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[Klf10 silencing inhibited mechanical force induced osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells].

To investigate the effect of Klf10 silence on human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) under mechanical force.

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Stathmin inhibits proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells via sonic hedgehog/Gli.

The mineralization of dental pulp stem cells is an important factor in the tissue engineering of teeth, but the mechanism is not yet obvious. This study aimed to identify the effect of Stathmin on the proliferation and osteogenic/odontoblastic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and to explore whether the Shh signalling pathway was involved in this regulation. First, Stathmin was expressed in the cytoplasm and on the cell membranes of hDPSCs by cell immunofluorescence. Then, by constructing a lentiviral vector, the expression of Stathmin in hDPSCs was inhibited. Treatment with Stathmin shRNA (shRNA-Stathmin group) inhibited the ability of hDPSCs to proliferate, as demonstrated by a CCK8 assay and flow cytometry analysis, and suppressed the osteogenic/odontoblastic differentiation ability, as demonstrated by alizarin red S staining and osteogenic/odontoblastic differentiation-related gene (ALP, BSP, OCN, DSPP) activity, compared to that of hDPSCs from the control shRNA group. Molecular analyses showed that the Shh/GLI1 signalling pathway was inhibited when Stathmin was silenced, and purmorphamine, the Shh signalling pathway activator, was added to hDPSCs in the shRNA-Stathmin group, real-time PCR and Western blotting confirmed that expression of Shh and its downstream signalling molecules PTCH1, SMO and GLI1 increased significantly. After activating the Shh signalling pathway, the proliferation of hDPSCs increased markedly, as demonstrated by a CCK8 assay and flow cytometry analysis; osteogenic/odontoblastic differentiation-related gene (ALP, BSP, OCN, DSPP) expression also increased significantly. Collectively, these findings firstly revealed that Stathmin-Shh/GLI1 signalling pathway plays a positive role in hDPSC proliferation and osteogenic/odontoblastic differentiation.

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The Role of Hedgehog Signalling in the Formation of the Ventricular Septum.

An incomplete septation of the ventricles in the vertebrate heart that disturbes the strict separation between the contents of the two ventricles is termed a ventricular septal defect (VSD). Together with bicuspid aortic valves, it is the most frequent congenital heart disease in humans. Until now, life-threatening VSDs are usually treated surgically. To avoid surgery and to develop an alternative therapy (e.g., a small molecule therapy), it is necessary to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying ventricular septum (VS) development. Consequently, various studies focus on the investigation of signalling pathways, which play essential roles in the formation of the VS. In the past decade, several reports found evidence for an involvement of Hedgehog (HH) signalling in VS development. In this review article, we will summarise the current knowledge about the association between HH signalling and VS formation and discuss the use of such knowledge to design treatment strategies against the development of VSDs.

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The role of Hedgehog signaling in cementoblast differentiation.

It has been well known that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays an important role in bone development, however, its function in cementogenesis has not yet been reported. This study was intended to elucidate the role of Hh signaling in cementoblast differentiation.

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Gli family zinc finger 1 is associated with endothelin receptor type B in Hirschsprung disease.

Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a newborn colorectal disease characterized by an absence of ganglia in the distal gut. Hedgehog (Hh) and endothelin signaling serve important roles in gastrointestinal tract formation. Alterations in the signaling pathways disrupt the development of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs). It is not known whether there is any coordination between these pathways in the pathogenesis of HSCR. In the present study, tissue samples from 35 patients with HSCR, including stenotic aganglionosis gut and normal ganglionic gut, were obtained. The expression of Gli family zinc finger 1 (Gli1) and endothelin receptor type B (EDNRB) was determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. In addition, the SK‑N‑SH cell line was used to investigate the association between Hh signaling and the expression of EDNRB. The results revealed aberrant expression of Gli1 in the aganglionic segments, as well as decreased expression of Gli1 in tissues from 7 patients with HSCR exhibited, whereas tissues from 9 patients with HSCR exhibited increased Gli1 expression compared with the expression in the normal tissues. There was a negative association between EDNRB expression and Gli1 expression in the same sample. Knockdown of Gli1 by small interfering RNA and inhibition of Hh signaling by Vismodegib in SK‑N‑SH cells increased EDNRB expression. By contrast, upregulation of Gli1 expression by plasmids and activation of Hh signaling by Purmorphamine decreased EDNRB expression. Furthermore, premature enteric ganglia were observed in 4 patients with HSCR with decreased Gli1 expression. Thus, the results of the present study suggest that altered Gli1 expression negatively regulates EDNRB expression in patients with HSCR. The increased expression of EDNRB induced by decreased Gli1 expression may represent a novel mechanism in HSCR.

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Generation of iPSC-derived limb progenitor-like cells for stimulating phalange regeneration in the adult mouse.

