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           Search results for: Nuclear Protein _ Human Tumor Cell Line Raji   

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Targeted Disruption of Myc-Max Oncoprotein Complex by a Small Molecule.

Myc plays important roles in cell cycle progression, cell growth, and stem cell self-renewal. Although dysregulation of Myc expression is a hallmark of human cancers, there is no Myc targeted therapy yet. Here, we report sAJM589, a novel small molecule Myc inhibitor, identified from a PCA-based high-throughput screen. sAJM589 potently disrupts the Myc-Max heterodimer in a dose dependent manner with an ICof 1.8 ± 0.03 μM. sAJM589 preferentially inhibits transcription of Myc target genes in a Burkitt lymphoma cell model, P493-6. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis showed that sAJM589 treatment and Myc depletion induced similar gene expression profiles. Consistently, sAJM589 suppressed cellular proliferation in diverse Myc-dependent cancer cell lines and anchorage independent growth of Raji cells. Disruption of the Myc-Max interaction by sAJM589 reduced Myc protein levels, possibly by promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Myc. Collectively, these results suggest that sAJM589 may be a basis for the development of potential inhibitors of Myc-dependent cell growth.

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Triptonide acts as a novel potent anti-lymphoma agent with low toxicity mainly through inhibition of proto-oncogene Lyn transcription and suppression of Lyn signal pathway.

Lyn is a proto-oncogene overexpressed and constitutively activated in lymphoma, and plays an important role in lymphoma initiation and malignant progression. Hence, the oncogenic Lyn has recently been targeted for novel anti-lymphoma drug discovery; however, the effective Lyn-targeted drug for lymphoma treatment with low toxicity is absent in the clinical setting. The goal of this study is to explore powerful and low toxic Lyn-targeted anti-lymphoma agent. Here we show that triptonide, a small molecule purified from the herb Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, potently inhibits the proliferation of human B-lymphoma Raji and T-lymphoma Jurkat cells with IC50 of 5.7nM and 4.8nM, respectively. Strikingly, triptonide at a dose of 5mg/kg/day almost completely inhibited the lymphoma growth in human lymphoma cells-xenografted mice without obvious side effects, particularly; the tumors in 6 mice among the 8 xenografted mice were completely eradicated in vivo. Cell biological studies showed that triptonide at the doses of 2.5-10nM notably suppressed B-lymphoma cell colony-forming capability, and that triptonide at the dose of 20nM promoted apoptosis through activation of PARP and caspase 3, but reduction of BCL2 protein levels in the lymphoma cells. Molecular studies revealed that triptonide markedly inhibited oncogenic Lyn transcription through suppressing the promoter activity of the gene, and that it remarkably reduced both total and phosphorylated Lyn proteins, and diminished Lyn downstream ERK and ATK signal pathways. Additionally, triptonide significantly enhanced p38 phosphorylation. Together, triptonide exerts potent anti-lymphoma effect with low toxicity mainly through inhibition of proto-oncogene Lyn transcription and suppression of Lyn downstream ERK and ATK signal pathways, providing an attractive drug candidate for development of novel anti-lymphoma therapeutics.

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Heterogeneous epigenetic regulation of HACE1 in Burkitt- Lymphoma-derived cells.

We examined the consequences of 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) on HACE1 expression in human Burkitt- Lymphoma-derived cells to investigate fundamental molecular mechanisms that control its expression. We treated the human Burkitt- Lymphoma-derived cells lines Ramos and Raji with DZNep and examined HACE1 mRNA expression by RT-PCR. We also studied the effect of DZNep on the methylation of lysine 9 and 27 of histone 3 (H3K27me3 and H3K9me2) associated with the CpG88 and CpG177 islands of the HACE1 promoters by chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative PCR. CpG88 (hypomethylated) of the HACE1 promoter was enriched for histone marks H3K27me3 and H3K9me2 whereas CpG177 (hypermethylated) was only enriched for H3K9me2. DZNep treatment increased HACE1 gene expression which was further increased by the addition of trichostatine A (TSA), a promising therapeutic compound for the treatment of human B-Lymphoma. Histone methylation (both H3K9me2 and H3K27me3) of the HACE1 promoter concomitantly decreased. Our experiments suggest that HACE1 can be downregulated by methylation of its promoter region chromatin (H3K27me3 and H3K9me2), making HACE1 a potential target for DZNep combined with TSA. These results highlight the heterogeneity of HACE1 regulation in B-lymphoma and suggest that successful drug-induced restoration of epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes will require accurate characterization of cell type- and locus-specific gene silencing mechanisms.

