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#28614387   2017/06/14 Save this To Up

Global sensing of the antigenic structure of herpes simplex virus gD using high-throughput array-based SPR imaging.

While HSV-2 typically causes genital lesions, HSV-1 is increasingly the cause of genital herpes. In addition, neonatal HSV infections are associated with a high rate of mortality and HSV-2 may increase the risk for HIV or Zika infections, reinforcing the need to develop an effective vaccine. In the GSK Herpevac trial, doubly sero-negative women were vaccinated with a truncated form of gD2 [gD2(284t)], then examined for anti-gD serum titers and clinical manifestations of disease. Surprisingly, few vaccinees were protected against genital HSV-2 but 86% were protected from genital HSV-1. These observations suggest that subtle differences in gD structure might influence a protective response. To better understand the antigenic structure of gD and how it impacts a protective response, we previously utilized several key anti-gD monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to dissect epitopes in vaccinee sera. Several correlations were observed but the methodology limited the number of sera and mAbs that could be tested. Here, we used array-based surface plasmon imaging (SPRi) to simultaneously measure a larger number of protein-protein interactions. We carried out cross-competition or "epitope binning" studies with 39 anti-gD mAbs and four soluble forms of gD, including a form [gD2(285t)] that resembles the Herpevac antigen. The results from these experiments allowed us to organize the mAbs into four epitope communities. Notably, relationships within and between communities differed depending on the form of gD, and off-rate analysis suggested differences in mAb-gD avidity depending on the gD serotype and length. Together, these results show that gD1 and gD2 differ in their structural topography. Consistent with the Herpevac results, several mAbs that bind both gD1 and gD2 neutralize only HSV-1. Thus, this technology provides new insights into the antigenic structure of gD and provides a rationale as to how vaccination with a gD2 subunit may lead to protection from HSV-1 infection.

2633 related Products with: Global sensing of the antigenic structure of herpes simplex virus gD using high-throughput array-based SPR imaging.

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#24789783   2014/06/21 Save this To Up

Repertoire of epitopes recognized by serum IgG from humans vaccinated with herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein D.

The results of a clinical trial of a subunit vaccine against genital herpes were recently reported (R. B. Belshe, P. A. Leone, D. I. Bernstein, A. Wald, M. J. Levin, J. T. Stapleton, I. Gorfinkel, R. L. Morrow, M. G. Ewell, A. Stokes-Riner, G. Dubin, T. C. Heineman, J. M. Schulte, C. D. Deal, N. Engl. J. Med. 366: 34-43, 2012, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1103151). The vaccine consisted of a soluble form of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) with adjuvant. The goal of the current study was to examine the composition of the humoral response to gD2 within a selected subset of vaccinated individuals. Serum samples from 30 vaccine recipients were selected based upon relative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers against gD2; 10 samples had high titers, 10 had medium titers, and the remaining 10 had low ELISA titers. We employed a novel, biosensor-based monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking assay to determine whether gD2 vaccination elicited IgG responses against epitopes overlapping those of well-characterized MAbs. Importantly, IgGs from the majority of gD2-immunized subjects competed for gD binding with four antigenically distinct virus-neutralizing MAbs (MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11). Screening of patient IgGs against overlapping peptides spanning the gD2 ectodomain revealed that about half of the samples contained antibodies against linear epitopes within the N and C termini of gD2. We found that the virus-neutralizing abilities of the 10 most potent samples correlated with overall gD-binding activity and to an even greater extent with the combined content of IgGs against the epitopes of MAbs MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11. This suggests that optimal virus-neutralizing activity is achieved by strong and balanced responses to the four major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD2. Importance: Several herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine studies have been conducted in human subjects using a recombinant form of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2). Although several distinct, well-characterized virus-neutralizing epitopes on gD2 are targeted by murine monoclonal antibodies, it is not known whether the same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to gD2 in humans. We have developed a novel, biosensor-based competition assay to directly address this important question. Using this approach, we identified epitopes that elicit strong humoral responses in humans, as well as other epitopes that elicit much weaker responses. These data provide new insight into the human response to known neutralizing gD2 epitopes and reveal characteristics of this response that may guide future vaccine development.

