Search results for: Petri Dish 90x20 mm
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[Effects of three Bacillus strains on growth promoting and rhizosphere soil microflora of tomato.]The effects of Bacillus Bs10, Ba12 and Bl10 on tomato growth and soil rhizosphere microorganisms were determined by Petri dish germination test and pot experiments. The results showed that Bs10, Ba12 and Bl10 exhibited remarkable promoting effect on the length of hypocotyl and radical, as well as the growth of plants. The length, surface area and volume of tomato roots increased significantly after treatment with Bacillus stains, the numbers and proportions of soil bacteria also increased markedly, while those of soil fungi decreased. The numbers of the dominant bacteria and fungi were changed, withBacillus methylotrophicus being much higher in root zone soil, surface soil and neouchi, while the plant pathogens Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum decreased significantly in root zone soil and root surface soil. These results suggested that the addition of Bs10, Ba12 and Bl10 could improve the micro-ecosystem of the root domain of tomato, which might play an important role in growth promoting and disease prevention on tomato plants.
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Nitrate depletion and pH changes induced by the extraradical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices grown in monoxenic culture.The effect of the extraradical mycelium of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Smith & Schenck on nitrate uptake and on the pH of the medium was studied in a monoxenic culture with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var. Vendor) roots obtained from root organ culture. The symbiosis was established in compartmented Petri dishes containing agar media amended with the pH indicator bromocresol purple. A pattern of pH changes was revealed as the symbiosis progressed in the media of the Petri dish compartments containing the dual, arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi/root, culture as well as in the media of the hyphae, root-free compartments, in which the extraradical hyphae developed extensively, coming from the compartment containing the symbiosis. The colour changes in the media were measured spectrophotometrically, whilst maintaining the monoxenic conditions. The extraradical hyphae of G. intraradices strongly increased the pH of nutrient-free medium when supplied with nitrate, whereas the pH decreased m the absence of this N source. The hyphae developing from germinated spores and growing in axenic, nitrate-amended media did not induce any increase in pH. Nitrogen analysis revealed that a depletion of nitrate in the media accompanied increased pH. These results point towards an active uptake of nitrate by the extraradical mycelium of G. intraradices, probably coupled to a H -symport mechanism. The pH changes induced by AM fungal hyphae and the possible influence of the establishment of a functional symbiosis on these pH changes are discussed.
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Interaction of Lumbricus terrestris with macroscopic polyethylene and biodegradable plastic mulch.Polyethylene mulch films used in agriculture are a major source of plastic pollution in soils. Biodegradable plastics have been introduced as alternative to commonly-used polyethylene. Here we studied the interaction of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) with polyethylene and biodegradable plastic mulches. The objective was to assess whether earthworms would select between different types of mulches when foraging for food, and whether they drag macroscopic plastic mulch into the soil. Laboratory experiments were carried out with earthworms in Petri dishes and mesocosms. The treatments were standard polyethylene mulch, four biodegradable plastic mulches (PLA/PHA [polylactic acid/polyhydroxy alkanoate], Organix, BioAgri, Naturecycle), a biodegradable paper mulch (WeedGuardPlus), and poplar litter, which served as control. Four and three replicates for the Petri dish and mesocosm experiments were used, respectively. Macroscopic plastic and paper mulch pieces (1.5 cm × 1.5 cm and 2 cm × 2 cm) were collected from an agricultural field after a growing season, after being buried in the soil for 6 and 12 months, and after being composted for 2 weeks. We found that earthworms did not ingest polyethylene. Field-weathered biodegradable plastic mulches were not ingested either, however, after soil burial and composting, some biodegradable plastics were eaten and could not be recovered from soil any longer. Earthworms, when foraging for food, dragged plastic mulch, including polyethylene and biodegradable plastic, and poplar leaves into their burrows. The burial of macroscopic plastic mulch underground led to a redistribution of plastics in the soil profile, and likely enhances the degradation of biodegradable mulches in soil, but also can lead to leaching of plastic fragments by macropore flow.
