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A catalytically inactive gelatinase B/MMP-9 mutant impairs homing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by altering migration regulatory pathways.

We previously showed that MMP-9 overexpression impairs migration of primary CLL cells and MEC-1 cells transfected with MMP-9. To determine the contribution of non-proteolytic activities to this effect we generated MEC-1 transfectants stably expressing catalytically inactive MMP-9MutE (MMP-9MutE-cells). In xenograft models in mice, MMP-9MutE-cells showed impaired homing to spleen and bone marrow, compared to cells transfected with empty vector (Mock-cells). In vitro transendothelial and random migration of MMP-9MutE-cells were also reduced. Biochemical analyses indicated that RhoAGTPase and p-Akt were not downregulated by MMP-9MutE, at difference with MMP-9. However, MMP-9MutE-cells or primary cells incubated with MMP-9MutE had significantly reduced p-ERK and increased PTEN, accounting for the impaired migration. Our results emphasize the role of non-proteolytic MMP-9 functions contributing to CLL progression.

1571 related Products with: A catalytically inactive gelatinase B/MMP-9 mutant impairs homing of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells by altering migration regulatory pathways.

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Chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting Fc μ receptor selectively eliminate CLL cells while sparing healthy B cells.

Adoptive cell therapy of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells targeting CD19 induced lasting remission of this refractory disease in a number of patients. However, the treatment is associated with prolonged "on-target off-tumor" toxicities due to the targeted elimination of healthy B cells demanding more selectivity in targeting CLL cells. We identified the immunoglobulin M Fc receptor (FcμR), also known as the Fas apoptotic inhibitory molecule-3 or TOSO, as a target for a more selective treatment of CLL by CAR T cells. FcμR is highly and consistently expressed by CLL cells; only minor levels are detected on healthy B cells or other hematopoietic cells. T cells with a CAR specific for FcμR efficiently responded toward CLL cells, released a panel of proinflammatory cytokines and lytic factors, like soluble FasL and granzyme B, and eliminated the leukemic cells. In contrast to CD19 CAR T cells, anti-FcμR CAR T cells did not attack healthy B cells. T cells with anti-FcμR CAR delayed outgrowth of Mec-1-induced leukemia in a xenograft mouse model. T cells from CLL patients in various stages of the disease, modified by the anti-FcμR CAR, purged their autologous CLL cells in vitro without reducing the number of healthy B cells, which is the case with anti-CD19 CAR T cells. Compared with the currently used therapies, the data strongly imply a superior therapeutic index of anti-FcμR CAR T cells for the treatment of CLL.

1510 related Products with: Chimeric antigen receptor T cells targeting Fc μ receptor selectively eliminate CLL cells while sparing healthy B cells.

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Cloning, Expression and Purification of Penicillin Binding Protein2a (PBP2a) from Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A Study on Immunoreactivity in Balb/C Mouse.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major nosocomial pathogen and the infection with this organism in human is increasing due to the spread of antibiotic resistant strains. One of the resistance mechanisms of S. aureus comprises modification in binding proteins to penicillin. Vaccine strategy may be useful in controlling the infections induced by this organism. This study aimed at developing and producing the recombinant protein PBP2a as a vaccine candidate and evaluating the related humoral immune response in a murine model.

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Transgenically targeted rabies virus demonstrates a major monosynaptic projection from hippocampal area CA2 to medial entorhinal layer II neurons.

The enormous potential of modern molecular neuroanatomical tools lies in their ability to determine the precise connectivity of the neuronal cell types comprising the innate circuitry of the brain. We used transgenically targeted viral tracing to identify the monosynaptic inputs to the projection neurons of layer II of medial entorhinal cortex (MEC-LII) in mice. These neurons are not only major inputs to the hippocampus, the structure most clearly implicated in learning and memory, they also are "grid cells." Here we address the question of what kinds of inputs are specifically targeting these MEC-LII cells. Cell-specific infection of MEC-LII with recombinant rabies virus results in unambiguous labeling of monosynaptic inputs. Furthermore, ratios of labeled neurons in different regions are largely consistent between animals, suggesting that label reflects density of innervation. While the results mostly confirm prior anatomical work, they also reveal a novel major direct input to MEC-LII from hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, the vast majority of these direct hippocampal inputs arise not from the major hippocampal subfields of CA1 and CA3, but from area CA2, a region that has historically been thought to merely be a transitional zone between CA3 and CA1. We confirmed this unexpected result using conventional tracing techniques in both rats and mice.

