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K237-modified thermosensitive liposome enhanced the delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in vitro.

This study aimed to develop novel temperature-sensitive liposomes loading paclitaxel (PTX-TSL) and evaluate them in vitro to improve the delivery efficiency and targeting of PTX. K237 peptide was conjugated to the terminal NHS of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[hydroxyl succinimidyl (polyethylene glycol)-(DSPE-PEG-NHS), and K237-modified PTX-TSL (K237-PTX-TSL) was prepared using a film dispersion method. K237-TSL encapsulation with calcein was synthesized and used to determine the cellular uptake of TSL. The morphology of K237-PTX-TSL was observed using a transmission electron microscope. The particle size and potential were measured using a laser particle size analyzer. The phase transition temperature was detected using the differential scanning calorimetry. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and flow cytometry were used to evaluate the effects of K237-PTX-TSL on the proliferation and cell cycle of cell lines SKOV-3 and human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). The encapsulation efficiency of K237-PTX-TSL was 94.23% ± 0.76%. The particle diameter was 88.3 ± 4.7 nm. K237-PTX-TSL showed a fast release profile at 42 °C, while it was stable at 37 °C. PTX-TSL combined with hyperthermia significantly inhibited the cell proliferation of SKOV-3 cells and HUVECs due to increased cell arrest in the G2/M phase. The half-minimal inhibitory concentration value of K237-PTX-TSL on SKOV-3 cells and HUVECs was 13.61 ± 1.81 and 5.54 ± 0.95 nmol/L, respectively, which were significantly lower than those with PTX-TSL (p < 0.01). K237 modification could increase the targeting efficiency of TSL to cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells, thus resulting in higher cytotoxicities compared with PTX-TSL, which might be a potential formulation for targeting cancer therapy.

1180 related Products with: K237-modified thermosensitive liposome enhanced the delivery efficiency and cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in vitro.

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Physiologically-based modeling and interspecies prediction of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics.

The objective was to develop a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to characterize the whole-body disposition of paclitaxel (formulated in Cremophor EL and ethanol-Taxol) in mice and to evaluate the utility of this model for predicting pharmacokinetics in other species. Published studies that reported paclitaxel plasma and tissue concentration-time data following single intravenous bolus administration of Taxol to mice were used; and the PBPK model included plasma, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and remainder compartments. The final model resulted in a good description of the experimental plasma and tissues data in mice, where all tissues were represented by a single compartment, except the remainder that included two sub-compartments. The predictive performance of the PBPK model was assessed by evaluating its utility in predicting pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel in rats and humans. The relationship between species body weights (mice, rats, rabbits, and humans) and plasma clearance was determined by power-based regression, and resulting allometric exponent was 0.86. The model demonstrated reasonable predictions of plasma and tissue paclitaxel concentration-time profiles in rats and plasma profiles in humans. The proposed PBPK model represents an important basis that can be further utilized for characterization of novel formulations of paclitaxel.

2094 related Products with: Physiologically-based modeling and interspecies prediction of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics.

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Pseudocirrhosis in a Patient with New-Onset Dysphagia and History of Ovarian Carcinoma.

Pseudocirrhosis is an infrequently reported clinico-radiologic complication that primarily occurs in a subset of patients with a history of breast carcinoma metastatic to the liver that has been treated with systemic chemotherapy, particularly capecitabine, gemcitabine, trastuzumab, and/or paclitaxel. Even less common are cases of pseudocirrhosis secondary to other (i.e., non-breast) carcinomas. We describe a 43-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian carcinoma treated several years prior with systemic chemotherapy who presented with progressive dysphagia and was found to have gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma and, incidentally, pseudocirrhosis.

1272 related Products with: Pseudocirrhosis in a Patient with New-Onset Dysphagia and History of Ovarian Carcinoma.

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Investigation of Effective Parameters on Size of Paclitaxel Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles.

The size of polymeric nanoparticles is considered as an effective factor in cancer therapy due to enterance into tumor tissue via the EPR effect. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effective parameters on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-paclitaxel (PLGA -PTX) nanoparticles size. We prepared PLGA-PTX nanoparticles via single emulsion and precipitation methods with variable paremeters including drug concentration, aqueous to organic phase volume ratio, polymer concentration, sonication time and PVA concentration. PLGA-PTX nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results exhibited that the diameter of nanoparticles enhanced with increasing drug, polymer and PVA concentrations whereas organic to aqueous phase volume ratio and sonication time required to the optimization for a given size. The precipitation method provides smaller nanoparticles compared to emulsion one. Variable parameters including drug concentration, aqueous to organic phase volume ratio, polymer concentration, sonication time and PVA concentration affect diameter of nanoparticles.

1892 related Products with: Investigation of Effective Parameters on Size of Paclitaxel Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles.

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CX3CR1 identifies PD-1 therapy-responsive CD8+ T cells that withstand chemotherapy during cancer chemoimmunotherapy.

