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Intraperitoneal administration of a novel chimeric immunogen (rOP) elicits IFN-γ and IL-12p70 protective immune response in BALB/c mice against virulent Brucella.

Recombinant engineering of immunologically active chimeric protein consisting of Omp19 and P39 domains of B. abortus (rOP), was purified under denaturing conditions upon expression in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and refolded to dynamic form. The immuno-protective efficacy of rOP was evaluated by challenging the BALB/c mice intraperitoneally (I.P) with the infective species of Brucella in the absence or presence of adjuvants, such as Aluminum hydroxide gel (Al), or Freund's Complete Adjuvant (FCA)/Incomplete Freund's Adjuvant (IFA). Surprisingly, after second boosting, mice received rOP per se were found to be immunogenic in terms of IgG response with the dominant expression of IgG2a and significant IFN-γ by splenic T cells, suggesting that rOP is a strong inducer of anti-Brucella immunity. The resulted anti-rOP antibodies recognized native Omp19 and P39 among species of Brucella with distinct double bands and single band against chimera in immunoblotting. An enhanced and comparable antibody response with varied IgG isotype combinations were noticed in the mice primed and boosted with rOP in adjuvants. However, rOP+FCA/IFA formulation was found to be the most effective in lymphocyte recall assays at inducing significant (P<0.001) proliferation index (P.I.) as well as increased Th1-coupled cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12p70) than rOP+Al in response to rOP re-stimulation. Furthermore, in vitro defensive assay revealed that compared to anti-rOP antisera, the polyclonal anti-sera from rOP+adjuvants exhibited enhanced protection of RAW264.7 cells against virulent challenge by B. melitensis 16M and B. abortus 544. In addition, compared to sham group, enumeration of Brucella CFU after challenge with the above species showed a significant (P<0.01) reduction of bacteria (log CFU) in the macrophage cell lines and organs of vaccinated mice. On the whole, a relatively higher and faster reduction was noticed in the mice vaccinated with similar amount of purified antigen in Freund's adjuvant. Ability of inducing Th1 directed immune protection in the absence of adjuvant support, postulated rOP as a plausible entrant for developing a chimeric based subunit vaccine against Brucella.

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Deletion of the transcriptional regulator GntR down regulated the expression of Genes Related to Virulence and Conferred Protection against Wild-Type Brucella Challenge in BALB/c Mice.

Brucellosis, which is caused by Brucella spp., is a zoonotic infectious disease that can cause great hazard to public health and safety. The virulence of Brucella is essential for survive and multiply in host macrophages. GntR is a transcriptional regulator in Brucella that is required for virulence in macrophages and mice, and involved in resistance to stress responses. To determine the expression levels of target genes of GntR, we detected the expression levels of the GntR target genes in Brucella infected BALB/c mice. The results showed that several genes related to virulence, including omp25, virB1, vjbR, dnaK, htrA and hfq, were regulated by GntR during infection in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the 2308ΔgntR mutant induced high protective immunity in BALB/c mice challenge with B. abortus 2308 (S2308), and elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). All together, these results indicated that gntR promoted the virulence of Brucella. The 2308ΔgntR was significantly attenuated in macrophages and mice and induced protective immune response during infection, suggested that 2308ΔgntR mutant is an attractive candidate for the design of a live attenuated vaccine against Brucella.

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Evaluation of recombinant porin (rOmp2a) protein as a potential antigen candidate for serodiagnosis of Human Brucellosis.

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by different Brucella species and human brucellosis is commonly prevalent in different states of India. Among various Brucella species, B. melitensis is most pathogenic to human and included as category B biothreat which can cause infection through aerosol, cut, wounds in skin and contact with infected animals. The diagnosis of human brucellosis is very important for proper treatment and management of disease as there is no vaccine available for human use. The present study was designed to clone, express and purify immunodominant recombinant omp2a (rOmp2a) porin protein of B. melitensis and to evaluate this new antigen candidate for specific serodiagnosis of human brucellosis by highly sensitive iELISA (indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).

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Novel Solutions for Vaccines and Diagnostics To Combat Brucellosis.