The capacity of digit tip regeneration observed both in rodents and humans establishes a foundation for promoting robust regeneration in mammals. However, stimulating regeneration at more proximal levels, such as the middle phalanges (P2) of the adult mouse, remains challenging. Having shown the effectiveness of transplantation of limb progenitor cells in stimulating limb regeneration in , we are now applying the cell transplantation approach to the adult mouse. Here we report that both embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived limb progenitor-like cells can promote adult mouse P2 regeneration. We have established a simple and efficient protocol for deriving limb progenitor-like cells from mouse iPSCs. iPSCs are cultured as three-dimensional fibrin bodies, followed by treatment with combinations of Fgf8, CHIR99021, Purmorphamine and SB43542 during differentiation. These iPSC-derived limb progenitor-like cells resemble embryonic limb mesenchyme cells in their expression of limb-related genes. After transplantation, the limb progenitor-like cells can promote adult mouse P2 regeneration, as embryonic limb bud cells do. Our results provide a basis for further developing progenitor cell-based approaches for improving regeneration in the adult mouse limbs.

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WDR11-mediated Hedgehog signalling defects underlie a new ciliopathy related to Kallmann syndrome.

WDR11 has been implicated in congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) and Kallmann syndrome (KS), human developmental genetic disorders defined by delayed puberty and infertility. However, WDR11's role in development is poorly understood. Here, we report that WDR11 modulates the Hedgehog (Hh) signalling pathway and is essential for ciliogenesis. Disruption of WDR11 expression in mouse and zebrafish results in phenotypic characteristics associated with defective Hh signalling, accompanied by dysgenesis of ciliated tissues. -null mice also exhibit early-onset obesity. We find that WDR11 shuttles from the cilium to the nucleus in response to Hh signalling. WDR11 regulates the proteolytic processing of GLI3 and cooperates with the transcription factor EMX1 in the induction of downstream Hh pathway gene expression and gonadotrophin-releasing hormone production. The CHH/KS-associated human mutations result in loss of function of WDR11. Treatment with the Hh agonist purmorphamine partially rescues the WDR11 haploinsufficiency phenotypes. Our study reveals a novel class of ciliopathy caused by WDR11 mutations and suggests that CHH/KS may be a part of the human ciliopathy spectrum.

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Wip1 regulates blood-brain barrier function and neuro-inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide via the sonic hedgehog signaling signaling pathway.

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is a diffusion barrier that maintains the brain environment. Wip1 is a nuclear phosphatase induced by many factors and involved in various stresses, tumorigenesis, organismal aging, and neurogenesis. Wip1's role in BBB integrity has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of Wip1 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BBB dysfunction and inflammation in an in vitro BBB model. The in vitro BBB model was established by co-culturing human brain-microvascular endothelial cells and human astrocytes and then exposing them to 1μg/ml LPS for 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48h. Wip1 expression was significantly elevated by LPS treatment. Knockdown of Wip1 aggravated the increased permeability and decreased transepithelial electrical resistance, protein expression of ZO-1, and occludin induced by LPS. Wip1 silencing augmented the elevated inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-12, and IL-6 of the BBB induced by LPS, whereas overexpression of Wip1 showed a contrary effect. Sonic hedgehog signaling (SHH) was activated by Wip1 overexpression and inhibited by Wip1 silencing. Additionally, activating or inhibiting the SHH pathway by purmorphamine or cyclopamine, respectively, abolished the Wip1-induced changes in transepithelial electrical resistance and permeability and inflammatory responses in the LPS-injured BBB model. Our results demonstrate that Wip1 may protect the BBB against LPS-induced integrity disruption and inflammatory response through the SHH signaling pathway.

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Preconditioning potential of purmorphamine: a hedgehog activator against ischaemic reperfusion injury in ovariectomised rat heart.

The present study was been designed to investigate the role and pharmacological potential of hedgehog in oestrogen-deficient rat heart.

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[Mechanism of Ezhu-containing serum in inhibiting expression of Shh and Gli1 in hepatic stellate cells].

To explore the mechanism of Ezhu-containing serum in inhibiting the expression of sonic hedgehog(Shh) and glioma-associated oncogene homolog-1(Gli1) in hepatic stellate cells(HSCs) induced by leptin. Twenty sprague-dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=10), and given Ezhu-decoction and physiological saline by gavage for 10 days to prepare drug-containing serums. The HSCs during the exponential growth phase were divided into 7 groups: blank control group, model group, hedgehog pathway inhibitor(cyclopamine) group, Ezhu group, Ezhu and cyclopamine group, hedgehog pathway agonost(pumorphamine) group, Ezhu and purmorphamine group. HSCs were cultured in vitro and induced with 100 μg•L ⁻¹ leptin(except for the blank control group), then treated separately with the corresponding drugs for 24 hours. After the cells were collected, HSCs proliferation was detected using MTT colorimetric assay; the expressions of Shh and Gli1 were determined by PT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence, respectively. The expressions of Shh and Gli1 were significantly increased after the HSCs of rats were induced by leptin (compared with the blank control group, P<0.01). After being interfered with Hh pathway inhibitor (cyclopamine) and Ezhu-containing serum, the expressions of Shh and Gli1 were decreased significantly(compared with the model group, P<0.01). After Ezhu-containing serum was used to interfere the Hh pathway inhibitor group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Shh and Gli1 were decreased significantly(compared with the model group, P<0.01). After Ezhu-containing serum was used to interfere the purmorphamine group, the mRNA and protein expressions of Shh and Gli1 decreased significantly(compared with the purmorphamine group, P<0.01). Ezhu-containing serum plays an important role in inhibiting HSCs activation by taking part in hedgehog signaling pathway, so as to regulate the expression of Shh and Gli1 in leptin-induced HSCs and then inhibit liver fibrosis.

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