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CCL28 induces mucosal homing of HIV-1-specific IgA-secreting plasma cells in mice immunized with HIV-1 virus-like particles.

Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC or CCL28) binds to CCR3 and CCR10 and recruits IgA-secreting plasma cells (IgA-ASCs) in the mucosal lamina propria. The ability of this chemokine to enhance migration of IgA-ASCs to mucosal sites was assessed in a mouse immunization model using HIV-1(IIIB) Virus-like particles (VLPs). Mice receiving either HIV-1(IIIB) VLPs alone, CCL28 alone, or the irrelevant CCL19 chemokine were used as controls. Results showed a significantly increased CCR3 and CCR10 expression on CD19(+) splenocytes of HIV-1(IIIB) VPL-CCL28-treated mice. HIV-1 Env-specific IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 production, total IgA, anti-Env IgA as well as gastro-intestinal mucosal IgA-secreting plasma cells were also significantly augmented in these mice. Notably, sera and vaginal secretions from HIV-1(IIIB) VLP-CCL28-treated mice exhibited an enhanced neutralizing activity against both a HIV-1/B-subtype laboratory strain and a heterologous HIV-1/C-subtype primary isolate. These data suggest that CCL28 could be useful in enhancing the IgA immune response that will likely play a pivotal role in prophylactic HIV vaccines.

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In vitro and in vivo model of a novel immunotherapy approach for chronic lymphocytic leukemia by anti-CD23 chimeric antigen receptor.

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by an accumulation of mature CD19(+)CD5(+)CD20(dim) B lymphocytes that typically express the B-cell activation marker CD23. In the present study, we cloned and expressed in T lymphocytes a novel chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) targeting the CD23 antigen (CD23.CAR). CD23.CAR(+) T cells showed specific cytotoxic activity against CD23(+) tumor cell lines (average lysis 42%) and primary CD23(+) CLL cells (average lysis 58%). This effect was obtained without significant toxicity against normal B lymphocytes, in contrast to CARs targeting CD19 or CD20 antigens, which are also expressed physiologically by normal B lymphocytes. Moreover, CLL-derived CD23.CAR(+) T cells released inflammatory cytokines (1445-fold more TNF-β, 20-fold more TNF-α, and 4-fold more IFN-γ). IL-2 was also produced (average release 2681 pg/mL) and sustained the antigen-dependent proliferation of CD23.CAR(+) T cells. Redirected T cells were also effective in vivo in a CLL Rag2(-/-)γ(c)(-/-) xenograft mouse model. Compared with mice treated with control T cells, the infusion of CD23.CAR(+) T cells resulted in a significant delay in the growth of the MEC-1 CLL cell line. These data suggest that CD23.CAR(+) T cells represent a selective immunotherapy for the elimination of CD23(+) leukemic cells in patients with CLL.

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Mouse Anti-Human Interleu anti H inh human blood an Anti 3 DG imidazolone Mon Human integrin aVb3, affi Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep Rabbit Anti-Insulin Recep

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Fibulin-5 initiates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhances EMT induced by TGF-beta in mammary epithelial cells via a MMP-dependent mechanism.

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal physiological process that regulates tissue development, remodeling and repair; however, aberrant EMT also elicits disease development in humans, including lung fibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and cancer cell metastasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a master regulator of EMT in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), wherein this pleiotropic cytokine also functions as a potent suppressor of mammary tumorigenesis. In contrast, malignant MECs typically evolve resistance to TGF-beta-mediated cytostasis and develop the ability to proliferate, invade and metastasize when stimulated by TGF-beta. It therefore stands to reason that establishing how TGF-beta promotes EMT may offer new insights into targeting the oncogenic activities of TGF-beta in human breast cancers. By monitoring alterations in the actin cytoskeleton and various markers of EMT, we show here that the TGF-beta gene target, fibulin-5 (FBLN5), initiates EMT and enhances that induced by TGF-beta. Whereas normal MECs contain few FBLN5 transcripts, those induced to undergo EMT by TGF-beta show significant upregulation of FBLN5 messenger RNA, suggesting that EMT and the dedifferentiation of MECs override the repression of FBLN5 expression in polarized MECs. We also show that FBLN5 stimulated matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity, leading to MEC invasion and EMT, to elevated Twist expression and to reduced E-cadherin expression. Finally, FBLN5 promoted anchorage-independent growth in normal and malignant MECs, as well as enhanced the growth of 4T1 tumors in mice. Taken together, these findings identify a novel EMT and tumor-promoting function for FBLN5 in developing and progressing breast cancers.