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In vitro bioassays used in evaluating plant extracts for tick repellent and acaricidal properties: A critical review.Ticks are haematophagous arthropods which rank closely with mosquitoes in their capacity to transmit disease pathogens of importance to animals and humans. Current control of ticks is based on the routine use of synthetic chemicals administered to animals or their environment. However, years of use and overuse of these chemicals have resulted in the development of resistance in these parasites and negative environmental impacts, hence the need for cheaper, safer and more environmentally friendly alternatives with alternate modes of action. There has been a large interest in using plants for these purposes. Peer-reviewed articles on plants evaluated for their tick repellent and/or acaricidal activities against immature and adult stages of ticks were collected from nine scientific databases with the aim of reviewing the bioassays employed. Search words included "acaricidal", "tick repellent", "antitick assays" and "phytomedicine". Many different methods were used to determine repellency and acaricidal activity. These include, among a few others, petri dish, tick climbing, olfactometer, larval packet and immersion bioassays. Tick climbing repellency and adult immersion bioassays were most commonly used. Ethanol was the most widely used solvent and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was the most commonly studied tick across all the reviewed papers. It is unclear whether the outcome of these experiments on a one-host tick can be applied to other species of ticks that infest animals and humans. Also, most of the assays on repellency did not discriminate between olfaction and tactile chemoreception-based repellency and though some of the observed methods were similar, results differ significantly. These aspects will need further evaluation. Standardized laboratory methods are required to enable the valid comparisons between results from different laboratories.
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Influence of Incubation Conditions on the Nanoparticles Toxicity Based on Seed Germination and Bacterial Bioluminescence.The effects of the modified incubation conditions of a conventional bioassay on the toxicity of partially soluble nanoparticles (NPs) were evaluated based on the activity of seed germination and bacterial bioluminescence. Different levels of toxicity were observed for seed germination (CuO > ZnO > NiO) and bacterial bioluminescence (ZnO > CuO > NiO). The NP inhibition of seed germination increased strongly under modified incubation conditions: sample volume from 5 mL to 10 mL, shaking from none to 70 rpm, and working vessel from a Petri dish (+/− filter paper) to an Erlenmeyer flask (no filter paper). In the case of seed germination, the toxicity levels of NPs under the modified conditions were 1.26 to 8.49 times higher than the conventional method according to the type of NPs and modified conditions (p-values < 0.05). No significant differences in bacterial bioluminescence were observed between conventional (130 rpm) and modified (160 rpm) conditions. These findings show that for an accurate assessment of partially soluble NPs toxicity in ecosystems, the conventional bioassay method, which is designed for soluble chemicals, needs to be performed under modified conditions because of their insolubility.
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Organotypic Explants of the Embryonic Rodent Hippocampus: An Accessible System for Transgenesis.This protocol describes the technique of electroporation to target embryonic hippocampal progenitors in an organotypic slice preparation. This technique allows gene perturbation for examining developmental processes in the embryonic hippocampus while retaining the environment and connectivity of the cells. Gene perturbation can include Cre-mediated recombination, RNAi-mediated knockdown, gene overexpression, or a combination of any of these. electroporation can be performed at a wide range of embryonic stages, giving temporal control to the experimenter. Spatial control can be achieved more easily by preparing the brain in a Petri dish to target particular regions of the hippocampus. The electroporated explant cultures provide a highly tractable system for the study of developmental processes that include progenitor proliferation, migration and cell fate acquisition.
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Quantitative Assessments of Mechanical Responses upon Radial Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy.Although radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy (rESWT) has been widely used to treat orthopedic disorders with promising clinical results, rESWT largely relies on clinicians' personal experiences and arbitrary judgments, without knowing relationships between administration doses and effective doses at target sites. In fact, practitioners lack a general and reliable way to assess propagation and distribution of pressure waves inside biological tissues quantitatively. This study develops a methodology to combine experimental measurements and computational simulations to obtain pressure fields from rESWT through calibrating and validating computational models with experimental measurements. Wave pressures at the bottom of a petri dish and inside biological tissues are measured, respectively, by attaching and implanting flexible membrane sensors. Detailed wave dynamics are simulated through explicit finite element analyses. The data decipher that waves from rESWT radiate directionally and can be modeled as acoustic waves generated from a vibrating circular piston. Models are thus established to correlate pressure amplitudes at the bottom of petri dishes and in the axial direction of biological tissues. Additionally, a pilot simulation upon rESWT for human lumbar reveals a detailed and realistic pressure field mapping. This study will open a new avenue of personalized treatment planning and mechanism research for rESWT.