Although immune checkpoint inhibitors have resulted in durable clinical benefits in a subset of patients with advanced cancer, some patients who did not respond to initial anti-PD-1 therapy have been found to benefit from the addition of salvage chemotherapy. However, the mechanism responsible for the successful chemoimmunotherapy is not completely understood. Here we show that a subset of circulating CD8+ T cells expressing the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 are able to withstand the toxicity of chemotherapy and are increased in patients with metastatic melanoma who responded to chemoimmunotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin plus PD-1 blockade). These CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells have effector memory phenotypes and the ability to efflux chemotherapy drugs via the ABCB1 transporter. In line with clinical observation, our preclinical models identified an optimal sequencing of chemoimmunotherapy that resulted in an increase of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells. Taken together, we found a subset of PD-1 therapy-responsive CD8+ T cells that were capable of withstanding chemotherapy and executing tumor rejection with their unique abilities of drug efflux (ABCB1), cytolytic activity (granzyme B and perforin), and migration to and retention (CX3CR1 and CD11a) at tumor sites. Future strategies to monitor and increase the frequency of CX3CR1+CD8+ T cells may help to design effective chemoimmunotherapy to overcome cancer resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy.

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Paclitaxel-Induced Organizing Pneumonia With Intractable Hemoptysis.


2060 related Products with: Paclitaxel-Induced Organizing Pneumonia With Intractable Hemoptysis.

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Secondary Hodgkin Lymphoma and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) After Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Treatment in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Herein synchronous occurrence of Hodgkin lymphoma and secondary myelodysplastic syndrome in a 60 year old male patient with small cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy (carboplatin and paclitaxel) and radiotherapy is presented. The objective of this report is to stress the importance of documenting and monitoring adverse drug reactions that arise from chemotherapy. After four years of treatment with the combined chemotherapy, the patient presented inguinal lymphadenopathy and enlarged lymph nodes and histopathology rapport was suggestive for plasmacytoid variant of Castleman disease. Three years later, biopsy of lymph node was performed and diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma - mixed cellularity has been established. Molecular analyses revealed presence of dominant monoclonal population of the immunoglobulin genes in the oligo/monoclonal background. Bone marrow biopsy findings suggested secondary myelodysplasia and revealed signs of hematopoietic cells dismaturation with signs of megaloblastic maturation of the erytropoetic lineage, appearance of ALIP (abnormal localization of immature precursors) in the myeloid lineage and dysplastic megakaryocytes. In addition, an increased level of polyclonal plasmacytes (lambda vs kappa was 60%:40%) was found. Hodgkin lymphoma and MDS occurring after 4 years of carboplatin/paclitaxel therapy might be contributed to the accumulation of alkylator-related DNA damage. This emphasize the need of outlining a monitoring plan regarding development of secondary leukemia and other malignant hematological proliferations should be outlined in the protocols.

2326 related Products with: Secondary Hodgkin Lymphoma and Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS) After Paclitaxel-Carboplatin Treatment in a Patient with Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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Activity of Indatuximab Ravtansine against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Preclinical Tumor Models.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is related with a poor prognosis as patients do hardly benefit from approved therapies. CD138 (Syndecan-1) is upregulated on human breast cancers. Indatuximab ravtansine (BT062) is an antibody-drug-conjugate that specifically targets CD138-expressing cells and has previously shown clinical activity in multiple myeloma. Here we show indatuximab ravtansine as a potential mono- and combination therapy for TNBC.

1560 related Products with: Activity of Indatuximab Ravtansine against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer in Preclinical Tumor Models.

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Current therapeutic landscape for advanced gastroesophageal cancers.

Treatment of advanced gastroesophageal cancers remains challenging for clinicians, patients, and caregivers alike. Despite considerable research, the therapeutic armamentarium is restricted and hardly personalized. In the first-line setting, trastuzumab with a fluoropyrimidine and platinum agent is the standard-of-care in patients with HER2-positive tumor. For the others, a platinum-based doublet (preferably with oxaliplatin) is recommended. Three-drug cytotoxic regimens should be reserved for exceptional cases where patients have good performance status. Triple combinations produce higher toxicity and provide marginal advantage. In the second line setting, the combination of paclitaxel and ramucirumab is preferred over all others. Currently, nothing is approved in the 3 or later line. Nivolumab has resulted in an improved benefit in an Asian trial. Early trials of TAS-102, STAT3 inhibitors, anti-claudin 18.2 and other immune checkpoint inhibitors (alone or in combination) are ongoing. However, development of reproducible biomarkers for patient enrichment is critical for future progress.

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An innovative immunotherapeutic strategy for ovarian cancer: CLEC10A and glycomimetic peptides.

Receptors specific for the sugar N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) include the human type II, C-type lectin receptor macrophage galactose-type lectin/C-type lectin receptor family member 10A (MGL/CLEC10A/CD301) that is expressed prominently by human peripheral immature dendritic cells, dendritic cells in the skin, alternatively-activated (M2a) macrophages, and to lesser extents by several other types of tissues. CLEC10A is an endocytic receptor on antigen-presenting cells and has been proposed to play an important role in maturation of dendritic cells and initiation of an immune response. In this study, we asked whether a peptide that binds in the GalNAc-binding site of CLEC10A would serve as an effective tool to activate an immune response against ovarian cancer.

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