Brucellosis is diagnosed by detection of antibodies in the blood of animals and humans that are specific for two carbohydrate antigens, termed A and M, which are present concurrently in a single cell wall O-polysaccharide. Animal brucellosis vaccines contain these antigenic determinants, and consequently infected and vaccinated animals cannot be differentiated as both groups produce A and M specific antibodies. We hypothesized that chemical synthesis of a pure A vaccine would offer unique identification of infected animals by a synthetic M diagnostic antigen that would not react with antibodies generated by this vaccine. Two forms of the A antigen, a hexasaccharide and a heptasaccharide conjugated to tetanus toxoid via reducing and nonreducing terminal sugars, were synthesized and used as lead vaccine candidates. Mouse antibody profiles to these immunogens showed that to avoid reaction with diagnostic M antigen it was essential to maximize the induction of anti-A antibodies that bind internal oligosaccharide sequences and minimize production of antibodies directed toward the terminal nonreducing monosaccharide. This objective was achieved by conjugation of Brucella O-polysaccharide to tetanus toxoid via its periodate oxidized terminal nonreducing monosaccharide, thereby destroying terminal epitopes and focusing the antibody response on internal A epitopes. This establishes the method to resolve the decades-long challenge of how to create effective brucellosis vaccines without compromising diagnosis of infected animals.

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Characterization of structural and immunological properties of a fusion protein between flagellin from Salmonella and lumazine synthase from Brucella.

Aiming to combine the flexibility of Brucella lumazine synthase (BLS) to adapt different protein domains in a decameric structure and the capacity of BLS and flagellin to enhance the immunogenicity of peptides that are linked to their structure, we generated a chimeric protein (BLS-FliC131) by fusing flagellin from Salmonella in the N-termini of BLS. The obtained protein was recognized by anti-flagellin and anti-BLS antibodies, keeping the oligomerization capacity of BLS, without affecting the folding of the monomeric protein components determined by circular dichroism. Furthermore, the thermal stability of each fusion partner is conserved, indicating that the interactions that participate in its folding are not affected by the genetic fusion. Besides, either in vitro or in vivo using TLR5-deficient animals we could determine that BLS-FliC131 retains the capacity of triggering TLR5. The humoral response against BLS elicited by BLS-FliC131 was stronger than the one elicited by equimolar amounts of BLS + FliC. Since BLS scaffold allows the generation of hetero-decameric structures, we expect that flagellin oligomerization on this protein scaffold will generate a new vaccine platform with enhanced capacity to activate immune responses.

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Brucella abortus 2308ΔNodVΔNodW double-mutant is highly attenuated and confers protection against wild-type challenge in BALB/c mice.

Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, which causes animal and human disease. However, the current Brucella abortus (B. abortus) vaccines (S19 and RB51) have several drawbacks, including residual virulence for animals and humans. Moreover, S19 cannot allow serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. We constructed double deletion (ΔNodVΔNodW) mutant from virulent B. abortus 2308 (S2308) by deleting the genes encoding two-component regulatory system (TCS) in chromosome II in S2308.2308ΔNodVΔNodW was significantly reduced survival in murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and BALB/c mice. Moreover, the inoculated mice showed no splenomegaly. The mutant induced high protective immunity in BALB/c mice against challenge with S2308, and elicited an anti-Brucella-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) response and induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). Moreover, NODV and NODW antigens would allow the serological differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals. These results suggest that 2308ΔNodVΔNodW mutant is a potential live attenuated vaccine candidate and can be used effectively against bovine brucellosis.

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Immunoreactivity evaluation of a new recombinant chimeric protein against Brucella in the murine model.

Brucellosis is an important health problem in developing countries and no vaccine is available for the prevention of infection in humans. Because of clinically infectious diseases and their economic consequences in human and animals, designing a proper vaccine against Brucella is desirable. In this study, we evaluated the immune responses induced by a designed recombinant chimera protein in murine model.

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Brucella abortus mutants lacking ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins are highly attenuated in virulence and confer protective immunity against virulent B. abortus challenge in BALB/c mice.

