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           Search results for: Methyltransferase Histone H4 Methyltransferase Assay   

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Suv4-20h1 promotes G1 to S phase transition by downregulating p21 expression in chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells.

Methylation of histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20) has been associated with cancer. However, the functions of the histone methyltransferases that trigger histone H4K20 methylation in cancers, including suppressor of variegation 4-20 homolog 1 (Suv4-20h1), remain elusive. In the present study, it was demonstrated that the knockdown of the histone H4K20 methyltransferase Suv4-20h1 resulted in growth inhibition in chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. Disruption of Suv4-20h1 expression induced G arrest in the cell cycle and increased expression levels of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21), an essential cell cycle protein involved in checkpoint regulation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis demonstrated that Suv4-20h1 directly binds to the promoter of the p21 gene and that methylation of histone H4K20 correlates with repression of p21 expression. Thus, these data suggest that Suv4-20h1 is important for the regulation of the cell cycle in K562 cells and may be a potential therapeutic target for leukemia.

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Structures of human PRC2 with its cofactors AEBP2 and JARID2.

Transcriptionally repressive histone H3 lysine 27 methylation by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is essential for cellular differentiation and development. Here we report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human PRC2 in a basal state and two distinct active states while in complex with its cofactors JARID2 and AEBP2. Both cofactors mimic the binding of histone H3 tails. JARID2, methylated by PRC2, mimics a methylated H3 tail to stimulate PRC2 activity, whereas AEBP2 interacts with the RBAP48 subunit, mimicking an unmodified H3 tail. SUZ12 interacts with all other subunits within the assembly and thus contributes to the stability of the complex. Our analysis defines the complete architecture of a functionally relevant PRC2 and provides a structural framework to understand its regulation by cofactors, histone tails, and RNA.

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Dot1 regulates nucleosome dynamics by its inherent histone chaperone activity in yeast.

Dot1 (disruptor of telomeric silencing-1, DOT1L in humans) is the only known enzyme responsible for histone H3 lysine 79 methylation (H3K79me) and is evolutionarily conserved in most eukaryotes. Yeast Dot1p lacks a SET domain and does not methylate free histones and thus may have different actions with respect to other histone methyltransferases. Here we show that Dot1p displays histone chaperone activity and regulates nucleosome dynamics via histone exchange in yeast. We show that a methylation-independent function of Dot1p is required for the cryptic transcription within transcribed regions seen following disruption of the Set2-Rpd3S pathway. Dot1p can assemble core histones to nucleosomes and facilitate ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling activity through its nucleosome-binding domain, in vitro. Global analysis indicates that Dot1p appears to be particularly important for histone exchange and chromatin accessibility on the transcribed regions of long-length genes. Our findings collectively suggest that Dot1p-mediated histone chaperone activity controls nucleosome dynamics in transcribed regions.

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Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 Methylates Elongin A to Regulate Transcription.

Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2-EZH2) methylates histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27) and is required to maintain gene repression during development. Misregulation of PRC2 is linked to a range of neoplastic malignancies, which is believed to involve methylation of H3K27. However, the full spectrum of non-histone substrates of PRC2 that might also contribute to PRC2 function is not known. We characterized the target recognition specificity of the PRC2 active site and used the resultant data to screen for uncharacterized potential targets. The RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription elongation factor, Elongin A (EloA), is methylated by PRC2 in vivo. Mutation of the methylated EloA residue decreased repression of a subset of PRC2 target genes as measured by both steady-state and nascent RNA levels and perturbed embryonic stem cell differentiation. We propose that PRC2 modulates transcription of a subset of low expression target genes in part via methylation of EloA.

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Polycomb repression complex 2 is required for the maintenance of retinal progenitor cells and balanced retinal differentiation.

Polycomb repressive complexes maintain transcriptional repression of genes encoding crucial developmental regulators through chromatin modification. Here we investigated the role of Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in retinal development by inactivating its key components Eed and Ezh2. Conditional deletion of Ezh2 resulted in a partial loss of PRC2 function and accelerated differentiation of Müller glial cells. In contrast, inactivation of Eed led to the ablation of PRC2 function at early postnatal stage. Cell proliferation was reduced and retinal progenitor cells were significantly decreased in this mutant, which subsequently caused depletion of Müller glia, bipolar, and rod photoreceptor cells, primarily generated from postnatal retinal progenitor cells. Interestingly, the proportion of amacrine cells was dramatically increased at postnatal stages in the Eed-deficient retina. In accordance, multiple transcription factors controlling amacrine cell differentiation were upregulated. Furthermore, ChIP-seq analysis showed that these deregulated genes contained bivalent chromatin (H3K27me3 H3K4me3). Our results suggest that PRC2 is required for proliferation in order to maintain the retinal progenitor cells at postnatal stages and for retinal differentiation by controlling amacrine cell generation.