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#24100313   2013/10/08 Save this To Up

Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of herpes simplex virus.

Glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317 Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD-nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.

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#17950908   2008/05/05 Save this To Up

Antibody-mediated protection against genital herpes simplex virus type 2 disease in mice by Fc gamma receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms.

The ability of antibody (Ab) to modulate HSV pathogenesis is well recognized but the mechanisms by which HSV-specific IgG antibodies protect against genital HSV-2 disease are not well understood. The requirement for Ab interactions with Fcgamma receptors (FcgammaR) in protection was examined using a murine model of genital HSV-2 infection. IgG antibodies isolated from the serum of HSV-immune mice protected normal mice against HSV-2 disease when administered prior to genital HSV-2 inoculation. However, protection was significantly diminished in recipient mice lacking the gamma chain subunit utilized in FcgammaRI, FcgammaRIII, FcgammaRIV and FcepsilonRI receptors and in normal mice depleted of Gr-1(+) immune cell populations known to express FcgammaR, suggesting protection was largely mediated by an FcgammaR-dependent mechanism. To test whether neutralizing Ab might provide superior protection, a highly neutralizing HSV glycoprotein D (gD)-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) was utilized. Similar to results with HSV-specific polyclonal IgG, administration of the gD-specific mAb did not prevent initial infection of the genital tract but resulted in lower virus loads in the vaginal epithelium and provided significant protection against disease and acute infection of the sensory ganglia; however, this protection was independent of host FcgammaR expression and was manifest in mice depleted of Gr-1(+) immune cells. Together, these data demonstrate that substantial Ab-mediated protection against genital HSV-2 disease could be achieved by either FcgammaR-dependent or -independent mechanisms. These studies suggest that HSV vaccines might need to elicit multiple, diverse antibody effector mechanisms to achieve optimal protection.

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#10882665   2000/09/12 Save this To Up

Comparison of a monoclonal antibody-blocking enzyme-linked immunoassay and a strip immunoblot assay for identifying type-specific herpes simplex virus type 2 serological responses.

Detection of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-specific antibodies by a monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA) was compared with detection by a strip immunoblot assay (SIA) in a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic population. The study population consisted of 1,683 genitourinary medicine clinic attendees (582 women and 1,101 men). Sera were tested for the presence of HSV-2 antibody by use of the blocking EIA, in which binding of the MAb AP-1 to HSV-2 glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) is blocked by HSV-2-specific antibody. The Chiron RIBA HSV-1 and -2 strip immunoassay (SIA) utilizes HSV-1- and HSV-2-specific or cross-reactive antigens immobilized on nitrocellulose strips (HSV gB-1 and HSV gG-1 peptide bands specific for HSV-1 antibody, HSV-2 gG-2 band specific for HSV-2 antibody, and HSV gD-2 band cross-reactive for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies). A total of 1,612 sera were tested by MAb-blocking EIA for HSV-2 antibody and by SIA for HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. By EIA, 541 (33.6%) sera were positive for HSV-2 antibody and 1,068 sera were negative for HSV-2 antibody; 3 sera gave equivocal results. HSV-2 antibody was detected in 555 (34.4%) sera by SIA; 144 (26%) of these sera possessed only HSV-2 antibody, and 411 (74%) sera contained both HSV-1 and HSV-2 antibodies. SIA detected HSV-1 antibody in 1,155 (71.6%) sera; 744 (64%) of these sera contained HSV-1 antibody alone. Sixteen sera contained antibody against HSV but could not be typed by SIA. A total of 512 sera were positive for HSV-2 antibody by both the EIA and SIA. We concluded that the blocking EIA and SIA showed a high level of agreement in detecting HSV-2 antibody in this population. In contrast to the SIA, the blocking EIA is a useful tool for large epidemiological studies, though the SIA proved to be slightly more sensitive once sera with discrepant results were further tested.

