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#27470908   2016/09/06 Save this To Up

Influence of carboxylation on osteocalcin detection by mass spectrometry.

Osteocalcin is a small, abundant bone protein that is difficult to detect using high-throughput tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) proteomic approaches from bone protein extracts, and is predominantly detected by non-MS immunological methods. Here, we analyze bovine osteocalcin and its post-translational modifications to determine why a protein of this size goes undetected.

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#24076023   2013/11/04 Save this To Up

Novel sandwich ELISAs for rat DMP1: age-related decrease of circulatory DMP1 levels in male rats.

Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1), a noncollagenous bone matrix protein produced by osteocytes, regulates matrix mineralization and phosphate homeostasis. The lack of a precise assay for circulating DMP1 levels impairs further investigation of the protein's biological significance. Because full-length precursor DMP1 is cleaved into NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments during the secretory process, we developed two new sandwich ELISAs for the NH2- and COOH-terminal fragments of rat DMP1. One of these ELISAs, ELISA 1-2, is based on two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the DMP1-1 and DMP1-2 peptides of the NH2-terminal fragment, whereas the other, ELISA 4-3, is based on two affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies against the DMP1-3 and DMP1-4 peptides of the COOH-terminal fragment. The polyclonal antibodies were characterized in immunohistochemical and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) studies. Immunohistochemical analyses of rat bone using these polyclonal antibodies revealed DMP1 immunoreactivity in osteocytes and pericanalicular matrix, consistent with the previously reported osteocyte-specific expression of DMP1. LC-MS/MS analyses of rat plasma-derived immunoreactive products affinity-extracted with these antibodies revealed the presence of DMP1 in circulating blood. The ELISAs established with these antibodies met accepted standards for reproducibility, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. Circulating DMP1 and levels of other biochemical markers (osteocalcin, Trap5b, Dkk-1, and SOST) were measured in 2-, 4-, 8-, 12-, 18-, 24-, 72-, and 96-week-old Wistar male rats. Circulating DMP1 levels determined by ELISAs 1-2 and 4-3 significantly decreased with age. During rapid skeletal growth (2-12weeks), DMP1 levels measured by ELISA 4-3 were over three times higher than those measured by ELISA 1-2; however, DMP1 levels in old animals (72 and 96weeks) were almost the same when measured by either ELISA. DMP1 levels determined by both ELISAs were most highly positively correlated with the level of Dkk-1, second most highly correlated with the level of osteocalcin, and less highly correlated with the levels of Trap5b and SOST. These novel sandwich ELISAs for rat DMP1 are highly specific and allow precise measurements of circulating DMP1, which may be a new biochemical marker for osteocyte-mediated bone turnover.

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#23879621   2014/01/01 Save this To Up

Comparison of uncultured marrow mononuclear cells and culture-expanded mesenchymal stem cells in 3D collagen-chitosan microbeads for orthopedic tissue engineering.

Stem cell-based therapies have shown promise in enhancing repair of bone and cartilage. Marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are typically expanded in vitro to increase cell number, but this process is lengthy, costly, and there is a risk of contamination and altered cellular properties. Potential advantages of using fresh uncultured bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) include heterotypic cell and paracrine interactions between MSC and other marrow-derived cells including hematopoietic, endothelial, and other progenitor cells. In the present study, we compared the osteogenic and chondrogenic potential of freshly isolated BMMC to that of cultured-expanded MSC, when encapsulated in three-dimensional (3D) collagen-chitosan microbeads. The effect of low and high oxygen tension on cell function and differentiation into orthopedic lineages was also examined. Freshly isolated rat BMMC (25 × 10(6) cells/mL, containing an estimated 5 × 10(4) MSC/mL) or purified and culture-expanded rat bone marrow-derived MSC (2 × 10(5) cells/mL) were added to a 65-35 wt% collagen-chitosan hydrogel mixture and fabricated into 3D microbeads by emulsification and thermal gelation. Microbeads were cultured in control MSC growth media in either 20% O2 (normoxia) or 5% O2 (hypoxia) for an initial 3 days, and then in control, osteogenic, or chondrogenic media for an additional 21 days. Microbead preparations were evaluated for viability, total DNA content, calcium deposition, and osteocalcin and sulfated glycosaminoglycan expression, and they were examined histologically. Hypoxia enhanced initial progenitor cell survival in fresh BMMC-microbeads, but it did not enhance osteogenic potential. Fresh uncultured BMMC-microbeads showed a similar degree of osteogenesis as culture-expanded MSC-microbeads, even though they initially contained only 1/10th the number of MSC. Chondrogenic differentiation was not strongly supported in any of the microbead formulations. This study demonstrates the microbead-based approach to culturing and delivering cells for tissue regeneration, and suggests that fresh BMMC may be an alternative to using culture-expanded MSC for bone tissue engineering.

