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Potential for colonization of O111:H25 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli.

Using clonal phylogenetic methods, it has been demonstrated that O111:H25 atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) strains belong to distinct clones, suggesting the possibility that their ability to interact with different hosts and abiotic surfaces can vary from one clone to another. Accordingly, the ability of O111:H25 aEPEC strains derived from human, cat and dogs to adhere to epithelial cells has been investigated, along with their ability to interact with macrophages and to form biofilms on polystyrene, a polymer used to make biomedical devices. The results demonstrated that all the strains analyzed were able to adhere to, and to form pedestals on, epithelial cells, mechanisms used by E. coli to become strongly attached to the host. The strains also show a Localized-Adherence-Like (LAL) pattern of adhesion on HEp-2 cells, a behavior associated with acute infantile diarrhea. In addition, the O111:H25 aEPEC strains derived either from human or domestic animals were able to form long filaments, a phenomenon used by some bacteria to avoid phagocytosis. O111:H25 aEPEC strains were also encountered inside vacuoles, a characteristic described for several bacterial strains as a way of protecting themselves against the environment. They were also able to induce TNF-α release via two routes, one dependent on TLR-4 and the other dependent on binding of Type I fimbriae. These O111:H25 strains were also able to form biofilms on polystyrene. In summary the results suggest that, regardless of their source (i.e. linked to human origin or otherwise), O111:H25 aEPEC strains carry the potential to cause human disease.

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The delta 6 desaturase knock out mouse reveals that immunomodulatory effects of essential n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are both independent of and dependent upon conversion.

Typically fatty acids (FA) exert differential immunomodulatory effects with n-3 [α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)] and n-6 [linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA)] exerting anti- and pro-inflammatory effects, respectively. This over-simplified interpretation is confounded by a failure to account for conversion of the parent FA (LA and ALA) to longer-chain bioactive products (AA and EPA/DHA, respectively), thereby precluding discernment of the immunomodulatory potential of specific FA. Therefore, we utilized the Δ6-desaturase model, wherein knockout mice (D6KO) lack the Fads2 gene encoding for the rate-limiting enzyme that initiates FA metabolism, thereby providing a model to determine specific FA immunomodulatory effects. Wild-type (WT) and D6KO mice were fed one of four isocaloric diets differing in FA source (9weeks): corn oil (LA-enriched), arachidonic acid single cell oil (AA-enriched), flaxseed oil (ALA-enriched) or menhaden fish oil (EPA/DHA-enriched). Splenic mononuclear cell cytokine production in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), T-cell receptor (TCR) and anti-CD40 stimulation was determined. Following LPS stimulation, AA was more bioactive compared to LA, by increasing inflammatory cytokine production of IL-6 (1.2-fold) and TNFα (1.3-fold). Further, LPS-stimulated IFNγ production in LA-fed D6KO mice was reduced 5-fold compared to LA-fed WT mice, indicating that conversion of LA to AA was necessary for cytokine production. Conversely, ALA exerted an independent immunomodulatory effect from EPA/DHA and all n-3 FA increased LPS-stimulated IL-10 production versus LA and AA. These data definitively identify specific immunomodulatory effects of individual FA and challenge the simplified view of the immunomodulatory effects of n-3 and n-6 FA.

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17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 Androsta-1,4,6-triene-3,1 (3β)-Androsta-5,16-diene Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Mouse Anti-GSK-3β (NT) P Rabbit Anti-beta-Amyloid( Mouse Anti-GAPDH(3E12)-Lo Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen 19 Hydroxy 4 androstene 3

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Study of Bone Marrow and Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of Escherichia coli Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice.

: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be derived from multiple tissue sources. However, the optimal source of MSCs for cell-based therapy for acute lung injury (ALI) is unclear. In the present experiments, we studied bone marrow (BM)-derived and embryonic stem cell-derived human MSC (ES-MSCs) as a therapeutic agent in Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced ALI in mice. We hypothesized that ES-MSCs would be more potent than BM-MSCs owing to its more primitive source of origin. ALI was induced by the intratracheal instillation of endotoxin at 4 mg/kg into 10-12-week-old C57BL/6 mice with or without BM-MSCs, ES-MSCs, or normal human lung fibroblasts as a cellular control. Compared with the endotoxin-injured mice at 48 hours, the administration of ES-MSCs provided results similar to those of BM-MSCs, significantly reducing the influx of white blood cells and neutrophils and decreasing the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the injured alveolus. BM-MSCs also reduced extravascular lung water, a measure of pulmonary edema, by 60% and the total protein levels, a measure of lung permeability, by 66%. However, surprisingly, ES-MSCs did not have these protective effects, which was partially explained by the increased secretion of matrix metallopeptidase 9 by ES-MSCs, an enzyme known to increase lung protein permeability. In conclusion, both BM-MSCs and ES-MSCs markedly decreased endotoxin-induced inflammation. However, ES-MSCs did not show any beneficial effect on reducing pulmonary edema and lung protein permeability compared with BM-MSCs, suggesting that not all MSCs behave in a similar fashion. Our results highlight the need perhaps for a disease-specific potency assay for MSCs.