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Wogonin as a targeted therapeutic agent for EBV (+) lymphoma cells involved in LMP1/NF-κB/miR-155/PU.1 pathway.

Wogonin is an encouraging choice for clinical use owing to its potent anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects with the high safety profile. However, wogonin for targeted therapy of lymphoma was not well addressed. In this study, we focused on its anticancer effect alongside with the underlying mechanisms for targeted therapy in EBV-positive lymphoma. This will facilitate its introduction to clinical use, which is planned in the near future.

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Effects of digoxin on cell cycle, apoptosis and NF-κB pathway in Burkitt's lymphoma cells and animal model.

Digoxin has potential antitumor properties. This study investigated whether digoxin suppressed Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells. Raji and NAMALWA cells were exposed to digoxin, followed by assay of cell viability, apoptosis and cell cycle. Western blotting was used to analyze NF-κB activity. A xenograft model was established for therapeutic efficacy evaluation. Digoxin inhibited cell growth and resulted in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest (G0/G1 for Raji cells; G2/M for NAMALWA cells). Digoxin inhibited DNA synthesis and induced morphological apoptotic characteristics. Besides, digoxin inhibited NF-κB and TNF-α-stimulated NF-κB activity, and suppressed NF-κB initiating genes (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, cyclin D1, and c-myc), however, increased p21. Digoxin activated caspase-9/3. Furthermore, digoxin inhibited xenograft tumors growth and reduced Ki-67 and c-myc. Digoxin exerted antitumor effects on BL cells in vitro and in vivo might through regulating NF-κB and caspase pathway. These outcomes highlight the potential of digoxin as a therapeutic agent for BL.

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FOXO4 expression is related to stem cell-like properties and resistance to treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Cancer stem cells are proposed to be responsible for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, including doxorubicin. As phenylbutyrate enhances cancer stem cell properties, we analyzed surviving lymphoma cells after treatment with doxorubicin and phenylbutyrate. Human B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including Toledo, BJAB, Daudi, and Raji were incubated with IC90 concentrations of doxorubicin (300 nM) or phenylbutyrate (8 mM). After 48 h, live cells were sorted and analyzed for their resistance to treatment by examining gene expression profiles using cDNA microarray and biological characteristics. A small fraction of lymphoma cells that survived after drug application showed higher expression of stem cell markers (NANOG, and SOX2) and superior ability of self-renewal and sphere formation, compared to untreated control cells (P < 0.05). Gene expression analysis disclosed elevated expression of 41 genes, including FOXO4, in the four lymphoma cell lines that survived drug treatment. Overexpression of FOXO4 was evident in lymphoma cells surviving after phenylbutyrate treatment and refractory patient-derived lymphoma cells. Induction of FOXO4 expression promoted self-renewal whereas its knockdown led to diminished expression of stem cell markers and colony-forming ability of lymphoma cells. Immunohistochemical staining for FOXO4 in tumor tissue of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma revealed nuclear localization and significant association with poor prognosis. In conclusion, lymphoma cells resistant to treatment exhibit stem cell-like properties and enhanced FOXO4 expression. The presence of FOXO4-expressing cells in tumor tissue and their association with poor survival supports a role of FOXO4 in promoting stem cell properties resulting in poor outcomes.

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The interaction of protamine nanocapsules with the intestinal epithelium: A mechanistic approach.