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iTRAQ-Based Proteomic Analysis of Neonatal Kidney from Offspring of Protein Restricted Rats Reveals Abnormalities in Intraflagellar Transport Proteins.

It is well recognized that adverse events in utero can impair fetal development and lead to the development of kidney injury and hypertension in adulthood. We previously reported a lower kidney index, glomeruli number, and decreased glomerular filtration rate in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) offspring induced by maternal protein malnutrition. To explore the molecular mechanisms linking impaired fetal growth to renal diseases, we investigated differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the IUGR neonatal kidneys by isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis.

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Altered EZH2 splicing and expression is associated with impaired histone H3 lysine 27 tri-Methylation in myelodysplastic syndrome.

EZH2 (enhancer of zeste homolog 2) is a histone H3K27 methyltransferase involved in the pathogenesis of various hematological malignancies. In myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), loss of function of EZH2 is known to contribute to pathogenesis, however the pattern of EZH2 mRNA and protein expression in MDS has not been extensively characterized.

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A cryptic Tudor domain links BRWD2/PHIP to COMPASS-mediated histone H3K4 methylation.

Histone H3 Lys4 (H3K4) methylation is a chromatin feature enriched at gene -regulatory sequences such as promoters and enhancers. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved factor, BRWD2/PHIP, which colocalizes with histone H3K4 methylation genome-wide in human cells, mouse embryonic stem cells, and Biochemical analysis of BRWD2 demonstrated an association with the Cullin-4-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase-4 (CRL4) complex, nucleosomes, and chromatin remodelers. BRWD2/PHIP binds directly to H3K4 methylation through a previously unidentified chromatin-binding module related to Royal Family Tudor domains, which we named the CryptoTudor domain. Using CRISPR-Cas9 genetic knockouts, we demonstrate that COMPASS H3K4 methyltransferase family members differentially regulate BRWD2/PHIP chromatin occupancy. Finally, we demonstrate that depletion of the single homolog dBRWD3 results in altered gene expression and aberrant patterns of histone H3 Lys27 acetylation at enhancers and promoters, suggesting a cross-talk between these chromatin modifications and transcription through the BRWD protein family.

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Molecular analysis of PRC2 recruitment to DNA in chromatin and its inhibition by RNA.

Many studies have revealed pathways of epigenetic gene silencing by Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in vivo, but understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms requires biochemistry. Here we analyze interactions of reconstituted human PRC2 with nucleosome complexes. Histone modifications, the H3K27M cancer mutation, and inclusion of JARID2 or EZH1 in the PRC2 complex have unexpectedly minor effects on PRC2-nucleosome binding. Instead, protein-free linker DNA dominates the PRC2-nucleosome interaction. Specificity for CG-rich sequences is consistent with PRC2 occupying CG-rich DNA in vivo. PRC2 preferentially binds methylated DNA regulated by its AEBP2 subunit, suggesting how DNA and histone methylation collaborate to repress chromatin. We find that RNA, known to inhibit PRC2 activity, is not a methyltransferase inhibitor per se. Instead, RNA sequesters PRC2 from nucleosome substrates, because PRC2 binding requires linker DNA, and RNA and DNA binding are mutually exclusive. Together, we provide a model for PRC2 recruitment and an explanation for how actively transcribed genomic regions bind PRC2 but escape silencing.

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alterations impair DNA damage recognition and lead to resistance to chemotherapy in leukemia.

Mutations in encoding the histone 3 lysine 36 trimethyltransferase, are enriched in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and MLL-rearranged acute leukemia. We investigated the impact of mutations on chemotherapy sensitivity in isogenic leukemia cell lines and in murine leukemia generated from a conditional knockout of mutations led to resistance to DNA-damaging agents, cytarabine, 6-thioguanine, doxorubicin, and etoposide, but not to a non-DNA damaging agent, l-asparaginase. H3K36me3 localizes components of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway and mutation impaired DDR, blunting apoptosis induced by cytotoxic chemotherapy. Consistent with local recruitment of DDR, genomic regions with higher H3K36me3 had a lower mutation rate, which was increased with SETD2 mutation. Heterozygous conditional inactivation of in a murine model decreased the latency of MLL-AF9-induced leukemia and caused resistance to cytarabine treatment in vivo, whereas homozygous loss delayed leukemia formation. Treatment with JIB-04, an inhibitor of the H3K9/36me3 demethylase KDM4A, restored H3K36me3 levels and sensitivity to cytarabine. These findings establish alteration as a mechanism of resistance to DNA-damaging chemotherapy, consistent with a local loss of DDR, and identify a potential therapeutic strategy to target -mutant leukemias.

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