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Individual and combined efficacies of mild heat and ultraviolet-c radiation against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in coconut liquid endosperm.

This study determined the inactivation kinetic parameters of selected pathogens in heat, ultraviolet-C and combined heat-UV-C treated coconut liquid endosperm. Separate cocktails of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovars, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were inoculated into coconut liquid endosperm (pH 5.15, TSS 4.4Bx, TA 0.062% malic acid, extinction coefficient (ε) at 254 nm of 0.0154 cm) for inactivation studies. Result showed that all organisms generally exhibited a log-linear heat inactivation behavior (R 0.81-0.99). The E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (D = 19.75 min, D = 10.79 min, D = 3.38 min, and D = 0.46 min) was found to be significantly more resistant (P > 0.05) than the tested cocktail of L. monocytogenes (D = 11.68 min, D = 4.53 min, D = 1.82 min and D = 0.26 min) and S. enterica cocktail (D = 3.08 min, D = 2.60 min, D = 0.89 min and D = 0.25 min). Despite the differences in D values, computed z values for L. monocytogenes cocktail (5.12 ± 0.43 °C) and E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (4.95 ± 0.12 °C) were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but were both significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of S. enterica cocktail (7.10 ± 0.15 °C). All test organisms also exhibited a generally log-linear UV-C inactivation behavior (R 0.90-0.99) with E. coli O157:H7 cocktail (D = 25.26 mJ/cm) demonstrating greatest resistance to UV-C than S. enterica (D = 24.65 mJ/cm) and L. monocytogenes (D = 17.30 mJ/cm) cocktails. The D values of each organism cocktail were used to calculate for the 3-log reduction heating process schedules, during which UV-C treatments were simultaneously applied. Lethal rates (F values) calculations in the combined processes revealed that within the 3-log reduction heating processes, co-exposure of UV-C resulted in 5.62 to 6.20 log reductions in the test organism populations. Heating caused 69.3, 97.2, and 67.4% of the reduction in E. coli O157:H7, S. enterica and L. monocytogenes cocktails, respectively. These results can be used as baseline data in the establishment of mild heat treatment in combination with UV-C process schedules for coconut liquid endosperm and other similar products.

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17β-Acetoxy-2α-bromo-5 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-[2 (5α,16β)-N-Acetyl-16-ac 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 5α-N-Acetyl-2'H-androst- 3-O-Acetyl 5,14-Androstad 3-O-Acetyl-17-O-tert-buty 3β-O-Acetyl-androsta-5,1 Androstadienone C19H26O C 5α-Androstan-3β-ol � ∆2-Androstene-1α,17β- ∆1-Androstene-3α,17β-

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Listeria monocytogenes - Danger for health safety vegetable production.

The microbiologically contaminated vegetables represent a risk for consumers, especially vegetables without thermal processing. It is known that human pathogen bacteria, such as Listeria monocytogenes, could exist on fresh vegetables. The fresh vegetables could become Listeria-contaminated if they come in touch with contaminated soil, manure, irrigation water. The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in different kind of vegetables grown in field and greenhouse condition as well as surface and endophytic colonization plant roots of different vegetables species by L. monocytogenes in laboratory conditions. The detection of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes in vegetable samples was done using ISO and PCR methods. The investigation of colonization vegetable roots and detection Listeria-cells inside plant root tissue was done using Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results showed that 25.58% vegetable samples were positive for Listeria spp. and only one sample (carrot) was positive for L. monocytogenes out of 43 samples in total collected from field and greenhouse. The strain L. monocytogenes EGD-E surface and endophytic colonized carrot root in highest degree while strain L. monocytogenes SV4B was the most represented at leafy vegetable plants, such at lettuce (1.68 × 10 cells/mm absolutely dry root) and spinach (1.39 × 10 cells/mm absolutely dry root) root surface. The cells of L. monocytogenes SV4B were visible as single cells in interior tissue of plant roots (celery and sweet corn roots) as well as in the interior of the plant root cell at sweet corn root. The cells of L. monocytogenes EGD-E bind to the surface of the plant root and they were less commonly found out on root hair. In the inner layers of the root, those bacterial cells were inhabited intercellular spaces mainly as single cells very close to the larval vessels of root. Our results suggest that L. monocytogenes is very good endophytic colonizer of vegetable plant roots.