Single-layer protamine and double layer polysialic acid (PSA)/protamine nanocapsules (NCs) were designed in order to be used as carriers to facilitate the transport of macromolecules across the intestinal epithelium. The rational for the design of these NCs was based on that protamine is a non-toxic yet potent cell-penetrating peptide, capable of translocating protein cargos through cell membranes, while PSA is a low molecular weight polysaccharide used to enhance the stability of macromolecules and nanocarriers. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the mechanism of interaction of these NCs with different intestinal cell models (Caco-2, Caco-2/Raji mimicking follicle associated epithelium and Caco-2/HT29-MTX to study the effect of mucus). For this, a fluorescent marker, TAMRA was covalently linked to protamine. The interaction and transport of the NCs with the Caco-2 cells was found to be concentration, temperature and size dependent. In all cases, the double layer PSA-protamine NCs exhibited a significantly higher transport compared to protamine NCs. On the other hand, the transport of the NCs was significantly higher in the co-culture (Caco-2/Raji monolayer) compared to the monoculture model (Caco-2 monolayer), implying that M cells are involved in the transport of these nanosystems. The formulations, administered intra-jejunally to healthy rats (4h fasting) resulted in a moderate reduction of the glucose levels (20% reduction), which lasted for up to 4h. This work raises prospects that protamine-based nanocapsules may have the potential as oral peptide delivery nanocarriers.

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Catfish rhamnose-binding lectin induces Gcell cycle arrest in Burkitt's lymphoma cells via membrane surface Gb3.

Silurus asotus egg lectin (SAL), an α-galactoside-binding protein isolated from the eggs of catfish, is a member of the rhamnose-binding lectin family that binds to Gb3 glycan (Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc). We have previously demonstrated that SAL reduces the proliferation of Gb3-expressing Burkitt's lymphoma Raji cells and confirm here that it does not reduce their viability, indicating that unlike other lectins, it is not cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to determine the signal transduction mechanism(s) underlying this novel SAL/Gb3 binding-mediated effect profile. SAL/Gb3 interaction arrested the cell cycle through increasing the Gphase population of Raji cells. SAL suppressed the transcription of cell cycle-related factors such as c-MYC, cyclin D3, and cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-4. Conversely, the CDK inhibitors p21 and p27 were elevated by treatment with SAL. In particular, the production of p27 in response to SAL treatment increased steadily, whereas p21 production was maximal at 12 h and lower at 24 h. Activation of Ras-MEK-ERK pathway led to an increase in expression of p21. Notably, treatment of Raji cells with anti-Gb3 mAb alone did not produce the above effects. Taken together, our findings suggest that Gb3 on the Raji cell surface interacts with SAL to trigger sequential GDP-Ras phosphorylation, Ras-MEK-ERK pathway activation, p21 production, and cell cycle arrest at the Gphase.

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Histone H4 is cleaved by granzyme A during staurosporine-induced cell death in B-lymphoid Raji cells.

Granzyme A (GzmA) was first identified as a cytotoxic T lymphocyte protease protein with limited tissue expression. A number of cellular proteins are known to be cleaved by GzmA, and its function is to induce apoptosis. Histones H1, H2B, and H3 were identified as GzmA substrates during apoptotic cell death. Here, we demonstrated that histone H4 was cleaved by GzmA during staurosporine-induced cell death; however, in the presence of caspase inhibitors, staurosporine-treated Raji cells underwent necroptosis instead of apoptosis. Furthermore, histone H4 cleavage was blocked by the GzmA inhibitor nafamostat mesylate and by GzmA knockdown using siRNA. These results suggest that histone H4 is a novel substrate for GzmA in staurosporine-induced cells. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(10): 560-565].

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Anticancer activity of Honokiol against lymphoid malignant cells via activation of ROS-JNK and attenuation of Nrf2 and NF-κB.

To evaluate the effect of Honokiol (HK) in the ROS-JNK pro-apoptotic pathway and NF-κB, Nrf2 anti-apoptotic pathways, in order to seek a possible explanation for its anticancer efficacy.

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