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#28861175   2017/09/01 Save this To Up

The STAT3 inhibitor pimozide impedes cell proliferation and induces ROS generation in human osteosarcoma by suppressing catalase expression.

Currently, there is a considerable need to develop new treatments for osteosarcoma (OS), a very aggressive bone cancer. The activation of STAT3 signaling is positively associated with poor prognosis and aggressive progression in OS patients. Our previous study reported that the FDA-approved antipsychotic drug pimozide had anti-tumor activity against hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer cells by suppressing STAT3 activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect of pimozide on OS cells and the underlying molecular mechanism. Pimozide inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, and sphere formation capacities of the OS cells in a dose-dependent manner, inducing G0/G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Pimozide reduced the percentage of side population cells representing cancer stem-like cells and enhanced the sensitivity of OS cells to 5-FU induced proliferative inhibition. In addition, pimozide induced apoptosis of U2OS cells, which showed increased expression of cleaved-PARP, a marker of programmed cell death. Moreover, pimozide suppressed Erk signaling in OS cells. Importantly, pimozide induced ROS generation by downregulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase (CAT). NAC treatment partially reversed the ROS generation and cytotoxic effects induced by pimozide. CAT treatment attenuated the pimozide-induced proliferation inhibition. The decrease of CAT expression induced by pimozide was potentially mediated through the suppression of cellular STAT3 activity in OS cells. Thus, pimozide may be a novel STAT3 inhibitor that suppresses cellular STAT3 activity to inhibit OS cells or stem-like cells and is a novel potential anti-cancer agent in OS treatment.

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#28807495   2017/08/15 Save this To Up

The colorful spectrum of Tourette syndrome and its medical, surgical and behavioral therapies.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder, more common in males than females, with onset before age 18. TS is characterized by multiple motor tics and one or more vocal/phonic tics, persisting for more than a year. Tics are unvoluntary, abrupt, rapid, repetitive, but non-rhythmic movements or sounds (vocalizations). They are preceded by an inner urge. Tics can be temporarily suppressed, but this leads to a powerful re-emergence. The performance of tics results in immediate but transient relief. Motor and vocal tics are classified as simple or complex. Tics emerge many times during the day and display spontaneous fluctuations in frequency, type, severity and complexity. Tics improve during concentration, worsen during relaxation or when under stress and occasionally are persistent in sleep. Psychiatric comorbidities such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and others frequently are present. Patients, families and teachers benefit from receiving instruction regarding the character of TS and its specific symptoms and from receiving counseling. Pharmacological treatment is not always necessary. Atypical antipsychotics (e.g. risperidone, ziprasidone, olanzapine, aripiprazole) are often the first-line treatment; typical antipsychotics (e.g. haloperidol, pimozide, fluphenazine), benzodiazepines (clonazepam) and tetrabenazine are employed less frequently. Alpha adrenergic agonists (clonidine, guanfacine), the selective noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitor, atomoxetine, and the amphetamine-like stimulant, methylphenidate, are useful in patients with tics and ADHD; selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors can be useful in individuals with tics and OCD. Botulinum toxin can be effective in focal tics. In severe, treatment-resistant TS, deep brain stimulation may be beneficial.

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#28744013   2017/07/26 Save this To Up

The T-cell leukemia associated ribosomal RPL10 R98S mutation enhances JAK-STAT signaling.