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CD14 mediates binding of high doses of LPS but is dispensable for TNF-α production.

Activation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) involves a sequential engagement of serum LPS-binding protein (LBP), plasma membrane CD14, and TLR4/MD-2 signaling complex. We analyzed participation of CD14 in TNF-α production stimulated with 1-1000 ng/mL of smooth or rough LPS (sLPS or rLPS) and in sLPS binding to RAW264 and J744 cells. CD14 was indispensable for TNF-α generation induced by a low concentration, 1 ng/mL, of sLPS and rLPS. At higher doses of both LPS forms (100-1000 ng/mL), TNF-α release required CD14 to much lower extent. Among the two forms of LPS, rLPS-induced TNF-α production was less CD14-dependent and could proceed in the absence of serum as an LBP source. On the other hand, the involvement of CD14 was crucial for the binding of 1000 ng/mL of sLPS judging from an inhibitory effect of the anti-CD14 antibody. The binding of sLPS was also strongly inhibited by dextran sulfate, a competitive ligand of scavenger receptors (SR). In the presence of dextran sulfate, sLPS-induced production of TNF-α was upregulated about 1.6-fold. The data indicate that CD14 together with SR participates in the binding of high doses of sLPS. However, CD14 contribution to TNF α production induced by high concentrations of sLPS and rLPS can be limited.

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Mesenteric fat as a source of C reactive protein and as a target for bacterial translocation in Crohn's disease.

Mesenteric fat hyperplasia is a hallmark of Crohn's disease (CD), and C reactive protein (CRP) is correlated with disease activity. The authors investigated whether mesenteric adipocytes may be a source of CRP in CD and whether inflammatory and bacterial triggers may stimulate its production by adipocytes.

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Synergistic up-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in macrophages by adenosine A2A receptor agonists and endotoxin involves transcriptional regulation via the hypoxia response element in the VEGF promoter.

Macrophages are an important source of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonists with Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4, 7, and 9 agonists synergistically induce macrophage VEGF expression. We show here using VEGF promoter-luciferase reporter constructs that the TLR4 agonist Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the A2AR agonists NECA and CGS21680 synergistically augment VEGF transcription in macrophages and that the HRE in the VEGF promoter is essential for this transcription. We examined whether LPS and/or NECA induce HIF-1alpha expression. HIF-1alpha mRNA levels were increased in LPS-treated macrophages in an NF-kappaB-dependent manner; NECA strongly increased these levels in an A2AR-dependent manner. LPS induced luciferase expression from a HIF-1alpha promoter-luciferase construct in an A2AR-independent manner. Further stimulation with NECA did not increase HIF-1alpha promoter activity, indicating that the A2AR-dependent increase in HIF-1alpha mRNA is post-transcriptional. LPS/NECA treatment also increased HIF-1alpha protein and DNA binding levels. Deletion of putative NF-kappaB-binding sites from the VEGF promoter did not affect LPS/NECA-induced VEGF promoter activity, suggesting that NF-kappaB is not directly involved in VEGF transcription. Taken together, these data indicate that LPS/NECA-induced VEGF expression involves transcriptional regulation of the VEGF promoter by HIF-1alpha through the HRE. HIF-1alpha is transcriptionally induced by LPS and post-transcriptionally up-regulated in an A2AR-dependent manner.

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Pleiotropic functions of TNF-alpha determine distinct IKKbeta-dependent hepatocellular fates in response to LPS.

