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Systems modeling accurately predicts responses to genotoxic agents and their synergism with BCL-2 inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.

Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer which accounts for 15-20% of this disease and is currently treated with genotoxic chemotherapy. The BCL2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) family of proteins controls the process of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), which is required for the activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in response to genotoxic agents. We previously developed a deterministic systems model of BCL2 protein interactions, DR_MOMP that calculates the sensitivity of cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis. Here we determined whether DR_MOMP predicts responses of TNBC cells to genotoxic agents and the re-sensitization of resistant cells by BCL2 inhibitors. Using absolute protein levels of BAX, BAK, BCL2, BCL(X)L and MCL1 as input for DR_MOMP, we found a strong correlation between model predictions and responses of a panel of TNBC cells to 24 and 48 h cisplatin (R2 = 0.96 and 0.95, respectively) and paclitaxel treatments (R2 = 0.94 and 0.95, respectively). This outperformed single protein correlations (best performer BCL(X)L with R2 of 0.69 and 0.50 for cisplatin and paclitaxel treatments, respectively) and BCL2 proteins ratio (R2 of 0.50 for cisplatin and 0.49 for paclitaxel). Next we performed synergy studies using the BCL2 selective antagonist Venetoclax /ABT199, the BCL(X)L selective antagonist WEHI-539, or the MCL1 selective antagonist A-1210477 in combination with cisplatin. In silico predictions by DR_MOMP revealed substantial differences in treatment responses of BCL(X)L, BCL2 or MCL1 inhibitors combinations with cisplatin that were successfully validated in cell lines. Our findings provide evidence that DR_MOMP predicts responses of TNBC cells to genotoxic therapy, and can aid in the choice of the optimal BCL2 protein antagonist for combination treatments of resistant cells.

1417 related Products with: Systems modeling accurately predicts responses to genotoxic agents and their synergism with BCL-2 inhibitors in triple negative breast cancer cells.

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Nanoplatform Assembled from a CD44-Targeted Prodrug and Smart Liposomes for Dual Targeting of Tumor Microenvironment and Cancer Cells.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a critical role in tumor initiation, progression, invasion and metastasis. Therefore, a therapy that combines chemotherapeutic drugs with a TME modulator could be a promising route for cancer treatment. This paper reports a nanoplatform self-assembled from a hyaluronic acid (HA)-paclitaxel (PTX) (HA-PTX) prodrug and marimastat (MATT)-loaded thermosensitive liposomes (LTSLs) (MATT-LTSLs) for the dual targeting of the TME and cancer cells. Interestingly, the prodrug HA-PTX can self-assemble on both positively and negatively charged liposomes, forming hybrid nanoparticles (HNPs, 100 nm). Triggered by mild hyperthermia, HA-PTX/MATT-LTSLs HNPs rapidly release their payloads into the extracellular environment, and the released HA-PTX quickly enters 4T1 cells through a CD44-HA affinity. The HNPs possess promoted tumor accumulation (1.6-fold), exhibit deep tumor penetration, and significantly inhibit the tumor growth (10-fold), the metastasis (100%) and angiogenesis (10-fold), etc. Importantly, by targeting the TME and maintaining its integrity via inhibiting the expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) (> 5-fold), blocking the fibroblast activation through downregulating the TGF-β1 expression (5-fold) and suppressing the degradation of extracellular matrix, the HNPs allow for significant metastasis inhibition. Overall, these findings indicate that a prodrug of an HA-hydrophobic-active compound and liposomes can be self-assembled into a smart nanoplatform for the dual targeting of the TME and tumor cells and efficient combined treatment; additionally, the co-delivery of MATT and HA-PTX with the HNPs is a promising approach for the treatment of metastatic cancer. This study creates opportunities for fabricating multifunctional nanodevices and offers an efficient strategy for disease therapy.

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Chemical Design of Both a Glutathione-Sensitive Dimeric Drug Guest and a Glucose-Derived Nanocarrier Host to Achieve Enhanced Osteosarcoma Lung Metastatic Anticancer Selectivity.