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Electromagnetic field pretreatment of Sinapis alba seeds improved cadmium phytoextraction.It was hypothesized that electromagnetic field (EMF) pretreatment of white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seeds could increase the accumulation of non-essential, pollutant heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) in shoots. Seeds of white mustard were treated with either 60 or 120 mT of alternating EMF (50 Hz) for 1 minute and then grown in a Petri dish in the presence of Cd, in comparison to the control (seeds grown without EMF pretreatment). Biomass production and content of calcium (Ca) and Cd in seedling shoots were measured. The Cd content in shoots from the EMF-treated seeds was higher in both variants than in the control (by 73% and 78%, respectively; p < 0.05). In plants treated with 60 mT, the Ca content was slightly, but significantly, lower (3%) than in the control. EMF stimulation did not affect the biomass production. The results have shown potential benefits of this physical seed pretreatment method in the context of cadmium phytoextraction, but more research is needed.
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Isolation, identification, and the growth promoting effects of two antagonistic actinomycete strains from the rhizosphere of Mikania micrantha Kunth.Actinomycetes are an important group of gram-positive bacteria that play an essential role in the rhizosphere ecosystem. The confrontation culture and Oxford cup method were used to evaluate the antagonistic activities of strains, which were isolated from the rhizosphere soil of Mikania micrantha. The two isolates were identified using morphological and physiological tests combined with 16S rRNA-based molecular analysis, respectively. The type I polyketone synthase (PKS-I) was amplified. The constituents of fermentation metabolites were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The plant growth promoting effect was determined. Finally, the growth of wheat seedlings was assessed using the Petri dish method. Overall, of the isolated twelve strains, WZS1-1 and WZS2-1 could significantly inhibit target fungi. Isolate WZS1-1 was identified as Streptomyces rochei, and WZS2-1 was identified as Streptomyces sundarbansensis. In particular, Fusarium graminearum (FG) from wheat was inhibited by more than 80%, and the inhibitory bandwidths against FG were 31 ± 0.3 mm and 19 ± 0.5 mm, respectively. The genes PKS-I were successfully amplified, confirming that these strains are capable of producing biosynthetic secondary metabolites. Major component analysis revealed aliphatic ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters, with n-hexadecanoic acid being the most abundant compound. Plant growth promoting test indicated that both strains produced IAA, presented with orange loops on CAS plates, dissolved phosphorus and potassium, fixed nitrogen, but did not generate organic acids; both strains colonized in soil, while only WZS1-1 colonized in wheat roots. Additionally, the fermentation broth significantly promoted the growth of wheat.
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Detecting ligand interactions in real time on living bacterial cells.Time-resolved analysis assays of receptor-ligand interactions are fundamental in basic research and drug discovery. Adequate methods are well developed for the analysis of recombinant proteins such as antibody-antigen interactions. However, assays for time-resolved ligand-binding processes on living cells are still rare, in particular within microbiology. In this report, the real-time cell-binding assay (RT-CBA) technology LigandTracer®, originally designed for mammalian cell culture, was extended to cover Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This required the development of new immobilization methods for bacteria, since LigandTracer depends on cells being firmly attached to a Petri dish. The evaluated Escherichia coli CJ236 and BL21 as well as Staphylococcus carnosus TM300 strains were immobilized to plastic Petri dishes using antibody capture, allowing us to depict kinetic binding traces of fluorescently labeled antibodies directed against surface-displayed bacterial proteins for as long as 10-15 h. Interaction parameters, such as the affinity and kinetic constants, could be estimated with high precision (coefficient of variation 9-44%) and the bacteria stayed viable for at least 16 h. The other tested attachment protocols were inferior to the antibody capture approach. Our attachment protocol is generic and could potentially also be applied to other assays and purposes.
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