TNF-alpha influences morbidity and mortality during the course of endotoxemia. However, the complex pleiotropic functions of TNF-alpha remain poorly understood. We evaluated how hepatic induction of NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha influence survival and hepatocellular death in a lethal murine model of endotoxic shock. Using dominant-negative viral vectors to inhibit the IKK complex, we demonstrate through this study that the liver is a major source of TNF-alpha during the course of lethal endotoxemia and that IKKbeta (but not IKKalpha) is predominantly responsible for activating NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha in the liver after LPS administration. Using TNF-alpha knockout mice and hepatic-specific inhibition of IKKbeta, we demonstrate that the status of TNF-alpha and NF-kappaB balances necrotic and apoptotic fates of hepatocytes in the setting of endotoxemia. In the presence of TNF-alpha, inhibiting hepatic IKKbeta resulted in increased survival, reduced serum proinflammatory cytokines, and reduced hepatocyte necrosis in response to a lethal dose of endotoxin. In contrast, inhibiting hepatic IKKbeta in TNF-alpha knockout mice resulted in decreased survival and increased caspase 3-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis after endotoxin challenge, despite a reduced proinflammatory cytokine response. In the presence of TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB-dependent hepatocellular necrosis predominated, while in the absence of TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB primarily influenced apoptotic fate of hepatocytes. Changes in JNK phosphorylation after LPS challenge were also dynamically affected by both IKKbeta and TNF-alpha; however, this pathway could not solely explain the differential outcomes in hepatocellular fates. In conclusion, our studies demonstrate that induction of NF-kappaB and TNF-alpha balances protective (antiapoptotic) and detrimental (proinflammatory) pathways to determine hepatocellular fates during endotoxemia.

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Anti-inflammatory activity of four Bolivian Baccharis species (Compositae).

Hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethanolic and aqueous extracts from Baccharis obtusifolia HBK, Baccharis latifolia (R. et P.) Pers., Baccharis pentlandii D.C. and Baccharis subulata Wedd., plants used in the traditional medicine of South America have been studied for their in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in cellular systems. Calcium ionophore A23187-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages were validated as a source of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) (prostaglandin E2, PGE2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) (leukotriene C4, LTC4), and mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used for testing cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (PGE2), nitric oxide (NO) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) activity. Most of the extracts tested were active in all assays.

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MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD ANTI ACTIVATED X FACTOR A Primary antibody CIDE-A Primary antibody CIDE-A Primary antibody CIDE-B Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody IL-1RAc Primary antibody IRAK-2 Anti-SARS Spike Protein I Mouse Anti-SARS Nucleocap Mouse Anti-SARS Spike IgG

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Phenylpropanoid glycosides from Scrophularia scorodonia: in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

Five phenylpropanoid glycosides isolated from Scrophularia scorodonia L. (Scrophulariaceae), namely angoroside A (1), angoroside C (2), angoroside D (3), acteoside (4) and isoacteoside (5), had been evaluated as potential inhibitors of some macrophage functions involved in the inflammatory process. These compounds have been tested in two experimental systems: ionophore-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages and human platelets serve as source of COX-1 and 5-LOX, and mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with E. coli LPS are the means of testing for COX-2, NO and TNF-alpha activity. None of compounds assayed had a significant effect on LTC(4)-release from calcium ionophore-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages. However, the release of PGE(2) by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with calcium ionophore was inhibited by most of these compounds. In the TXB(2)-release assay, acteoside (4), angoroside A (1) and angoroside C (2) showed a significant effect. These five compounds, except angoroside C (2) significantly inhibited LPS-induced PGE(2), NO and TNF-alpha in a concentration-dependent manner. In LPS-stimulated macrophages, the phenylpropanoid glycoside angoroside C (2) only had activity on NO. These results indicate that the pharmacology of these compounds may participate in the anti-inflammatory effect of Scrophularia scorodonia.

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Interferon-gamma differentially modulates the release of cytokines and chemokines in lipopolysaccharide- and pneumococcal cell wall-stimulated mouse microglia and macrophages.

During bacterial infections of the CNS, activated microglia could support leucocyte recruitment to the brain through the synthesis of cyto- and chemokines. In turn, invading leucocytes may feedback on microglial cells to influence their chemokine release pattern. Here, we analyzed the capacity of interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) to serve as such a leucocyte-to-microglia signal. Production of cyto- and chemokines was stimulated in mouse microglia cultures by treatments with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative Escherichia coli or cell walls from Gram-positive Streptococcus pneumoniae (PCW). IFNgamma presence during the stimulation (0.1-100 ng/mL) modulated the patterns of LPS- and PCW-induced cyto- and chemokine release in a dose-dependent, potent and complex manner. While amounts of TNFalpha and IL-6 remained nearly unchanged, IFNgamma enhanced the production of IL-12, MCP-1 and RANTES, but attenuated that of KC, MIP-1alpha and MIP-2. Release modulation was obtained with IFNgamma preincubation (treatment of cells before LPS or PCW administration), coincubation and even delayed addition to an ongoing LPS or PCW stimulation. Together the changes observed for the microglial chemokine release under IFNgamma would shift the chemoattractive profile from favouring neutrophils to a preferential attraction of monocytes and T lymphocyte populations--as actually seen during the course of bacterial meningitis. The findings support the view of activated microglia as a major intrinsic source for an instant production of a variety of chemokines and suggest that leucocyte-derived IFNgamma could potentially regulate the microglial chemokine release pattern.

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