Although nanomedicines have been pursued for nearly 20 years, fundamental chemical strategies that seek to optimize both the drug and drug carrier together in a concerted effort remain uncommon yet may be powerful. In this work, two block polymers and one dimeric prodrug molecule were designed to be coassembled into degradable, functional nanocarriers, where the chemistry of each component was defined to accomplish important tasks. The result is a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-protected redox-responsive dimeric paclitaxel (diPTX)-loaded cationic poly(d-glucose carbonate) micelle (diPTX@CPGC). These nanostructures showed tunable sizes and surface charges and displayed controlled PTX drug release profiles in the presence of reducing agents, such as glutathione (GSH) and dithiothreitol (DTT), thereby resulting in significant selectivity for killing cancer cells over healthy cells. Compared to free PTX and diPTX, diPTX@CPGC exhibited improved tumor penetration and significant inhibition of tumor cell growth toward osteosarcoma (OS) lung metastases with minimal side effects both in vitro and in vivo, indicating the promise of diPTX@CPGC as optimized anticancer therapeutic agents for treatment of OS lung metastases.

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Simultaneous LC-MS/MS bioanalysis of etoposide and paclitaxel in mouse tissues and plasma after oral administration of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems.

In this study, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine the anticancer drugs etoposide and paclitaxel in mouse plasma and tissues including liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen and brain. The analytes were extracted from the matrices of interest by liquid-liquid extraction using DCM: MTBE (1:1, v/v). Chromatographic separation was achieved on an Ultimate XB-C18 column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) at 40 °C and the total run time was 4 min under a gradient elution. Ionization was conducted using electrospray in the positive mode. Stable isotope etoposide-d3 and docetaxel were used as the internal standards (IS). The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of etoposide was 1 ng/g tissue for all tissues and 0.5 ng/mL for plasma. The LLOQ of paclitaxel were 0.4 ng/g tissue and 0.2 ng/mL for all tissues and plasma, respectively. The coefficients of correlation (R2 ) for all the analytes in the tissues and plasma were greater than 0.99. Both intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision were satisfactory. This method was successfully applied to measure plasma and tissues drug concentrations in mice treated with etoposide and paclitaxel-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems.

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Phase Ib study evaluating safety and clinical activity of the anti-HER3 antibody lumretuzumab combined with the anti-HER2 antibody pertuzumab and paclitaxel in HER3-positive, HER2-low metastatic breast cancer.

Purpose To investigate the safety and clinical activity of comprehensive human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family receptor inhibition using lumretuzumab (anti-HER3) and pertuzumab (anti-HER2) in combination with paclitaxel in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Methods This phase Ib study enrolled 35 MBC patients (first line or higher) with HER3-positive and HER2-low (immunohistochemistry 1+ to 2+ and in-situ hybridization negative) tumors. Patients received lumretuzumab (1000 mg in Cohort 1; 500 mg in Cohorts 2 and 3) plus pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose [LD] followed by 420 mg in Cohorts 1 and 2; 420 mg without LD in Cohort 3) every 3 weeks, plus paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 weekly in all cohorts). Patients in Cohort 3 received prophylactic loperamide treatment. Results Diarrhea grade 3 was a dose-limiting toxicity of Cohort 1 defining the maximum tolerated dose of lumretuzumab when given in combination with pertuzumab and paclitaxel at 500 mg every three weeks. Grade 3 diarrhea decreased from 50% (Cohort 2) to 30.8% (Cohort 3) with prophylactic loperamide administration and omission of the pertuzumab LD, nonetheless, all patients still experienced diarrhea. In first-line MBC patients, the objective response rate in Cohorts 2 and 3 was 55% and 38.5%, respectively. No relationship between HER2 and HER3 expression or somatic mutations and clinical response was observed. Conclusions Combination treatment with lumretuzumab, pertuzumab and paclitaxel was associated with a high incidence of diarrhea. Despite the efforts to alter dosing, the therapeutic window remained too narrow to warrant further clinical development.

