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#28926823   2017/09/19 Save this To Up

Preparation, characterization and application of urease nanoparticles for construction of an improved potentiometric urea biosensor.

The nanoparticles (NPs) aggregates of commercial urease from jack beans (Canavalia ensiformis) were prepared by desolvation and glutaraldehyde crosslinking and functionalized by cysteamine dihydrochloride. These enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The TEM images of urease NPs showed their size in the range, 18-100nm with an average of 51.2nm. The ENPs were more active and stable with a longer shelf life than native enzyme molecules. The ENPs were immobilized onto chitosan (CHIT) activated nitrocellulose (NC) membrane via glutaraldehyde coupling with 32.22% retention of initial activity of free urease NPs with a conjugation yield of 1.63mg/cm(2). This NC membrane was mounted at the lower/sensitive end of the ammonium ion selective electrode (AISE) with O-ring and then electrode was connected to a digital pH meter to construct a potentiometric urea biosensor. The biosensor exhibited optimum response within 10s at pH 5.5 and 40°C. The biosensor was employed for measurement of potentiometric determination of urea in sera of apparently healthy and persons suffering from kidney disorders. The biosensor displayed a low detection limit of 1µM/L with a wide working range of 2-80µM/L (0.002-0.08mM) and sensitivity of 23mV/decade. The analytical recovery of added urea in serum was 106.33%. The within and between-batch coefficient of variations (CVs) of present biosensor were 0.18% and 0.32% respectively. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between sera urea values obtained by reference method (Enzymic colorimetric kit method) and the present biosensor. The biosensor had negligible interference from Na(+),K(+),NH(+4) and Ca(2+) but Mg(2+),Cu(2+) and ascorbic acid but had slight interference, which was overcome by specific ion selective electrode. The ENPs bound NC membrane was used maximally 8-9 times per day over a period of 180 days, when stored in 0.01M sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 at 4°C.

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#28571283   2017/06/02 Save this To Up

Estimation of DMFT, Salivary Streptococcus Mutans Count, Flow Rate, Ph, and Salivary Total Calcium Content in Pregnant and Non-Pregnant Women: A Prospective Study.

Pregnancy, a period from conception till birth, causes changes in the functioning of the human body as a whole and specifically in the oral cavity that may favour the emergence of dental caries. Many studies have shown pregnant women at increased risk for dental caries, however, specific salivary caries risk factors and the particular period of pregnancy at heightened risk for dental caries are yet to be explored and give a scope of further research in this area.

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#27939738   2016/12/12 Save this To Up

Effect of the Association of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory and Antibiotic Drugs on Antibiofilm Activity and pH of Calcium Hydroxide Pastes.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antibiofilm activity and pH of calcium hydroxide associated with different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

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#26887396   2016/02/18 Save this To Up

[Bioactive glass 45S5-silk fibroin membrane supports proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells].

To investigate the effect of bioactivity glass 45S5- silk fibroin(BG45S5- SF) membrane on growth, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells(hDPSC), and to provide new ideas and method for the regeneration of pulp-dentine complex.

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#26860541   2016/02/10 Save this To Up

Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions.

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#26318432   2016/04/25 Save this To Up

Gambogic acid enhances the radiosensitivity of human esophageal cancer cells by inducing reactive oxygen species via targeting Akt/mTOR pathway.

Radiotherapy is a widespread treatment in human solid tumors. However, therapy resistance and poor prognosis are still problems. Gambogic acid (GA), extracted from the dried yellow resin of gamboges, has an anticancer effect against various types of cancer cells. To explore the radiosensitivity of GA on esophageal cancer cell line TE13, cell viability was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay, colony formation assay was used to assess the effects of GA on the radiosensitivity of TE13, and flow cytometry was performed to meter the percentage of apoptosis. The protein levels of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), caspase3, caspase8, casepase9, pAkt, and p-mammalian target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) were tested using Western blot. The distribution of LC3 was detected by immunofluorescence. Additionally, we also examined reactive oxygen species (ROS) expression by laser scanning confocal microscope (LSCM). The cells were transfected with adenovial vector to monitor the autophagy through the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP-red fluroscent protein (RFP)-LC3. The rates of apoptotic cells in combined-treated TE13 increased significantly compared with the control groups in accordance with the results of Western blot. The clonogenic survival assay showed that GA enhances radiosensitivity with a sensitizing enhancement ratio (SER) of 1.217 and 1.436 at different concentrations. The LC3-II protein level increased in the combined group indicating the increase of autophagy incidence, and the results of GFP-RFP-LC3 experiment showed that GA may block the process of autophagic flux in TE13 cells. Moreover, we successfully demonstrated that ROS is involved in the induction of autophagy. ROS-mediated autophagy depends on the inhibition of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Taken together, GA induced radiosensitivity involves autophagy and apoptosis which are regulated by ROS hypergeneration and Akt/mTOR inhibition.

