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           Search results for: MOUSE ANTI HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE B-MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY   

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Be Aware of Immunogenic But not Protective Antigens: The Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae PalA as an Example.

Identification of immunogenic antigens is an important step for the vaccine improvement. Previous studies indicated that Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae PalA is homologous to a Haemophilus influenzae protective antigen Hi-PAL (P6) protein. However, PalA protein adversely affects the Apx toxinbased subunit vaccine. The role of PalA in the inactivated vaccine is not known, and the mechanism involved in the PalA-mediated interference has not been investigated.

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Recombinant Viral antige 2,3-Anhydro-4,6-O-benzyli N-Benzyloxycarbonyl-L-asp Anti-BACE-1 (Memapsin-2, to BACE-1 (Memapsin-2, B Anti-BACE-1 (Memapsin-2, 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su 2-Amino Benzimidazole Su Beta-Amylase antibody Ho Tryptase beta-1 (TPS1) a CD30, Ki-1 Antigen; Clon CD30, Ki-1 Antigen; Clon

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Defective anti-polysaccharide IgG vaccine responses in IgA deficient mice.

We report that IgA mice exhibit specific defects in IgG antibody responses to various polysaccharide vaccines (Francisella tularensis LPS and Pneumovax), but not protein vaccines such as Fluzone. This defect further included responses to polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines (Prevnar and Haemophilus influenzae type b-tetanus toxoid vaccine). In agreement with these findings, IgA mice were protected from pathogen challenge with protein- but not polysaccharide-based vaccines. Interestingly, after immunization with live bacteria, IgA and IgA mice were both resistant to lethal challenge and their IgG anti-polysaccharide antibody responses were comparable. Immunization with live bacteria, but not purified polysaccharide, induced production of serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF), a cytokine important for IgG class switching; supplementing IgA cell cultures with BAFF enhanced in vitro polyclonal IgG production. Taken together, these findings show that IgA deficiency impairs IgG class switching following vaccination with polysaccharide antigens and that live bacterial immunization can overcome this defect. Since IgA deficient patients also often show defects in antibody responses following immunization with polysaccharide vaccines, our findings could have relevance to the clinical management of this population.

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Evaluation of the immunogenic property of NT H. influenzae protein D with Neisseria meningitidis OMV in BALB/c.

Identifying ideal non typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) vaccine candidates has not been easy due to extensive sequence and antigenic variation among gene products interacting with the immune system. Protein D (PD) is a highly conserved 42 kDa surface lipoprotein available in all H. influenzae, including NTHi.

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Immunization with Protein D from Non-Typeable (NTHi) Induced Cytokine Responses and Bioactive Antibody Production.

Outer membrane protein D (PD) is a highly conserved and stable protein in the outer membrane of both encapsulated (typeable) and non-capsulated (non-typeable) strains of . As an immunogen, PD is a potential candidate vaccine against non-typeable (NTHi) strains.

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Immunogenicity and protective immunity against otitis media caused by pneumococcus in mice of Hib conjugate vaccine with PsaA protein carrier.

This study evaluated the immunogenicity and protective immunity of a Hemophilus influenzae b (Hib) polysaccharide conjugate vaccine with the pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) protein carrier in young mice. The Hib polysaccharide was conjugated with the rPsaA protein carrier, which was produced using recombinant DNA technology. A total of 15 young mice aged 3 weeks to 5 weeks were immunized with the conjugate vaccine, and another 15 young mice of the same age were immunized with the licensed Hib-tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine. Furthermore, the third group of 15 young mice was inoculated with phosphate buffer saline as control. The immunized mice were inoculated with pneumococcus in the middle ear. Results showed that IgG antibody responses against both the PsaA protein and Hib polysaccharide were observed in the Hib-PsaA group. However, no statistical difference was observed in the titer of IgG against the Hib polysaccharide between Hib-PsaA and Hib-TT groups. The elimination rate of pneumococcus and the inflammation of the middle ear showed the effectiveness of protective immunity against otitis media caused by pneumococcus. Our results suggest that the Hib polysaccharide can be successfully conjugated with rPsaA via amide condensation. This new Hib-PsaA conjugate vaccine can induce both anti-PsaA and anti-Hib immune responses in young mice and elicit effective protection against acute otitis media caused by pneumococcus.

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Monoclonal antibodies against DNA-binding tips of DNABII proteins disrupt biofilms in vitro and induce bacterial clearance in vivo.