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Reduced FBXW7 expression in pancreatic cancer correlates with poor prognosis and chemotherapeutic resistance via accumulation of MCL1.

Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant tumor type with poor outcomes, and elucidation of the mechanisms involved in cancer progression and therapeutic resistance is critical. FBXW7 is a key regulator of tumor malignant potential, and its substrate MCL1 regulates therapeutic resistance in human malignancies. Therefore, determination of the relevance of FBXW7 expression is critical for improving patient outcomes. In this study, we investigated the function and clinical significance of FBXW7 in pancreatic cancer. FBXW7 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 122 pancreatic cancer tissues. Reduced FBXW7 expression was significantly associated with advanced venous invasion, high MCL1 expression, enhanced Ki-67 expression, and poor prognosis and was an independent poor prognostic factor. Among patients who underwent gemcitabine treatment after surgery, reduced FBXW7 expression was also significantly associated with poor prognosis. Knockdown of FBXW7 in vitro enhanced cell proliferation, and migration, and invasion abilities and promoted gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel chemoresistance in pancreatic cancer cells. Moreover, FBXW7-knockdown cells showed accumulation of MCL1, and the enhanced chemoresistance observed in FBXW7-knockdown cells was eliminated by MCL1 suppression. These results suggested that FBXW7 was associated with cancer progression and mediated sensitivity to gemcitabine and nab-paclitaxel via MCL1 accumulation in pancreatic cancer. Thus, the FBXW7/MCL1 axis may be a promising therapeutic tool to overcome refractory pancreatic cancer.

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Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanorod Carriers for Paclitaxel Delivery in the Treatment and Imaging of Colon Cancer in Mice.

A multifunctional magnetic drug delivery system was developed and explored as an efficient and less invasive technique to improve colon cancer diagnosis and therapy in mice. In this system, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanorod cores enhanced passive targeting by bandaging a magnet adjacent to the tumor site, whereas pluronic F127 shell acted as the carrier for paclitaxel. The pluronic-conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide cores were prepared using the hydrothermal method. It was found that the initial pluronic concentration exerted a significant effect on the distribution of the diameters and lengths of the nanorods. Despite the variation in pluronic concentrations and dimensions of iron oxide products, all the samples exhibited negligible coercivity and remanence, confirming their superparamagnetic characteristics. The pluronic F127-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocarriers were then prepared by encapsulation of nanorods into pluronic micelles and assessed for paclitaxel loading. Results showed that paclitaxel was incorporated into the core of the micelles through hydrophobic interactions, and that elevating both paclitaxel concentration and temperature increased the loading efficiency. The therapeutic effect of paclitaxel-loaded nanocarriers was then tested in in vitro and in vivo colon cancer models. Compared to docetaxel, the paclitaxel-loaded magnetic nanocarriers significantly suppressed tumor growth and improved survival time of xenograft mice. The accumulated magnetic nanocarriers inside the tumor also served as a contrast agent and enhanced magnetic resonance imaging localization and visualization of the small tumor.

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Regulation of programmed-death ligand in the human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma microenvironment is mediated through matrix metalloproteinase-mediated proteolytic cleavage.

Recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (R/M HNSCC) is a devastating malignancy with a poor prognosis. According to recent clinical studies, tumour growth can be effectively reduced and survival can be improved by blocking the programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD‑L1) pathway. PD-L1 expression has been proposed as a potential causative mechanism, as HNSCC is highly immunosuppressive. However, anti-PD-1 treatment is beneficial only for certain patients. Therefore, the mechanisms controlling PD-L1 expression warrant further investigation in order to provide a better understanding of the predicting efficacy of and optimising anti-PD-1 therapy, alone or in combination. In this study, PD-L1 protein extracted from the cell membrane was found to be downregulated in OSC-20 cells compared with OSC-19 cells, despite a higher PD-L1 expression in the total cell lysate of the OSC-20 compared with the OSC-19 cells. Several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were found to be upregulated in HNSCC; in particular, MMP-7 and -13 were upregulated in the OSC-20 compared with the OSC-19 cells. Purified PD-L1 was degraded by recombinant MMP-13 and -7. The expression of PD-L1 was significantly restored by a specific inhibitor of MMP-13 (CL82198), which suggested the involvement of MMP-13 in the shedding/cleavage of PD-L1 in the OSC-20 cells. Among the anticancer drugs conventionally used in the treatment of patients with HNSCC, paclitaxel increased MMP-13 expression in R/M HNSCC cells (HOC313 cells) co-cultured without/with dendritic cells (DCs). These results suggest that the shedding/cleavage of PD-L1 by MMP-13 is one of the mechanisms behind the protective effect against invasion and metastasis. Thus, MMP-13 has potential value as a marker predictive of the decreased efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. In addition, paclitaxel is a particularly promising candidate for combination therapy in R/M HNSCC with anti-PD-1 therapy.