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#26258015   2015/08/10 Save this To Up

Saliva as a prediction tool for dental caries: An in vivo study.

The present study was undertaken to assess the caries activity by comparing the pH, buffering capacity, calcium, phosphorous, amylase along with the association of mutans in saliva for caries-free and caries-active children and to find out the interrelationship amongst the two groups.

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#25672488   2015/03/17 Save this To Up

Fucoidan exerts protective effects against diabetic nephropathy related to spontaneous diabetes through the NF-κB signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

Fucoidan, an extract of the seaweed, Fucus vesiculosus, has been widely investigated for its antioxidant effects. However, to date and to the best of our knowledge, pathological studies on the effects of fucoidan against diabetic nephropathy (DN) related to spontaneous diabetes have not been carried out. DN is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes. Therefore, in the present study, the effects of fucoidan against DN related to spontaneous diabetes were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats were allowed free access to standard rat food with or without fucoidan for 13 weeks, and Wistar rats were used as controls. Fucoidan did not show any cytotoxicity on glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) which were separated from rat kidneys. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured using a blood glucose meter, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (Cr) levels were measured using an automatic biochemistry analyzer and urine protein levels were measured using an ELISA kit. Collagen Ⅳ levels in the renal cortex were measured using an ELISA kit, and the expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and fibronectin (FN) in the renal cortex and GMCs, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in GMCs were determined by western blot analysis. Fasting blood glucose, BUN, serum Cr, urine protein and collagen Ⅳ levels, and the expression of TGF-β1 and FN, as well as NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation all significantly increased in the GK rats compared with the control Wistar rats. The increase in the fasting blood glucose, BUN, serum Cr, urine protein and collagen Ⅳ levels in the renal cortex was reversed in the GK rats which were orally administered fucoidan. The oral administration of fucoidan also decreased the expression of TGF-β1 and FN in the renal cortex and GMCs, as well as the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in the GMCs. Taken together, the data from our in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that fucoidan attenuates hyperglycemia and prevents or impedes the development of DN related to spontaneous diabetes by attenuating the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

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#25523193   2015/01/05 Save this To Up

A validation study: assessing the reliability of the hand held StatStripXPress lactate meter to test lactate in amniotic fluid.

The level of lactate in amniotic fluid may provide useful clinical information when assessing whether a woman in labour is experiencing labour dystocia. If so, a rapid, reliable method to assess the concentration of amniotic fluid lactate at the bedside will be required in order to be clinically relevant. To assess efficacy, we compared the hand held StatStripXPreass lactate meter (Nova Biomedical) to the reference laboratory analyser ABX Pentra 400 (Horiba) in a controlled environment. Baseline biological lactate concentration was measured in triplicate and samples of a known quantity of thawed amniotic fluid spiked with lactate substrate (62 mmol/L) from the LDH12 kit (Roche, SUI) to yield a predetermined lactate concentration above baseline then measured in triplicate. Deming Regression was used to determine the linear agreement and a Bland Altman plot used to determine the paired agreement across the range of values.

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#25456265   2014/12/06 Save this To Up

Ethanol induced impairment of glucose metabolism involves alterations of GABAergic signaling in pancreatic β-cells.

Alcohol overindulgence is a risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanisms by which alcohol overindulgence damages glucose metabolism remain unclear. Pancreatic islet β-cells are endowed with type-A γ-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) mediated autocrine signaling mechanism, which regulates insulin secretion and fine-tunes glucose metabolism. In neurons GABAAR is one of the major targets for alcohol. This study investigated whether ethanol alters glucose metabolism by affecting GABAAR signaling in pancreatic β-cells. Blood glucose level of test mice was measured using a blood glucose meter. Insulin secretion by the pancreatic β-cell line INS-1 cells was examined using a specific insulin ELISA kit. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to evaluate GABA-elicited current in INS-1 cells. Western blot and immunostaining were used to measure the expression of GABAAR subunits in mouse pancreatic tissues or in INS-1 cells. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ethanol (3.0g/kg body weight) to mice altered glucose metabolism, which was associated with decreased expression of GABAAR α1- and δ- subunits on the surface of pancreatic β-cells. Acute treatment of cultured INS-1cells with ethanol (60mM) decreased the GABA-induced current and reduced insulin secretion. In contrast, treating INS-1 cells with GABA (100μM) largely prevented the ethanol-induced reduction of insulin release. Importantly, pre-treating mice with GABA (i.p., 1.5mg/kg body weight) partially reversed ethanol-induced impairment of glucose homeostasis in mice. Our data suggest a novel role of pancreatic GABA signaling in protecting pancreatic islet β-cells from ethanol-induced dysfunction.

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