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MOUSE ANTI CANINE DISTEMP MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD15, Pr MOUSE ANTI BOVINE ROTAVIR MOUSE ANTI BORRELIA BURGD MOUSE ANTI HUMAN CD19 RPE MOUSE ANTI APAAP COMPLEX, RABBIT ANTI GSK3 BETA (pS PERMANENT AQUEOUS MOUNTIN Mouse Anti-Feline Herpes Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex Goat Anti-Herpes Simplex

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#9861033   1999/01/28 Save this To Up

The V domain of herpesvirus Ig-like receptor (HIgR) contains a major functional region in herpes simplex virus-1 entry into cells and interacts physically with the viral glycoprotein D.

The herpesvirus entry mediator C (HveC), previously known as poliovirus receptor-related protein 1 (PRR1), and the herpesvirus Ig-like receptor (HIgR) are the bona fide receptors employed by herpes simplex virus-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and -2) for entry into the human cell lines most frequently used in HSV studies. They share an identical ectodomain made of one V and two C2 domains and differ in transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. Expression of their mRNA in the human nervous system suggests possible usage of these receptors in humans in the path of neuron infection by HSV. Glycoprotein D (gD) is the virion component that mediates HSV-1 entry into cells by interaction with cellular receptors. We report on the identification of the V domain of HIgR/PRR1 as a major functional region in HSV-1 entry by several approaches. First, the epitope recognized by mAb R1. 302 to HIgR/PRR1, capable of inhibiting infection, was mapped to the V domain. Second, a soluble form of HIgR/PRR1 consisting of the single V domain competed with cell-bound full-length receptor and blocked virion infectivity. Third, the V domain was sufficient to mediate HSV entry, as an engineered form of PRR1 in which the two C2 domains were deleted and the V domain was retained and fused to its transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions was still able to confer susceptibility, although at reduced efficiency relative to full-length receptor. Consistently, transfer of the V domain of HIgR/PRR1 to a functionally inactive structural homologue generated a chimeric receptor with virus-entry activity. Finally, the single V domain was sufficient for in vitro physical interaction with gD. The in vitro binding was specific as it was competed both by antibodies to the receptor and by a mAb to gD with potent neutralizing activity for HSV-1 infectivity.

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#7511173   1994/04/25 Save this To Up

Identification of functional regions of herpes simplex virus glycoprotein gD by using linker-insertion mutagenesis.

Glycoprotein gD is a component of the herpes simplex virus (HSV) envelope essential for virus entry into susceptible cells. Previous studies using deletion and point mutations identified a functional domain of HSV-1 gD (gD-1) from residues 231 to 244. However, many of the deletion mutations had global effects on gD-1 structure, thus precluding assessment of the functional role of large portions of the protein. In this study, we constructed a large panel of linker-insertion mutants in the genes for gD-1 and HSV-2 gD (gD-2). The object was to create mutations which would have only localized effects on protein structure but might have profound effects on gD function. The mutant proteins were expressed in transiently transfected L cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used as probes of gD structure. We also examined protein aggregation and appearance of the mutant glycoproteins on the transfected cell surface. A complementation assay measured the ability of the mutant proteins to rescue the infectivity of the gD-null virus, FgD beta, in trans. Most of the mutants were recognized by one or more MAbs to discontinuous epitopes, were transported to the transfected cell surface, and rescued FgD beta virus infectivity. However, some mutants which retained structure were unable to complement FgD beta. These mutants were clustered in four regions of gD. Region III (amino acids 222 to 246) overlaps the region previously defined by gD-1 deletion mutants. The others, from 27 through 43 (region I), from 125 through 161 (region II), and from 277 to 310 (region IV), are newly described. Region IV, immediately upstream of the transmembrane anchor sequence, was previously postulated to be part of a putative stalk structure. However, residues 277 to 300 are directly involved in gD function. The linker-insertion mutants were useful for mapping MAb AP7, a previously ungrouped neutralizing MAb, and provided further information concerning other discontinuous epitopes. The mapping data suggest that regions I through IV are physically near each other in the folded structure of gD and may form a single functional domain.

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