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Molecular cloning and functional characterization of porcine CCL28: possible involvement in homing of IgA antibody secreting cells into the mammary gland.

Constitutive expression of chemokines by epithelial cells controls the recruitment and the localization of specialized lymphocytes. Mucosae associated-epithelial chemokine (MEC/CCL28) cloned from porcine salivary gland and colon tissues consisted of an open reading frame (ORF) of 384-bp coding for 127 amino-acids protein with 22 residues signal sequence. The resulting mature protein is composed of 105 aa with 4 conserved cysteine residues. CCL28 shows aa sequence identity with rat, mouse, macaque and human ranging from 67 to 87%. Using plasmid pQETris-CCL28 injection, a rabbit anti-serum was produced and showed a specific reactivity towards non-reduced form of CCL28 recombinant protein. Comparatively to CCL25 mRNA expression, RT-PCR analysis showed that CCL28 is expressed in various mucosal tissues, but most abundantly in nasal mucosa, colon, salivary and mammary gland (MG). Immunohistochemical analysis showed that CCL28 is produced by epithelial cells of these tissues suggesting that this chemokine can play an important role by linking homing mechanisms between the gut, nasal mucosa and MG. In addition, mRNA of CCL28 was up-regulated in the MG at late gestation and during lactation but was not found at weaning. CCL28 protein was excreted in sow's milk sustaining that this chemokine plays a key role of IgA-ASCs accumulation in this tissue and thus controls the passive transfer level of IgA antibodies from mother to infant.

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CD19-/CD3-bispecific antibody of the BiTE class is far superior to tandem diabody with respect to redirected tumor cell lysis.

Many kinds of bispecific antibodies recruiting T cells for cancer therapy have been developed. Side-by-side comparison has shown that CD19-/CD3-bispecific antibodies of the diabody, tandem diabody (Tandab) and quadroma format had similar cytotoxic activity, with Tandab being the most active format. Tandab has also been claimed to be superior to single-chain (sc) Fv-based bispecific constructs although data from a side-by-side comparison are not available. In this study, we compared side-by-side MT103 (bscCD19xCD3), a single-chain bispecific antibody of the BiTE class, with a CD19-/CD3-bispecific representative of the Tandab class. Based on literature data, we have constructed, produced and characterized the LL linker version of Tandab, which was reported to be the most active version of Tandab proteins. A dimeric protein of 114kDa was obtained that showed proper bispecific binding to CD3- and CD19-positive cells and could redirect both pre-stimulated and unstimulated human T cells for lysis of human B lymphoma lines Raji, MEC-1 and Nalm-6. Raji cells were lysed at a half-maximal concentration (EC50) of 10 nM Tandab using pre-stimulated T cells, which closely matched the published activity of LL-Tandab with this particular cell line. MT103 had between 700- and 8000-fold higher efficacy than Tandab for redirected lysis of the three human B lymphoma lines. These data demonstrate that under identical experimental conditions, the BiTE format has far superior activity compared to the Tandab format and is also superior to conventional diabody and quadroma formats. The extraordinary potency of the BiTE class and its representative MT103 may translate into improved anti-tumor activity, lower dosing and lower costs of production compared to other bispecific antibody formats.

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LMCD1/Dyxin is a novel transcriptional cofactor that restricts GATA6 function by inhibiting DNA binding.

The activity of GATA factors is regulated, in part, at the level of protein-protein interactions. LIM domain proteins, first defined by the zinc finger motifs found in the Lin11, Isl-1, and Mec-3 proteins, act as coactivators of GATA function in both hematopoietic and cardiovascular tissues. We have identified a novel GATA-LIM interaction between GATA6 and LMCD1/dyxin. The LIM domains and cysteine-rich domains in LMCD1/dyxin and the carboxy-terminal zinc finger of GATA6 mediate this interaction. Expression of LMCD1/dyxin is remarkably similar to that of GATA6, with high-level expression observed in distal airway epithelium of the lung, vascular smooth muscle, and myocardium. In contrast to other GATA-LIM protein interactions, LMCD1/dyxin represses GATA6 activation of both lung and cardiac tissue-specific promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that LMCD1/dyxin represses GATA6 function by inhibiting GATA6 DNA binding. These data reveal an interaction between GATA6 and LMCD1/dyxin and demonstrate a novel mechanism through which LIM proteins can assert their role as transcriptional cofactors of GATA proteins.

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