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#21504815   2011/04/20 Save this To Up

Determination of osteocalcin in meat and bone meal of bovine and porcine origin using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry.

A method has been developed for determining the origin of meat and bone meal (MBM) by detecting species-specific osteocalcin (OC) using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization/time-of-flight (MALDI/TOF) and high-resolution hybrid mass spectrometry (HR-Q/TOF MS). The analysis is based on the detection of typical species-specific OC and its tryptic peptide fragments which differ in mass due to differences in the amino-acid sequences between species. After dissolving the MBM samples in EDTA buffer, purification after ultrafiltration was performed using two methods: solid-phase extraction using Zip-Tip C(18) or size exclusion coupled with reverse-phase chromatography. Fractions containing partially purified intact OC were analyzed using LC-Q/TOF and MALDI/TOF mass spectrometry. Species-specific OC was detected at the typical protonated and doubly protonated molecular ions. Furthermore, typical porcine- and bovine-derived tryptic fragments from MBM were detected after enzymatic digestion. In order to determine the underlying amino-acid sequences and to confirm the assignment to OC-derived peptides, MS/MS analysis was carried out. In conclusion, we were able to detect OC in bovine and porcine MBM with high sensitivity and the MS-based method described here by which total OC mass and marker peptides of digested OC are recorded can be used as an alternative approach to detect genus-specific differences in MBM and can be applied as a confirmatory method to mainly immunological osteocalcin screening methods.

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#20878983   2010/11/08 Save this To Up

The expression of bone matrix proteins induced by different bioimplants in a rabbit sinus lift model.

This study aimed to analyze the expression of bone matrix proteins and CD31 by immunohistochemistry after maxillary sinus grafting with different bioimplants in a rabbit model. Rabbit demineralized bone matrix (DBM), partially purified bovine bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), a mixture of BMP with DBM (BMP/DBM), or particulated autogenous bone was grafted into the maxillary sinuses of 42 rabbits. Animals were sacrificed at 2 and 8 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the expression of type 1 collagen (COL1), osteonectin (ON), osteocalcin (OC), bone sialoprotein (BSP), osteopontin (OPN), and CD31. Sinuses grafted with BMP were filled with trabeculae of woven bone that was strongly immunoreactive for COL1, OC, ON, and BSP. BMP/DBM showed strongly positive immunoreactivity for these proteins within the newly formed bone, but weak immunoreactivity in the DBM particles. Immunoreactivity for COL1, OC, ON, and BSP in DBM sinuses was only seen in the osteoblasts rimming the grafted bone particles. The staining of autogenous bone graft sinuses was similar to those grafted with DBM. OPN staining was detected in autogenous bone graft, BMP/DBM, and BMP bioimplants. CD31 staining was strongest in BMP and BMP/noncollagenous matrix proteins sinuses. These results suggest that exogenous BMP enhances not only osteogenesis but also angiogenesis, an important part of bone repair.

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#18069481   2007/12/11 Save this To Up

[Characteristics of osteoblastic differentiation in mesenchymal stem cells from porcine bone marrow in vitro].

To observe the characteristics and related gene expression of osteoblastic differentiation in porcine bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during.

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#15754805   2005/03/09 Save this To Up

Extraction, purification, and development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for osteocalcin.

