommended the reasonable sensitivity results of the ELISA technique to detect the bacterial pathogen given than the cost of this technique if much lower than that of other expensive molecular techniques.

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Electron spin resonance spectroscopy for immunoassay using iron oxide nanoparticles as probe.

With the help of iron oxide nanoparticles, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was applied to immunoassay. Iron oxide nanoparticles were used as the ESR probe in order to achieve an amplification of the signal resulting from the large amount of Fe3+ ion enclosed in each nanoparticle. Rabbit IgG was used as antigen to test this method. Polyclonal antibody of rabbit IgG was used as antibody to detect the antigen. Iron oxide nanoparticle with a diameter of either 10 or 30 nm was labeled to the antibody, and Fe3+ in the nanoparticle was probed for ESR signal. The sepharose beads were used as solid phase to which rabbit IgG was conjugated. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody was first added in the sample containing antigen, and the antigen-conjugated sepharose beads were then added into the sample. The nanoparticle-labeled antibody bound to the antigen on sepharose beads was separated from the sample by centrifugation and measured. We found that the detection ranges of the antigen obtained with nanoparticles of different sizes were different because the amount of antibody on nanoparticles of 10 nm was about one order of magnitude higher than that on nanoparticles of 30 nm. When 10 nm nanoparticle was used as probe, the upper limit of detection was 40.00 μg mL-1, and the analytical sensitivity was 1.81 μg mL-1. When 30 nm nanoparticle was used, the upper limit of detection was 3.00 μg mL-1, and the sensitivity was 0.014 and 0.13 μg mL-1 depending on the ratio of nanoparticle to antibody. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of procedure and ESR spectra.

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A toolbox of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary nanobodies.

Polyclonal anti-immunoglobulin G (anti-IgG) secondary antibodies are essential tools for many molecular biology techniques and diagnostic tests. Their animal-based production is, however, a major ethical problem. Here, we introduce a sustainable alternative, namely nanobodies against all mouse IgG subclasses and rabbit IgG. They can be produced at large scale in Escherichia coli and could thus make secondary antibody production in animals obsolete. Their recombinant nature allows fusion with affinity tags or reporter enzymes as well as efficient maleimide chemistry for fluorophore coupling. We demonstrate their superior performance in Western blotting, in both peroxidase- and fluorophore-linked form. Their site-specific labeling with multiple fluorophores creates bright imaging reagents for confocal and superresolution microscopy with much smaller label displacement than traditional secondary antibodies. They also enable simpler and faster immunostaining protocols, and allow multitarget localization with primary IgGs from the same species and of the same class.

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Purification and Characterization of Vitellin from the Egg of the Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis and Cross-Reactivity of Anti-vitellin Antibody with Other Marine Invertebrate Egg Proteins.

A polyclonal antibody specific to an egg protein of Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis was previously developed in our laboratory to assess the reproductive life cycle of the oyster. The present study was undertaken to investigate vitellin of C. ariakensis (CAVt). Vitellin is an essential component of egg proteins in marine invertebrates as it provides energy and nutrients to the embryo and larvae. CAVt was purified from eggs of the oyster using ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by affinity chromatography with Concanavalin A-agarose. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE showed that CAVt is a high molecular weight [532 kiloDaltons (kDa)] protein, with multiple subunits. Similar to other vitellin proteins, it is a phospholipoglycoprotein composed of phospholipids (12.06%), carbohydrates (mannose, 10.08% or glucose, 9.84%), and alkali-labile phosphates (4.16%). Affinity chromatography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent aasay (ELISA) and western blot analysis revealed that CAVt is only present in the ovary, and two subunits of CAVt (72 and 35 kDa) are believed to be incorporated from the hemolymph into the oocyte. The antibody specific to CAVt (anti-CAVt), raised in rabbit, strongly cross reacted with the egg proteins of oyster species and scallops, suggesting that the antigenic epitopes are highly conserved among species. Our results suggest that the anti-CAVt antibody can be used to develop a tool similar to ELISA or western blotting for investigation of the effect of microorganisms on reproduction as well as the effect of chemicals on the endocrine system in C. ariakensis.

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Substance P in Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons in Young and Adult Rats, after Nociceptive Stimulation during the Neonatal Period.

The nervous system is highly plastic during the neonatal period, being sensitive to noxious stimuli, which may cause short- and long-term pain responsivity changes. Understanding plasticity in peripheral pain pathways is crucial, particularly when the nervous system is still under development and remodeling process. Substance P (SP) is widely used as a marker for peripheral neurons with unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers. We investigated the number of SP immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of male and female Wistar rats, 15 and 180 days after nociceptive stimulation during the neonatal period. Right and left 5th lumbar (L5) DRG were incubated in rabbit polyclonal anti-substance P primary followed by biotinylated donkey anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. Reaction was revealed with a nickel-diaminobenzidine solution. Labeled neurons were counted and compared between ages, genders and groups. Gender differences were present in both ages, with the number of SP-positive DRG neurons being larger in 15-days-old males on both sides. After 180 days, males showed a larger number of SP-positive neurons than females only on the nociceptive stimulated side. An increased number of SP-positive neurons in the DRG on the stimulated side was present in females, immediately after nociceptive stimulation, but not after 180 days. In conclusion, neonatal noxious stimulation caused a permanent increase in SP-positive DRG neurons in males that was not observed in females, suggesting that differences in pain processing/responsivity between genders could be related to morphological alterations of the nervous system. Anat Rec, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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