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Recombinant outer membrane protein 25c from Brucella abortus induces Th1 and Th2 mediated protection against Brucella abortus infection in mouse model.

Development of a safe and efficacious vaccine for brucellosis is a long standing challenge for scientists. Recognizing potential antigens towards developing vaccine candidate is crucial. Omp25c, a porin protein of Brucella, is a paralog of two previously identified promising vaccine candidates namely, Omp25 and Omp31, with notable sequence identity. Also, Omp25c is conserved in all major Brucella species. This highlights the possibility of employing this protein in multivalent subunit vaccine based approach of Brucella management. In this study, we were interested in examining the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Omp25c against Brucella infections. Recombinant unlipidated form of this antigen (rOmp25c) produced, upon intraperitoneal immunization in BALB/c mice along with Freund's adjuvant, was confirmed to be highly immunogenic; leading to high IgG antibody titers during the study duration. The IgG2a/IgG2b ratio of anti-rOmp25c antibodies revealed elicitation of Th2 based humoral immunity. Lymphocyte proliferation study divulged induction of specific memory response and secretion of both Th1-type (IFN-γ, GM-CSF and TNF-α) and Th2-type cytokine (IL-5) from restimulated splenocytes of rOmp25c immunized mice. CD4 T-cell subpopulation was comparatively increased than total B cell subpopulation in case of immunized mice, indicating the induction of strong cell-mediated (Th1 biased) immunity than humoral (Th2) immunity. The collective Th1 plus Th2 immune response specific to rOmp25c could be the reason for protection against Brucella challenge observed in mice groups that was comparable with S19 vaccine strain. Thus, the study encourages rOmp25c as a potent candidate vaccine against brucellosis.

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Intraperitoneal administration of a novel chimeric immunogen (rOP) elicits IFN-γ and IL-12p70 protective immune response in BALB/c mice against virulent Brucella.

Recombinant engineering of immunologically active chimeric protein consisting of Omp19 and P39 domains of B. abortus (rOP), was purified under denaturing conditions upon expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and refolded to dynamic form. The immuno-protective efficacy of rOP was evaluated by challenging the BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (I.P) with the infective species of Brucella in the absence or presence of adjuvants, such as Aluminum hydroxide gel (Al), or Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)/Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA). Surprisingly, after second boosting, mice received rOP per se were found to be immunogenic in terms of IgG response with the dominant expression of IgG2a and significant IFN-γ by splenic T cells, suggesting that rOP is a strong inducer of anti-Brucella immunity. The resulted anti-rOP antibodies recognized native Omp19 and P39 among species of Brucella with distinct double bands and single band against chimera in immunoblotting. An enhanced and comparable antibody response with varied IgG isotype combinations were noticed in the mice primed and boosted with rOP in adjuvants. However, rOP+FCA/IFA formulation was found to be the most effective in lymphocyte recall assays at inducing significant (P<0.001) proliferation index (P.I.) as well as increased Th1-coupled cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70) than rOP+Al in response to rOP re-stimulation. Furthermore, in vitro defensive assay revealed that compared to anti-rOP antisera, the polyclonal anti-sera from rOP+adjuvants exhibited enhanced protection of RAW264.7 cells against virulent challenge by B. melitensis 16M and B. abortus 544. In addition, compared to sham group, enumeration of Brucella CFU after challenge with the above species showed a significant (P<0.01) reduction of bacteria (log CFU) in the macrophage cell lines and organs of vaccinated mice. On the whole, a relatively higher and faster reduction was noticed in the mice vaccinated with similar amount of purified antigen in Freund's adjuvant. Ability of inducing Th1 directed immune protection in the absence of adjuvant support, postulated rOP as a plausible entrant for developing a chimeric based subunit vaccine against Brucella.

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Deletion of the transcriptional regulator GntR down regulated the expression of Genes Related to Virulence and Conferred Protection against Wild-Type Brucella Challenge in BALB/c Mice.

Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., is a zoonotic infectious disease that can cause great hazard to public health and safety. The virulence of Brucella is essential for survive and multiply in host macrophages. GntR is a transcriptional regulator in Brucella that is required for virulence in macrophages and mice, and involved in resistance to stress responses. To determine the expression levels of target genes of GntR, we detected the expression levels of the GntR target genes in Brucella infected BALB/c mice. The results showed that several genes related to virulence, including omp25, virB1, vjbR, dnaK, htrA and hfq, were regulated by GntR during infection in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the 2308ΔgntR mutant induced high protective immunity in BALB/c mice challenge with B. abortus 2308 (S2308), and elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). All together, these results indicated that gntR promoted the virulence of Brucella. The 2308ΔgntR was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced protective immune response during infection, suggested that 2308ΔgntR mutant is an attractive candidate for the design of a live attenuated vaccine against Brucella.

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Evaluation of recombinant porin (rOmp2a) protein as a potential antigen candidate for serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis.

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by different Brucella species and human brucellosis is commonly prevalent in different states of India. Among various Brucella species, B. melitensis is most pathogenic to human and included as category B biothreat which can cause infection through aerosol, cut, wounds in skin and contact with infected animals. The diagnosis of human brucellosis is very important for proper treatment and management of disease as there is no vaccine available for human use. The present study was designed to clone, express and purify immunodominant recombinant omp2a (rOmp2a) porin protein of B. melitensis and to evaluate this new antigen candidate for specific serodiagnosis of human brucellosis by highly sensitive iELISA (indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).

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Brucella lipopolysaccharide reinforced Salmonella delivering Brucella immunogens protects mice against virulent challenge.

Intracellular pathogen Salmonella exhibits natural infection broadly analogous to Brucella, this phenomenon makes Salmonella a pragmatic choice for an anti-Brucella vaccine delivery platform. In this study we developed and formulated a combination of four attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium live vector strains delivering heterologous Brucella antigens (rBs), namely lumazine synthase, proline racemase subunit A, lipoprotein outer membrane protein-19, and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. With an aim to develop a cross-protecting vaccine, Brucella pan-species conserved rBs were selected. The present study compared the efficacy of smooth and rough variants of Salmonella delivery vector and also evaluated the inclusion of purified Brucella lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the formulation. Immunization of SPF-BALB/c mice with the vaccine combinations significantly (P≤0.05) reduced splenic wild-type Brucella abortus 544 colonization as compared to non-immunized mice as well as Salmonella only immunized mice. Increased induction of Brucella specific-IgG, sIgA production, and antigen-specific splenocyte proliferative responses were observed in the mice immunized with the formulations as compared to naïve or vector only immunized mice. Modulatory effects of rB and LPS on production of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, and interferon-γ were detected in splenocytes of mice immunized with the formulation. Rough Salmonella variant in combination with LPS could further enhance the efficacy of the delivery when applied intraperitoneally. Taken together, it is compelling that Brucella LPS-augmented Salmonella vector delivering immunogenic Brucella proteins may be more suitable than the current non-ideal live Brucella abortus vaccine. The vaccine system also provides a basis for the development of cross-protecting vaccine capable of preventing multispecies brucellosis.

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Novel Solutions for Vaccines and Diagnostics To Combat Brucellosis.

Brucellosis is diagnosed by detection of antibodies in the blood of animals and humans that are specific for two carbohydrate antigens, termed A and M, which are present concurrently in a single cell wall O-polysaccharide. Animal brucellosis vaccines contain these antigenic determinants, and consequently infected and vaccinated animals cannot be differentiated as both groups produce A and M specific antibodies. We hypothesized that chemical synthesis of a pure A vaccine would offer unique identification of infected animals by a synthetic M diagnostic antigen that would not react with antibodies generated by this vaccine. Two forms of the A antigen, a hexasaccharide and a heptasaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid via reducing and nonreducing terminal sugars, were synthesized and used as lead vaccine candidates. Mouse antibody profiles to these immunogens showed that to avoid reaction with diagnostic M antigen it was essential to maximize the induction of anti-A antibodies that bind internal oligosaccharide sequences and minimize production of antibodies directed toward the terminal nonreducing monosaccharide. This objective was achieved by conjugation of O-polysaccharide to tetanus toxoid via its periodate oxidized terminal nonreducing monosaccharide, thereby destroying terminal epitopes and focusing the antibody response on internal A epitopes. This establishes the method to resolve the decades-long challenge of how to create effective brucellosis vaccines without compromising diagnosis of infected animals.

