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Feasibility Study of Phosphor Screen Containing Nano-Scale Anti-Reflection Layer for Improved Optical Properties in Indirect X-ray Detector.

With increasingly strict regulations regarding patient exposure, research on digital radiography technology has recently focused on indirect methods that can produce high-quality images for a low radiation dose. In particular, medical imaging systems based on indirect methods universally use rare-earth metal phosphors, because of their high atomic number and excellent luminescence efficiency. Thus, various studies aiming to improve the luminescence efficiency of phosphors have been conducted. Despite this research, however, the current luminescence efficiencies are insufficient. Here, we report a basic study aiming to develop a phosphor screen containing a three-quarter-wave optical-thickness layer to improve the light transmission efficiency. Specifically, the fabrication and measurement of a Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor screen containing a single three-quarter-wave optical-thickness layer is presented. The screen is fabricated via a screen-printing and spin-coating method. Based on histograms of the degree of luminescence and the pixel values, we demonstrate that the light transmission efficiency is improved by the three-quarter-wave optical-thickness layer. Note that analysis of the full width at half maximum of the pixel value distribution reveals the possibility of resolution loss when obtaining medical images. Overall, the results of this study confirm that the light transmission efficiency can be improved through use of a single-layer anti-reflection coating. However, because the emission spectrum of the Gd2O2S:Tb screen is in the 480-600-nm band, it is necessary to expand the areas exhibiting the lowest reflectance to the wavelengths at the edge of this band. Thus, further study should be conducted to optimize the optical thickness.

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Mouse Anti P. aeruginosa Mouse Anti P.aeruginosa s Mouse Anti P.aeruginosa s Mouse Anti Salmonella typ Mouse Anti Shigella boydi MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Mouse, Monoclon anti HSV (II) gB IgG1 (mo anti HCMV IE pp65 IgG1 (m

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Study of lung toxicity in rats exposed to silica powder with different hard metal constituents.

The objective of this study was to assess the lung toxicity induced by the inhalation of different hard metal constituents and silica powder and screen for potential toxicity biomarkers. Rats were randomly divided into saline, cobalt, tungsten carbide, silica, and hard metal (HM) groups and were administered a single 10-mg dose of the respective treatments. After 8 weeks, the lung tissue structure in the HM group was deformed, numerous nucleated giant and epithelial-like cells appeared in the stroma, and the computed tomography scanning images appeared abnormal. Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and TGF-β2 expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) significantly differed between the groups ( p < 0.05). Serum KL-6 and TGF-β1, but not TGF-β2, levels significantly differed between some groups ( p < 0.05). We observed multinucleated giant cells in the rat lung tissue. While the serum and BALF levels of KL-6 and TGF-β2 are not highly specific, TGF-β1 may be a valuable reference diagnostic marker in HM lung disease.

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Phytochemical Screening, Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Various Extracts from Endemic Origanum Acutidens.

Origanum acutidens (Hand.-Mazz.) Ietsw. is an endemic and perennial plant grown mainly in East Anatolia. Recently, natural plant products have attracted interest due to their safety and therapeutic effects. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate phytochemical contents and biological effects of Origanum acutidens.

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SFM Screening Kit Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Nrf antioxidant pathway A AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst-

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Distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil.

Walnut is one of the most popular nuts worldwide and contains various mineral nutrients. Little is known, however, about the relationship between toxic heavy metals in walnuts and growth soil. In this study, we investigated the distribution, relationship, and risk assessment of five toxic heavy metals-lead (Pb), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and mercury (Hg)-in walnuts and growth soil in the main production areas of China. The results showed that the main heavy metal pollution in walnut and soil was Pb and Cd. Regionally, positive relationships existed between heavy metals and the pH and organic matter of soil. In addition, we observed a notable uptake effect between walnut and growth soil. In this study, we found a significant correlation (r = 0.786, P < 0.05) between the bioconcentration factors and the longitude of the sampling areas. The risks (total hazard quotients) of five heavy metals toward children and adults by dietary walnut consumption were 46.8 and 56.2%, respectively. The ability to identify toxic heavy metal pollution in walnuts and growth soil could be helpful to screen suitable planting sites to prevent and control heavy metal pollution and improve the quality and safety of walnut.

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Human Insulin-like Growth Human Insulin-like Growth Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Mouse Insulin-like Growth Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 Rat Insulin-like Growth F AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2

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Redefinition and unification of the SXT/R391 family of integrative and conjugative elements.

Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family are key drivers of the spread of antibiotic resistance in , the infectious agent of cholera, and other pathogenic bacteria. The SXT/R391 family of ICEs was defined based on the conservation of a core set of 52 genes and site-specific integration into the 5' end of the chromosomal gene Hence, the integrase gene has been intensively used as a marker to detect SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical isolates. ICEs sharing most core genes but differing by their integration site and integrase gene have been recently reported and excluded from the SXT/R391 family. Here we explored the prevalence and diversity of atypical ICEs in Genbank databases and their relationship with typical SXT/R391 ICEs. We found atypical ICEs in isolates that predate the emergence and expansion of typical SXT/R391 ICEs in the mid-1980s in seventh pandemic toxigenic O1 and O139 strains. Our analyses revealed that while atypical ICEs are not associated with antibiotic resistance genes, they often carry cation efflux pumps suggesting heavy metal resistance. Atypical ICEs constitute a polyphyletic group likely because of occasional recombination events with typical ICEs. Furthermore, we show that the alternative integration and excision genes of atypical ICEs remain under the control of SetCD, the main activator of the conjugative functions of SXT/R391 ICEs. Together these observations indicate that substitution of the integration/excision module and change of specificity of integration do not preclude atypical ICEs from inclusion into the SXT/R391 family. is the causative agent of cholera, an acute intestinal infection that remains to this day a world public health threat. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) of the SXT/R391 family have played a major role in spreading antimicrobial resistance in seventh pandemic but also in several species of Most epidemiological surveys use the integrase gene as a marker to screen for SXT/R391 ICEs in clinical or environmental strains. With the recent reports of closely related elements that encode an alternative integrase gene, it became urgent to investigate whether ICEs that have been left out of the family are a liability for the accuracy of such screenings. In this study based on comparative genomics, we broaden the SXT/R391 family of ICEs to include atypical ICEs that are often associated with heavy metal resistance.