The vast majority of chronic and recurrent bacterial diseases are attributed to the presence of a recalcitrant biofilm that contributes significantly to pathogenesis. As such, these diseases will require an innovative therapeutic approach. We targeted DNABII proteins, an integral component of extracellular DNA (eDNA) which is universally found as part of the pathogenic biofilm matrix to develop a biofilm disrupting therapeutic. We show that a cocktail of monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes of a DNABII protein is highly effective to disrupt diverse biofilms in vitro as well as resolve experimental infection in vivo, in both a chinchilla and murine model. Combining this monoclonal antibody cocktail with a traditional antibiotic to kill bacteria newly released from the biofilm due to the action of the antibody cocktail was highly effective. Our results strongly support these monoclonal antibodies as attractive candidates for lead optimization as a therapeutic for resolution of bacterial biofilm diseases.

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Preclinical studies on new proteins as carrier for glycoconjugate vaccines.

Glycoconjugate vaccines are made of carbohydrate antigens covalently bound to a carrier protein to enhance their immunogenicity. Among the different carrier proteins tested in preclinical and clinical studies, five have been used so far for licensed vaccines: Diphtheria and Tetanus toxoids, the non-toxic mutant of diphtheria toxin CRM197, the outer membrane protein complex of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B and the Protein D derived from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. Availability of novel carriers might help to overcome immune interference in multi-valent vaccines containing several polysaccharide-conjugate antigens, and also to develop vaccines which target both protein as well saccharide epitopes of the same pathogen. Accordingly we have conducted a study to identify new potential carrier proteins. Twenty-eight proteins, derived from different bacteria, were conjugated to the model polysaccharide Laminarin and tested in mice for their ability in inducing antibodies against the carbohydrate antigen and eight of them were subsequently tested as carrier for serogroup meningococcal C oligosaccharides. Four out of these eight were able to elicit in mice satisfactory anti meningococcal serogroup C titers. Based on immunological evaluation, the Streptococcus pneumoniae protein spr96/2021 was successfully evaluated as carrier for serogroups A, C, W, Y and X meningococcal capsular saccharides.

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Novel Strategy To Protect against Influenza Virus-Induced Pneumococcal Disease without Interfering with Commensal Colonization.

Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly inhabits the nasopharynx as a member of the commensal biofilm. Infection with respiratory viruses, such as influenza A virus, induces commensal S. pneumoniae to disseminate beyond the nasopharynx and to elicit severe infections of the middle ears, lungs, and blood that are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Current preventive strategies, including the polysaccharide conjugate vaccines, aim to eliminate asymptomatic carriage with vaccine-type pneumococci. However, this has resulted in serotype replacement with, so far, less fit pneumococcal strains, which has changed the nasopharyngeal flora, opening the niche for entry of other virulent pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and potentially Haemophilus influenzae). The long-term effects of these changes are unknown. Here, we present an attractive, alternative preventive approach where we subvert virus-induced pneumococcal disease without interfering with commensal colonization, thus specifically targeting disease-causing organisms. In that regard, pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA), a major surface protein of pneumococci, is a promising vaccine target. Intradermal (i.d.) immunization of mice with recombinant PspA in combination with LT-IIb(T13I), a novel i.d. adjuvant of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, elicited strong systemic PspA-specific IgG responses without inducing mucosal anti-PspA IgA responses. This response protected mice from otitis media, pneumonia, and septicemia and averted the cytokine storm associated with septic infection but had no effect on asymptomatic colonization. Our results firmly demonstrated that this immunization strategy against virally induced pneumococcal disease can be conferred without disturbing the desirable preexisting commensal colonization of the nasopharynx.

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Molecular Cloning, Expression and Purification of Truncated hpd Fragment of Haemophilus influenzae in Escherichia coli.

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a significant pathogen in children, causing otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, and occasionally invasive infections. Protein D (PD) belongs to the minor outer-membrane proteins of H. influenza. Moreover, it has been shown that this protein is one of the most potent vaccine candidates against the NTHi strain.

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PHiD-CV induces anti-Protein D antibodies but does not augment pulmonary clearance of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae in mice.

A recently-licensed 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV; Synflorix, GSK) uses Protein D from Haemophilus influenzae as a carrier protein. PHiD-CV therefore has the potential to provide additional protection against nontypeable H. influenzae (NTHi). NTHi frequently causes respiratory tract infections and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and there is currently no vaccine.

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