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β-Resorcylic Acid, a Phytophenolic Compound, Reduces Campylobacter jejuni in Postharvest Poultry.

Human Campylobacter infections, a leading foodborne illness globally, has been linked with the high prevalence of this bacterium on raw retail chicken products. Reduction of Campylobacter counts on poultry products would greatly reduce the risk of subsequent infections in humans. To this end, this study investigated the potential of the phytophenolic compound β-resorcylic acid (BR) to reduce Campylobacter counts on postharvest poultry (chicken skin or meat). Four trials in total, two each on thigh skin or breast meat, were conducted in which chicken skin or meat samples (2 ± 0.1 g; 10 samples per treatment) were inoculated with 50 μL (∼10 CFU per sample) of a cocktail of four wild strains of C. jejuni. After 30 min of attachment, inoculated samples were dipped in a 0, 0.5, 1, or 2% BR solution for 30 s immediately followed by vigorously vortexing the samples in Butterfield's phosphate diluent and plating the supernatant for Campylobacter enumeration. In addition, the effect of BR on the color of skin and meat samples was studied. Moreover, the change in the expression of survival and virulence genes of C. jejuni exposed to BR was evaluated. Data were analyzed by the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (P < 0.05; SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). All BR treatments significantly reduced Campylobacter populations on both chicken or meat samples by 1 to 3 log CFU/g compared with non-BR-treated washed controls. No significant difference in the lightness, redness, and yellowness of skin and meat samples was observed on exposure to BR wash (P > 0.05). Real-time PCR results revealed that BR treatment down-regulated expression of select genes coding for motility (motA, motB) and attachment (cadF, ciaB) in the majority of C. jejuni strains. Stress response genes (sodB, katA) were upregulated in C. jejuni S-8 (P < 0.05). Overall, our results suggest that BR could be effectively used as antimicrobial dip treatment during poultry processing for reducing Campylobacter on chicken carcasses.

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Campylobacter jejuni anti GST Inhibitor 2 (Ethacryn α-Acetamino-α-carboxy-( N-Acetyl-2-O-(5-bromo-1H- (1R,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1S,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1S,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo (1R,3S)-1-(1,3-Benzodioxo Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3 Rabbit Anti-IAA (Indole-3

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Distinguishing septic from normal donors by detection of sPLA2-IIA from human plasma using a microsieve-based immunoassay.

Bloodstream infections that progress to septic shock are responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths each year, and are associated with significant healthcare costs. Recent studies have shown that a member of the secreted phospholipase protein family, termed sPLA2-IIA, may play a role during the innate immune response to bacterial infections, and is elevated in the plasma of septic patients. In this report, the feasibility of a simple microsieve-based sPLA2-IIA detection immunoassay was explored. Microsieves containing 5μm pores were covalently coupled with a sPLA2-IIA-specific monoclonal antibody at 0.1, 1.0, and 10μg/mL and then assayed with plasma-based positive and negative controls to determine the optimal coating concentration. Recombinant sPLA2-IIA was then serially diluted to a final concentration of 200, 100, 50, 25, 12.5, and 6.25ng/mL and tested alongside a non-spiked sample to estimate the detection limit of the prototype assay. Recombinant sPLA2-IIA was also spiked into serum, EDTA-plasma, and Lithium-Heparin plasma, in an effort to evaluate assay performance when analyzing these sample matrices. The preliminary limit of detection studies suggests that the microsieve assay is able to distinguish approximately 6-12ng/mL of sPLA2-IIA from a non-spiked sample. When compared to an immunoassay diluent, the microsieve assay also yielded acceptable percent recoveries for each of the three sample matrices spiked with clinically significant levels of sPLA2-IIA. The sPLA2-IIA microsieve assay prototype also clearly distinguished five samples from septic patients from five normal donor samples, and the results were in good agreement with a comparator ELISA test system (R=0.9347).

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Method development and validation for simultaneous quantitation of endogenous hippuric acid and phenylacetylglycine in rat urine using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

Urinary hippuric acid (HA) and phenylacetylglycine (PAG) are biomarker candidates for drug-induced phospholipidosis (PLD). To confirm their utility in preclinical and clinical settings, it is essential to develop and validate their quantification method in advance. In this study, we have applied liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) for simultaneous quantification of HA and PAG in rat urine, and matrix based ion suppression was assessed by post-column infusion assay. Effective sample dilution reduced matrix effect of urine to be negligible level and calibration curves showed good correlation between those in urine diluent and buffer alone. Reliability of this assay was confirmed by the assessments for intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracies of quality control samples. The method was applied to rat urine after multiple oral administrations of PLD-inducing drugs, and the changes in HA and PAG concentrations and their ratio were successfully detected as rat plasma in previous report. This is the first report to quantify HA and PAG easily and accurately as potential biomarkers to monitor PLD status. This assay would be useful tool for monitoring PLD in toxicological studies by non-invasive sampling.

