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Silencing of Phospholipase C gamma 2 Promotes Proliferation of Rat Hepatocytes In Vitro.

The management of hepatic failure is undoubtedly difficult, and poor results have led to the search for novel therapeutic approaches. Nowadays, anti-apoptotic gene therapy is considered as an ideal approach. It has been proved that phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) is involved in the apoptosis of immune cells and tumor cells; however, whether this gene is related to hepatocyte death is still unclear. This study examined the role of PLCγ2 by inhibiting its expression in rat hepatocytes with siRNA. We also further analyzed the cellular mechanism by which the expression inhibition of PLCγ2 induces cell death. Silencing PLCγ2 gene by adenovirus vector expressing PLCγ2-targeted siRNA caused the great decline in the number of G1- and G2/M phase cells, the significant increase in the number of S phase cells, and the obvious reduction in apoptosis index. In addition, silencing PLCγ2 gene relieved the rat hepatocyte damage, such as the cell shrinkage and chromatin condensation, nuclear fragmentation. Further analysis of Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA-transfected hepatocytes demonstrated that suppression of PLCγ2 gene expression could cause the caspase dependent cell death by inhibiting the signal pathway MEKK1/MKK4/JNK1/2/c-Jun. In conclusion, these findings suggest that interference with PLCγ2 expression could relieve the inhibitory effect of PLCγ2 on hepaocyte apoptosis, thus promote proliferation through inactivating PKCδ-mediated JNK1/2 signaling pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Stimulation of p300-mediated transcription by the kinase MEKK1.

p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP) are related transcriptional coactivators that possess histone acetyltransferase activity. Inactivation of p300/CBP is part of the mechanism by which adenovirus E1A induces oncogenic transformation of cells. Recently, the importance of p300/CBP has been demonstrated directly in several organisms including mouse, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans where p300/CBP play an indispensable role in differentiation, in patterning, and in cell fate determination and proliferation during development. CBP/p300s are modified by phosphorylation during F9 cell differentiation as well as adenovirus infection, suggesting that phosphorylation may play a role in the regulation of p300/CBP activity. Here we show that the mitogen-activated/extracellular response kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) enhances p300-mediated transcription. We identify several domains within p300 that can respond to MEKK1-induced transcriptional activation. Interestingly, activation of p300-mediated transcription by MEKK1 does not appear to require the downstream kinase JNK and may involve either a direct phosphorylation of p300 by MEKK1 or by other non-JNK MEKK1-directed downstream kinases. Finally, we present evidence that p300 is important for MEKK1 to induce apoptosis. Taken together, these results identify MEKK1 as a kinase that is likely to be involved in the regulation of the transactivation potential of p300 and support a role of p300 in MEKK1-induced apoptosis.

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Cytoprotection by Jun kinase during nitric oxide-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis.

Nitric oxide (NO) induces apoptosis in cardiac myocytes through an oxidant-sensitive mechanism. However, additional factors appear to modulate the exact timing and rate of NO-dependent apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK] 1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK] 1/2, and p38MAPK) in NO-mediated apoptotic signaling. The NO donor S:-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, preceded by a rapid (<10-minute) and significant (approximately 50-fold) activation of JNK1/2. Activation of JNK was cGMP dependent and was inversely related to NO concentration; it was maximal at the lowest dose of GSNO (10 micromol/L) and negligible at 1 mmol/L. NO slightly increased ERK1/2 beginning at 2 hours but did not affect p38MAPK activity. Inhibitors of ERK and p38MAPK activation did not affect cell death rates. In contrast, expression of dominant-negative JNK1 or MKK4 mutants significantly increased NO-induced apoptosis at 5 hours (56.77% and 57.37%, respectively, versus control, 40.5%), whereas MEKK1, an upstream activator of JNK, sharply reduced apoptosis in a JNK-dependent manner. Adenovirus-mediated expression of dominant-negative JNK1 both eliminated the rapid activation of JNK by NO and accelerated NO-mediated apoptosis by approximately 2 hours. These data indicate that NO activates JNK as part of a cytoprotective response, concurrent with initiation of apoptotic signaling. Early, transient activation of JNK serves both to delay and to reduce the total extent of apoptosis in cardiac myocytes.

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Adenovirus E1B 19,000-molecular-weight protein activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and c-Jun-mediated transcription.

Adenovirus E1B proteins (19,000-molecular-weight [19K] and 55K proteins) inhibit apoptosis and cooperate with adenovirus E1A to induce full oncogenic transformation of primary cells. The E1B 19K protein has previously been shown to be capable of activating transcription; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we show that adenovirus infection activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and that the E1B gene products are necessary for adenovirus to activate JNK. In transfection assays, we show that the E1B 19K protein is sufficient to activate JNK and can strongly induce c-Jun-dependent transcription. Mapping studies show that the C-terminal portion of E1B 19K is necessary for induction of c-Jun-mediated transcription. Using dominant-negative mutants of several kinases upstream of JNK, we show that MEKK1 and MKK4, but not Ras, are involved in the induction of JNK activity by adenovirus infection. The same dominant-negative kinase mutants also block the ability of E1B 19K to induce c-Jun-mediated transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that E1B 19K may utilize the MEKK1-MKK4-JNK signaling pathway to activate c-Jun-dependent transcription and demonstrate a novel, kinase-activating activity of E1B 19K that may underlie its ability to regulate transcription.

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