Several somatic ribosome defects have recently been discovered in cancer, yet their oncogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the pathogenic role of the recurrent R98S mutation in ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10-R98S) found in T-ALL. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway is a critical controller of cellular proliferation and survival. A proteome screen revealed overexpression of several Jak-Stat signaling proteins in engineered RPL10-R98S mouse lymphoid cells, which we confirmed in hematopoietic cells from transgenic Rpl10-R98S mice and T-ALL xenograft samples. RPL10-R98S expressing cells displayed JAK-STAT pathway hyper-activation upon cytokine stimulation, as well as increased sensitivity to clinically used JAK-STAT inhibitors like pimozide. A mutually exclusive mutation pattern between RPL10-R98S and JAK-STAT mutations in T-ALL patients further suggests that RPL10-R98S functionally mimics JAK-STAT activation. Mechanistically, besides transcriptional changes, RPL10-R98S caused reduction of apparent programmed ribosomal frameshifting at several ribosomal frameshift signals in mouse and human Jak-Stat genes, as well as decreased Jak1 degradation. Of further medical interest, RPL10-R98S cells showed reduced proteasome activity and enhanced sensitivity to clinical proteasome inhibitors. Collectively, we describe modulation of the JAK-STAT cascade as a novel cancer-promoting activity of a ribosomal mutation, and expand the relevance of this cascade in leukemia.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 24 July 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.225.

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#28731977   2017/07/21 Save this To Up

Interventions for Neuropathic Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

Numerous interventions for neuropathic pain (NeuP) are available, but its treatment remains unsatisfactory. We systematically summarized evidence from systematic reviews (SRs) of randomized controlled trials on interventions for NeuP. Five electronic databases were searched up to March 2015. Study quality was analyzed using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. The most common interventions in 97 included SRs were pharmacologic (59%) and surgical (15%). The majority of analyzed SRs were of medium quality. More than 50% of conclusions from abstracts on efficacy and approximately 80% on safety were inconclusive. Effective interventions were described for painful diabetic neuropathy (pregabalin, gabapentin, certain tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants), postherpetic neuralgia (gabapentin, pregabalin, certain TCAs, antidepressants and anticonvulsants, opioids, sodium valproate, topical capsaicin, and lidocaine), lumbar radicular pain (epidural corticosteroids, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation [rTMS], and discectomy), cervical radicular pain (rTMS), carpal tunnel syndrome (carpal tunnel release), cubital tunnel syndrome (simple decompression and ulnar nerve transposition), trigeminal neuralgia (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, and pimozide for refractory cases, rTMS), HIV-related neuropathy (topical capsaicin), and central NeuP (certain TCAs, pregabalin, cannabinoids, and rTMS). Evidence about interventions for NeuP is frequently inconclusive or completely lacking. New randomized controlled trials about interventions for NeuP are necessary; they should address safety and use clear diagnostic criteria.

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#28657677   2017/06/28 Save this To Up

Effects of Pimozide Derivatives on pSTAT5 in K562 Cells.

STAT5 is a transcription factor, a member of the STAT family of signaling proteins. STAT5 is involved in many types of cancer, including chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), in which this protein is found constitutively activated as a consequence of BCR-ABL expression. The neuroleptic drug pimozide was recently reported to act as an inhibitor of STAT5 phosphorylation and is capable of inducing apoptosis in CML cells in vitro. Our research group has synthesized simple derivatives of pimozide with cytotoxic activity and that are able to decrease the levels of phosphorylated STAT5. In this work we continued the search for novel STAT5 inhibitors, synthesizing compounds in which the benzoimidazolinone ring of pimozide is either maintained or modified, in order to obtain further structure-activity relationship information for this class of STAT5 inhibitors. Two compounds of the series showed potent cytotoxic activity against BCR-ABL-positive and pSTAT5-overexpressing K562 cells and were able to markedly decrease the levels of phosphorylated STAT5.

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#28632947   2017/06/20 Save this To Up

Pimozide reduces toxic forms of tau in TauC3 mice via 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase-mediated autophagy.

In neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD), tau is hyperphosphorylated and forms aggregates and neurofibrillary tangles in affected neurons. Autophagy is critical to clear the aggregates of disease-associated proteins and is often altered in patients and animal models of AD. Because mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) negatively regulates autophagy and is hyperactive in the brains of patients with AD, mTOR is an attractive therapeutic target for AD. However, pharmacological strategies to increase autophagy by targeting mTOR inhibition cause various side effects. Therefore, autophagy activation mediated by non-mTOR pathways is a new option for autophagy-based AD therapy. Here, we report that pimozide activates autophagy to rescue tau pathology in an AD model. Pimozide increased autophagic flux through the activation of the AMPK-Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (ULK1) axis, but not of mTOR, in neuronal cells, and this function was independent of dopamine D2 receptor inhibition. Pimozide reduced levels of abnormally phosphorylated tau aggregates in neuronal cells. Further, daily intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of pimozide led to a recovery from memory deficits of TauC3 mice expressing a caspase-cleaved form of tau. In the brains of these mice, we found increased phosphorylation of AMPK1 and ULK1, and reduced levels of the soluble oligomers and NP40-insoluble aggregates of abnormally phosphorylated tau. Together, these results suggest that pimozide rescues memory impairments in TauC3 mice and reduces tau aggregates by increasing autophagic flux through the mTOR-independent AMPK-ULK1 axis.

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#28632878   2017/06/20 Save this To Up

Identification of Novel G Protein-Coupled Receptor 143 Ligands as Pharmacologic Tools for Investigating X-Linked Ocular Albinism.

GPR143 regulates melanosome biogenesis and organelle size in pigment cells. The mechanisms underlying receptor function remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are excellent pharmacologic targets; thus, we developed and applied a screening approach to identify potential GPR143 ligands and chemical modulators.

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#28615787   2017/06/15 Save this To Up

Pimozide: An Old Wine in a New Bottle!


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#28602946   2017/06/12 Save this To Up

Whole-genome analysis reveals unexpected dynamics of mutant subclone development in a patient with JAK2-V617F-positive chronic myeloid leukemia.

We report here the first use of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to examine the initial clonal dynamics in an unusual patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), who presented in chronic phase (CP) with doubly marked BCR-ABL1(+)/JAK2(V617F)-mutant cells and, over a 9-year period, progressed into an accelerated phase (AP) and then terminal blast phase (BP). WGS revealed that the diagnostic cells also contained mutations in ASXL1, SEC23B, MAD1L1, and RREB1 as well as 12,000 additional uncommon DNA variants. WGS of endothelial cells generated from circulating precursors revealed many of these were shared with the CML clone. Surprisingly, WGS of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from the AP cells revealed only six additional coding somatic mutations, despite retention by the hematopoietic progeny of the parental AP cell levels of BCR-ABL1 expression and sensitivity to imatinib and pimozide. Limited analysis of BP cells revealed independent subclonal progression to homozygosity of the MAD1L1 and RREB1 variants. MAD1L1 and SEC23B mutations were also identified in 2 of 101 cases of myeloproliferative neoplasms, but not in 42 healthy subjects. These findings challenge historic concepts of clonal evolution in CML.

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#28459842   2017/05/01 Save this To Up

Phosphorylated STAT5 directly facilitates parvovirus B19 DNA replication in human erythroid progenitors through interaction with the MCM complex.

Productive infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) exhibits high tropism for burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) progenitor cells in human bone marrow and fetal liver. This exclusive restriction of the virus replication to human erythroid progenitor cells is partly due to the intracellular factors that are essential for viral DNA replication, including erythropoietin signaling. Efficient B19V replication also requires hypoxic conditions, which upregulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway, and phosphorylated STAT5 is essential for virus replication. In this study, our results revealed direct involvement of STAT5 in B19V DNA replication. Consensus STAT5-binding elements were identified adjacent to the NS1-binding element within the minimal origins of viral DNA replication in the B19V genome. Phosphorylated STAT5 specifically interacted with viral DNA replication origins both in vivo and in vitro, and was actively recruited within the viral DNA replication centers. Notably, STAT5 interacted with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, suggesting that STAT5 directly facilitates viral DNA replication by recruiting the helicase complex of the cellular DNA replication machinery to viral DNA replication centers. The FDA-approved drug pimozide dephosphorylates STAT5, and it inhibited B19V replication in ex vivo expanded human erythroid progenitors. Our results demonstrated that pimozide could be a promising antiviral drug for treatment of B19V-related diseases.

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