The present study describes the isolation and purification of osteocalcin (OC) from bovine bones and the development of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for OC as a marker of bone formation, for assessing bone health. Bone proteins were extracted from about 90 g of bovine bone powder using 20% formic acid. The protein extract was fractionated by gel permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50 column followed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) on a MONO-Q column. The immunoreactive active fraction was then purified by chromatofocusing, using FPLC on a MONO P column and a single homogeneous band of molecular size of about 5.8kDa, as judged by Tricine SDS-PAGE following silver staining of the gel, was obtained. It reacted specifically with its antibodies in an ELISA. About 678 microg of purified OC was yielded from about 90 g of bovine bones. The purified OC was subsequently used for the raising antisera, which was used in the development of an indirect ELISA. The developed ELISA has a sensitivity of 2.5-4.0 ng/mL and was used in estimating levels of OC in women of various age groups.

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#15667217   2005/01/25 Save this To Up

Structural evidence of a fourth Gla residue in fish osteocalcin: biological implications.

Osteocalcin is a small (45 amino acids) secreted protein found to accumulate in bone and dentin of many organisms by interacting with calcium and hydroxyapatite, through the presence of three gamma-carboxylated residues. In this work, we describe the first X-ray crystal structure for a nonmammalian osteocalcin, obtained at 1.4 A resolution, purified from the marine teleost fish Argyrosomus regius. The three-dimensional fit between the A. regius structure and that of the only other known X-ray structure, the porcine osteocalcin, revealed a superposition of the Calpha atoms of their metal chelating residues, Gla and Asp, showing that their spatial distribution is consistent with the interatomic distances of calcium cations in the hydroxyapatite crystals. In both structures, the protein forms a tight globular arrangement of their three alpha-helices while the remaining residues, at N- and C-terminal regions, have essentially no secondary structure characteristics. This study revealed the presence of a fourth gamma-carboxylation at Glu(25), not previously detected in the structure of the porcine osteocalcin or in any other of the sequentially characterized mammalian osteocalcins (human, cow, and rat). A confirmation of the fourth Gla residue in A. regius osteocalcin was achieved via LC-MS analysis. These four doubly charged residues are, together with Asp(24), concentrated in a common surface region located on the same side of the molecule. This further suggests that the known high affinity of osteocalcin for bone mineral may be derived from the clustering of calcium binding sites on this surface of the molecules.

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#15316862   2004/08/18 Save this To Up

Osteocalcin fragment in bone matrix enhances osteoclast maturation at a late stage of osteoclast differentiation.

Although 14-day-old mouse embryonic calvarial cells cultured in plastic culture dishes in the presence of 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3[1alpha,25-(OH)2D3] for 7 days could barely resorb bone slices, the same calvarial cells cultured with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extract from bovine bone powder under the same conditions stimulated pit formation on bone slices in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, the present study was conducted to purify and characterize this osteoclast maturation-inducing factor(s) from the bone matrix. The protein having osteoclast maturation-inducing activity in the EDTA extract was purified by gel filtration over Superdex 75 preparation grade and chromatography on hydroxyapatite, Mono Q, and C8 reversed-phase HPLC by monitoring the ability of the eluted fractions to elicit pit formation on bone slices. The molecular weight of the purified protein estimated by high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was 5.7 kDa and 6.8 kDa in the respective absence and presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. The sequence of the 30-amino-acid purified protein corresponded to the 7th to 36th residues of bovine osteocalcin. The osteocalcin fragment, missing the initial 6 residues at the N-terminal region, exhibited higher osteoclast maturation-inducing ability than bovine intact osteocalcin on a per weight basis. The osteocalcin fragment had no effect on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) genes in calvarial cells, nor did it enhance the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. When the osteocalcin fragment was added to late-stage (days 4-7) or to early-stage (days 0-3) cultures of calvarial cells pretreated with 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3, its stimulatory effect was observed in the late-stage cultures rather than in the early-stage ones. In addition, the osteocalcin fragment directly enhanced the formation of osteoclasts with bone-resorbing ability from Mac-1+ c-Fms+ cells in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF) and RANKL. These results suggest that the osteocalcin fragment in bone matrix is involved in osteoclast maturation, especially at a late stage of osteoclast differentiation.

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#14527365   2003/10/06 Save this To Up

Effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro.

To observe the effects of dexamethasone on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of adult human osteoblasts in vitro.

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