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Androgen Receptor (Phosph Androgen Receptor (Phosph Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Androgen Receptor (Ab 650 AZD-3514 Mechanisms: Andr 17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad

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Heavy metal enrichment and ecological risk assessment of surface sediments in Khorramabad River, West Iran.

The ecological health of rivers has often been threatened in urbanized catchments due to the expansion of industrial activities and the population growth. Khorramabad River which flows through Khorramabad city, west of Iran, is an example of such settings. The river water is used for agricultural purposes downstream. In this study, the effect of Khorramabad city on heavy metal and metalloid (Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, and As) loads in Khorramabad River sediments was investigated. To evaluate sediment pollution and potential adverse biological effects, surface sediment samples were collected at selected locations along the river and were characterized for their geochemical properties. Contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI), and ecological risk assessment (RI) were calculated. Also, sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) were used to screen contaminants of concern in the study area. The results showed that sediments were moderately polluted, with stations located in more densely populated areas showing higher pollution indicators. Copper, Zn, and Pb sources could be attributed to urban wastewater, whereas Ni, Cr, and As had both natural and anthropogenic sources. Moreover, ecological risk assessments showed that sediments could be classified in the category of low risk. The results of the present study showed the effect of anthropogenic activities on heavy metal loads of the river sediments and these findings can be used to mitigate potential impacts on the environment and human health.

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Observation of Quasi-Two-Dimensional Polar Domains and Ferroelastic Switching in a Metal, CaRuO.

Polar domains arise in insulating ferroelectrics when free carriers are unable to fully screen surface-bound charges. Recently discovered binary and ternary polar metals exhibit broken inversion symmetry coexisting with free electrons that might be expected to suppress the electrostatic driving force for domain formation. Contrary to this expectation, we report the first direct observation of polar domains in single crystals of the polar metal CaRuO. By a combination of mesoscale optical second-harmonic imaging and atomic-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, the polar domains are found to possess a quasi-two-dimensional slab geometry with a lateral size of ∼100 μm and thickness of ∼10 nm. Electronic structure calculations show that the coexistence of electronic and parity-lifting orders arise from anharmonic lattice interactions, which support 90° and 180° polar domains in a metal. Using in situ transmission electron microscopy, we also demonstrate a strain-tuning route to achieve ferroelastic switching of polar metal domains.

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Diversity Oriented Synthesis of 4H-Pyrimido[2,1-b]benzothiazole Derivatives via Biginellis Reaction: A Review.

Heterocycles has extended into wide spread use for generating large collection of molecules in multi-component reactions. The development of new strategies for fused pyrimidobenzothiazole system has remained a highly attractive but challenging proposition for scientists working all around.

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Sniffing Entrapped Humans with Sensor Arrays.

Earthquakes are lethal natural disasters frequently burying people alive under collapsed buildings. Tracking entrapped humans from their unique volatile chemical signature with hand-held devices would accelerate urban search and rescue (USaR) efforts. Here, a pilot study is presented with compact and orthogonal sensor arrays to detect the breath- and skin-emitted metabolic tracers acetone, ammonia, isoprene, CO, and relative humidity (RH), all together serving as sign of life. It consists of three nanostructured metal-oxide sensors (Si-doped WO, Si-doped MoO, and Ti-doped ZnO), each specifically tailored at the nanoscale for highly sensitive and selective tracer detection along with commercial CO and humidity sensors. When tested on humans enclosed in plethysmography chambers to simulate entrapment, this sensor array rapidly detected sub-ppm acetone, ammonia, and isoprene concentrations with high accuracies (19, 21, and 3 ppb, respectively) and precision, unprecedented by portable sensors but required for USaR. These results were in good agreement (Pearson's correlation coefficients ≥0.9) with benchtop selective reagent ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SRI-TOF-MS). As a result, an inexpensive sensor array is presented that can be integrated readily into hand-held or even drone-carried detectors for first responders to rapidly screen affected terrain.

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Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with "Green" Metals for Electrochemical Stripping Analysis of Toxic Elements.

This work reviews the field of screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) modified with "green" metals for electrochemical stripping analysis of toxic elements. Electrochemical stripping analysis has been established as a useful trace analysis technique offering many advantages compared to competing optical techniques. Although mercury has been the preferred electrode material for stripping analysis, the toxicity of mercury and the associated legal requirements in its use and disposal have prompted research towards the development of "green" metals as alternative electrode materials. When combined with the screen-printing technology, such environment-friendly metals can lead to disposable sensors for trace metal analysis with excellent operational characteristics. This review focuses on SPEs modified with Au, Bi, Sb, and Sn for stripping analysis of toxic elements. Different modification approaches (electroplating, bulk modification, use of metal precursors, microengineering techniques) are considered and representative applications are described. A developing related field, namely biosensing based on stripping analysis of metallic nanoprobe labels, is also briefly mentioned.

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