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A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

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Allergen stabilities and compatibilities in immunotherapy mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts.

Indoor allergen mixtures that contain cat, dog, dust mite, and cockroach extracts are commonly used in allergy clinics for subcutaneous immunotherapy, but product-specific stabilities and mixing compatibilities in these complex patient formulas have not been determined.

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Usefulness of Adenosinetriphosphate Bioluminescence Assay (ATPmetry) for Monitoring the Reprocessing of Endoscopes.

To assess the diagnostic value of an adenosinetriphosphate bioluminescence assay (ATPmetry) to monitor the effectiveness of the reprocessing of endoscopes compared with microbiologic sampling.

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On the influence of various physicochemical properties of the CNTs based implantable devices on the fibroblasts' reaction in vitro.

Coating the material with a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been a subject of particular interest for the development of new biomaterials. Such coatings, made of properly selected CNTs, may constitute an implantable electronic device that facilitates tissue regeneration both by specific surface properties and an ability to electrically stimulate the cells. The goal of the presented study was to produce, evaluate physicochemical properties and test the applicability of highly conductible material designed as an implantable electronic device. Two types of CNTs with varying level of oxidation were chosen. The process of coating involved suspension of the material of choice in the diluent followed by the electrophoretic deposition to fabricate layers on the surface of a highly biocompatible metal-titanium. Presented study includes an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the material's surface along with an electrochemical evaluation and in vitro biocompatibility, cytotoxicity and apoptosis studies in contact with the murine fibroblasts (L929) in attempt to answer the question how the chemical composition and CNTs distribution in the layer alters the electrical properties of the sample and whether any of these properties have influenced the overall biocompatibility and stimulated adhesion of fibroblasts. The results indicate that higher level of oxidation of CNTs yielded materials more conductive than the metal they are deposited on. In vitro study revealed that both materials were biocompatible and that the cells were not affected by the amount of the functional group and the morphology of the surface they adhered to.

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Reconfigurable microfluidic dilution for high-throughput quantitative assays.

This paper reports a reconfigurable microfluidic dilution device for high-throughput quantitative assays, which can easily produce discrete logarithmic/binary concentration profiles ranging from 1 to 100-fold dilution in parallel from a fixed sample volume (e.g., 10 μL) without any assistance of continuous fluidic pump or robotic automation. The integrated dilution generation chip consists of switchable distribution and collection channels, metering reservoirs, reaction chambers, and pressure-activatable Laplace valves. Following the sequential loading of a sample, a diluent, and a detection reagent into their individual metering chambers, the top microfluidic layer can be reconfigured to collect the metered chemicals into the reaction chambers in parallel, where detection will be conducted. To facilitate mixing and reaction in the microchambers, two acoustic microstreaming actuation mechanisms have been investigated for easy integrability and accessibility. Furthermore, the microfluidic dilution generator has been characterized by both colorimetric and fluorescent means. A further demonstration of the generic usage of the quantitative dilution chip has utilized the commonly available bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay to analyse the protein concentrations of human tissue extracts. In brief, the microfluidic dilution generator offers a high-throughput high-efficiency quantitative analytical alternative to conventional quantitative assay platforms, by simple manipulation of a minute amount of chemicals in a compact microfluidic device with minimal equipment requirement, which can serve as a facile tool for biochemical and biological analyses in regular laboratories, point-of-care settings and low-resource environments.

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Simplified sample preparation in the simultaneous measurement of whole blood antimony, bismuth, manganese, and zinc by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

We developed and validated a simplified sample preparation for the analysis of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in whole blood. This simplification included a reduction in sample volume, removal of a lengthy acidic digestion, and optimization of the internal standard.

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C Peptide ELISA Kit, Rat Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Human) Quan Inflammation (Mouse) Quan Inflammation (Rat) Quanti Bovine Androstenedione,AS Human interleukin 2(IL-2) Bovine prolactin-induced anti H inh human blood an Glucagon ELISA KIT, Rat G Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly

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Intraosseous versus intravenous infusion of hydroxocobalamin for the treatment of acute severe cyanide toxicity in a Swine model.

Easily administrated cyanide antidotes are needed for first responders, military troops, and emergency department staff after cyanide exposure in mass casualty incidents or due to smoke inhalation during fires involving many victims. Hydroxocobalamin has proven to be an effective antidote, but cannot be given intramuscularly because the volume of diluent needed is too large. Thus, intraosseous (IO) infusion may be an alternative, as it is simple and has been recommended for the administration of other resuscitation drugs. The primary objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of IO delivery of hydroxocobalamin to intravenous (IV) injection for the management of acute cyanide toxicity in a well-described porcine model.

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