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Characterization of structural and immunological properties of a fusion protein between flagellin from Salmonella and lumazine synthase from Brucella.

Aiming to combine the flexibility of Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) to adapt different protein domains in a decameric structure and the capacity of BLS and flagellin to enhance the immunogenicity of peptides that are linked to their structure, we generated a chimeric protein (BLS-FliC131) by fusing flagellin from Salmonella in the N-termini of BLS. The obtained protein was recognized by anti-flagellin and anti-BLS antibodies, keeping the oligomerization capacity of BLS, without affecting the folding of the monomeric protein components determined by circular dichroism. Furthermore, the thermal stability of each fusion partner is conserved, indicating that the interactions that participate in its folding are not affected by the genetic fusion. Besides, either in vitro or in vivo using TLR5-deficient animals we could determine that BLS-FliC131 retains the capacity of triggering TLR5. The humoral response against BLS elicited by BLS-FliC131 was stronger than the one elicited by equimolar amounts of BLS + FliC. Since BLS scaffold allows the generation of hetero-decameric structures, we expect that flagellin oligomerization on this protein scaffold will generate a new vaccine platform with enhanced capacity to activate immune responses.

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Brucella abortus 2308ΔNodVΔNodW double-mutant is highly attenuated and confers protection against wild-type challenge in BALB/c mice.

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, which causes animal and human disease. However, the current Brucella abortus (B. abortus) vaccines (S19 and RB51) have several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Moreover, S19 cannot allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. We constructed double deletion (ΔNodVΔNodW) mutant from virulent B. abortus 2308 (S2308) by deleting the genes encoding two-component regulatory system (TCS) in chromosome II in S2308.2308ΔNodVΔNodW was significantly reduced survival in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice. Moreover, the inoculated mice showed no splenomegaly. The mutant induced high protective immunity in BALB/c mice against challenge with S2308, and elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Moreover, NODV and NODW antigens would allow the serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. These results suggest that 2308ΔNodVΔNodW mutant is a potential live attenuated vaccine candidate and can be used effectively against bovine brucellosis.

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Immunoreactivity evaluation of a new recombinant chimeric protein against in the murine model.

Brucellosis is an important health problem in developing countries and no vaccine is available for the prevention of infection in humans. Because of clinically infectious diseases and their economic consequences in human and animals, designing a proper vaccine against is desirable. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses induced by a designed recombinant chimera protein in murine model.

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Cellular Internalization Mechanisms of Polyanhydride Particles: Implications for Rational Design of Drug Delivery Vehicles.

Polyanhydride nanoparticles have emerged as a versatile delivery platform, due to their ability to encapsulate diverse drugs, immunogens, antibodies, and proteins. However, mechanistic studies on the effects of particle chemistry interactions with immune cells have yet to be described. Understanding the mechanism by which these particles are internalized by immune cells will enable rational selection of delivery vehicles for specific applications. In the present study, the internalization, mechanism(s) of uptake by monocytes, and intracellular fate of polyanhydride nanoparticles were evaluated using copolymers based on 1,6-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)hexane (CPH), sebacic acid (SA), and 1,8-bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)3,6-dioxaoctane (CPTEG). The results showed that 20:80 CPH:SA and 20:80 CPTEG:CPH nanoparticles were internalized to a greater extent by monocytes as compared to the 50:50 CPH:SA and 50:50 CPTEH:CPH nanoparticles. Further, cytochalasin-D treatment of cells inhibited uptake of all the particles, regardless of chemistry, indicating that actinmediated uptake is the primary mechanism of cellular entry for these particles. The insights gained from these studies were used to identify lead nanoparticle formulations to enhance treatment of intracellular bacterial infections. The use of doxycycline-loaded nanoparticles exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy compared to soluble drug in treating monocyte monolayers infected with the virulent intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus. Altogether, these studies demonstrate how rational design and selection of nanoscale delivery platforms can be used for a wide spectrum of biomedical applications.

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