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Adeno-associated virus type 2-mediated gene transfer of a short hairpin-RNA targeting human IGFBP-2 suppresses the proliferation and invasion of MDA-MB-468 cells.

Adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) is prepotent in the biological treatment of breast tumor because of its low pathogenicity and immunogenicity. Our previous study demonstrated that insulin‑like growth factor‑binding protein 2 (IGFBP‑2) was highly expressed in patients with breast metastasis. In the present study, the effects of recombinant AAV2 on the growth and metastasis of breast cancer cells were determined in vitro, and in vivo. rAAV2-ZsGreen-shRNA-scramble and rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑hIGFBP‑2 were used to transfect MDA‑MB‑468, and MCF‑10A cells respectively, and observed that these virus could not penetrate the normal human breast epithelia MCF‑10A cell line. To investigate the effect of the recombinant virus on chemotherapeutics, paclitaxel was added to MDA‑MB‑468 cells and it was demonstrated that rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑hIGFBP-2-infected MDA-MB-468 cells were highly chemosensitive to paclitaxel compared with rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑scramble‑injected cells. In addition, it was demonstrated that the invasive ability of rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑hIGFBP‑2‑infected MDA-MB-468 cells was highly impaired compared with the rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑scramble group. In the nude mice xenografts, the rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑hIGFBP‑2 injection inhibited tumor growth and Ki‑67 expression was significantly downregulated compared with the scramble group. Following IGFBP‑2 knockdown using rAAV2-ZsGreen-shRNA-hIGFBP‑2, matrix metalloproteinase‑2 expression was significantly reduced in tumor tissues compared with that in rAAV2‑ZsGreen‑shRNA‑scramble treated tumor tissues. These findings have provided a direction for the application of novel AAV2‑based therapeutics for treating aggressive triple‑negative breast cancer types.

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Chrysophanol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis through NF-κB/cyclin D1 and NF-κB/Bcl-2 signaling cascade in breast cancer cell lines.

Chrysophanol is an anthraquinone compound, which exhibits anticancer effects on certain types of cancer cells. However, the effects of chrysophanol on human breast cancer remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of chrysophanol on breast cancer cell lines MCF‑7 and MDA‑MB‑231, and to identify the signal transduction pathways regulated by chrysophanol. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that chrysophanol inhibited cell proliferation, and cell cycle progression in a dose‑dependent manner. The expression of cell cycle‑associated cyclin D1 and cyclin E were downregulated while p27 expression was upregulated following chrysophanol treatment at the mRNA, and protein levels. The Annexin V/propidium iodide staining assay results revealed that apoptosis levels increased following chrysophanol treatment. Chrysophanol upregulated caspase 3 and poly (ADP‑ribose) polymerase cleavage in both cell lines. Furthermore, chrysophanol enhanced the effect of paclitaxel on breast cancer cell apoptosis. In addition, chrysophanol downregulated apoptosis regulator Bcl‑2 protein, and transcription factor p65 and IκB phosphorylation. Inhbition of nuclear factor (NF)‑κB by ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate diminished the effect of chrysophanol on apoptosis and associated proteins. In conclusion, the results of the current study demonstrated that chrysophanol effectively suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation and facilitates chemosentivity through modulation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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