Brucella abortus RB51 is an attenuated vaccine strain that has been most frequently used for bovine brucellosis. Although it is known to provide good protection in cattle, it still has some drawbacks including resistance to rifampicin, residual virulence and pathogenicity in humans. Thus, there has been a continuous interest on new safe and effective bovine vaccine candidates. In the present study, we have constructed unmarked mutants by deleting singly cydD and cydC genes, which encode ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins, from the chromosome of the virulent Brucella abortus isolate from Korean cow (referred to as IVK15). Both IVK15ΔcydD and ΔcydC mutants showed increased sensitivity to metal ions, hydrogen peroxide and acidic pH, which are mimic to intracellular environment during host infection. Additionally, the mutants exhibited a significant growth defect in RAW264.7 cells and greatly attenuated in mice. Vaccination of mice with either IVK15ΔcydC or IVK15ΔcydD mutant could elicit an anti-Brucella specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgG subclass responses as well as enhance the secretion of interferon-gamma, and provided better protection against challenge with B. abortus strain 2308 than with the commercial B. abortus strain RB51 vaccine. Collectively, these results suggest that both IVK15ΔcydC and IVK15ΔcydD mutants could be an attenuated vaccine candidate against B. abortus.

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Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of Brucella abortus recombinant protein cocktail (rOmp19+rP39) against B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M infection in murine model.

In this study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant proteins Omp19 (rO) and P39 (rP) from Brucella abortus were evaluated individually and compared with the cocktail protein (rO+rP) against B. abortus 544 and Brucella melitensis 16M infection in BALB/c mouse model. Intra-peritoneal (I.P.) immunization with rO+rP cocktail developed substantially higher antibody titers predominant with Th1 mediated isotypes (IgG2a/2b). Western blot analysis using anti-rO+rP antibodies showed specific reactivity with native Omp19 (19 kDa) and P39 (39 kDa) among whole cell proteins of B. abortus and B. melitensis. Splenocytes extracted from rO+rP immunized mice induced significantly (P<0.001) higher proliferative responses at 30 μg/ml with considerable expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-12) than rO and rP. Macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) monolayer supplemented with anti-rO+rP polysera exhibited enhanced viability against challenge with B. abortus 544 (72.27%) and B. melitensis 16M (68.57%). On the other hand, individual anti-rO and anti-rP polysera resulted in relatively lesser protection against the pathogens (64.79%, 54.45% and 47.13%, 45.11%, respectively). Immunized group of mice when I.P. challenged with 5 × 10(4) CFU of B. abortus 544 and B. melitensis 16M were found significantly (P<0.001) protected in the rO+rP group (log units of protection, spleen: 2.38, 2.12; liver: 1.04, 0.81, respectively) than in rO (spleen: 1.43, 1.21; liver: 0.7, 0.47) and rP (spleen: 1.24, 1.17; liver: 0.65, 0.34). Findings from this study depicted that rO+rP cocktail is highly immunogenic with the Th1 predominant serum antibody titers and T-cell mediated immune protection, would be a valuable intervention in the development of a safer and improved Brucella vaccine.

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Immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody.

We examined the immunological characteristics of outer membrane protein omp31 of goat Brucella and its monoclonal antibody. Genomic DNA from the M5 strain of goat Brucella was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1. The expression and immunological characteristics of the fusion protein GST-omp31 were subjected to preliminary western blot detection with goat Brucella rabbit immune serum. The Brucella immunized BALB/c mouse serum was detected using purified protein. The high-potency mouse splenocytes and myeloma Sp2/0 cells were fused. Positive clones were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to establish a hybridoma cell line. Mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with hybridoma cells to prepare ascites. The mAb was purified using the n-caprylic acid-ammonium sulfate method. The characteristics of mAb were examined using western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A 680-base pair band was observed after polymerase chain reaction. Enzyme digestion identification and sequencing showed that the pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established; a target band of approximately 57 kDa with an apparent molecular weight consistent with the size of the target fusion protein. At 25°C, the expression of soluble expression increased significantly; the fusion protein GST-omp31 was detected by western blotting. Anti-omp31 protein mAb was obtained from 2 strains of Brucella. The antibody showed strong specificity and sensitivity and did not cross-react with Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or Bacillus pyocyaneus. The pGEX-4T-1-omp31 prokaryotic expression vector was successfully established and showed good immunogenicity. The antibody also showed strong specificity and good sensitivity.

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