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Population Genetic Structure of Strains Isolated From the Pig and Pork Production Chain in France.

is an ubiquitous pathogenic bacterium, transmissible to humans through the consumption of contaminated food. The pork production sector has been hit hard by a series of -related food poisoning outbreaks in France. An overview of the diversity of strains circulating at all levels of the pork production chain, from pig farming (PF) to finished food products (FFP), is needed to identify the contamination routes and improve food safety. Until now, no typing data has been available on strains isolated across the entire pig and pork production chain. Here, we analyzed the population genetic structure of 687 strains isolated over the last 20 years in virtually all the French from three compartments of this production sector: PF, the food processing environment (FPE), and FFP. The genetic structure was described based on Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal complexes (CCs). The CCs were obtained by mapping the PFGE profiles of the strains. The distribution of CCs was compared firstly between the three compartments and then with CCs obtained from 1106 strains isolated from other food production sectors in France. The predominant CCs of pig and pork strains were not equally distributed among the three compartments: the CC37, CC59, and CC77 strains, rarely found in FPE and FFP, were prevalent in PF. The two most prevalent CCs in the FPE and FFP compartments, CC9 and CC121, were rarely or never detected in PF. No CC was exclusively associated with the pork sector. Three CCs (CC5, CC6, and CC2) were considered ubiquitous, because they were observed in comparable proportions in all food production sectors. The two most prevalent CCs in all sectors were CC9 and CC121, but their distribution was disparate. CC9 was associated with meat products and food products combining several food categories, whereas CC121 was not associated with any given sector. Based on these results, CC121 is likely able to colonize a larger diversity of food products than CC9. Both CCs being associated with the food production suggests, that certain processing steps, such as slaughtering or stabilization treatments, favor their settlement and the recontamination of the food produced.

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Monitoring of resistance genes in Listeria monocytogenes isolates and their presence in the extracellular DNA of biofilms: a case study from the Czech Republic.

The alarming occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in food production demands continuous monitoring worldwide. One reservoir of resistance genes is thought to be eDNA. There is currently little available information in Europe about either the extracellular DNA distribution of the bacterium or the spread of resistance genes in L. monocytogenes. Therefore, our aims were to give insight into the Listeria monocytogenes resistance situation in the Czech Republic and assess the presence of resistance genes in their extracellular DNA (eDNA). First, susceptibility tests were performed on 49 isolates of L. monocytogenes with selected antibiotics. Next, we tested DNA of suspected isolates for the presence of resistance genes in both planktonic cells and the eDNA of biofilms. Finally, fluorescent confocal microscopy was used to observe the eDNA pattern of selected isolates under conditions that mimicked the food processing environment and the human body. Susceptibility tests found isolates intermediate resistant to chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin as well as isolates resistant to ciprofloxacin. For all suspected isolates, PCR confirmed the presence of the gene lde encoding efflux pump in both types of DNA. When the biofilm was observed using confocal laser scanning microscope, the eDNA distribution patterns varied considerably according to the culture conditions. Furthermore, the food and clinical isolates varied in terms of the amount of eDNA detected. The presence of an efflux pump in both types of DNA suggests that the eDNA might serve as a reservoir of resistance genes. Surprising differences were observed in the eDNA pattern. Our results suggest that the current risk of the spread of L. monocytogenes resistance genes is low in the Czech Republic, but they also indicate the need for continuous long-term monitoring of the situation.

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Microbiological quality and antimicrobial resistance characterization of Salmonella spp. in fresh milk value chains in Ghana.

Consumer perception of poor hygiene of fresh milk products is a major barrier to promotion of milk consumption as an intervention to alleviate the burden of malnutrition in Ghana. Fresh milk is retailed raw, boiled, or processed into unfermented cheese and spontaneously fermented products in unlicensed outlets. In this study, we have determined microbiological quality of informally retailed fresh milk products and characterized the genomic diversity and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) in implicated products. A total of 159 common dairy products were purchased from five traditional milk markets in Accra. Samples were analysed for concentrations of aerobic bacteria, total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, staphylococci, lactic acid bacteria and yeast and moulds. The presence of Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. AMR of Salmonella against 18 antibiotics was experimentally determined. Genome sequencing of 19 Salmonella isolates allowed determination of serovars, antigenic profiles, prediction of AMR genes in silico and inference of phylogenetic relatedness between strains. Raw and heat-treated milk did not differ significantly in overall bacterial quality (P = 0.851). E. coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus were present in 34.3% and 12.9% of dairy products respectively. Multidrug resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica serovars Muenster and Legon were identified in 11.8% and 5.9% of unfermented cheese samples respectively. Pan genome analysis revealed a total of 3712 core genes. All Salmonella strains were resistant to Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole, Cefoxitin, Cefuroxime Axetil and Cefuroxime. Resistance to Chloramphenicol (18%) and Ciprofloxacin (100%), which are first line antibiotics used in treatment of NTS bacteremia in Ghana, was evident. AMR was attributed to presence and/or mutations in the following genes: golS, sdiA for cephalosporins, aac(6')-Iy, ant(9) for aminoglycosides, mdtK, gyrA, gyrB, parC, parE for quinolones and cat1, cat4 for phenicols. Phylogenetic analysis based on accessory genes clustered S. Legon strains separately from the S. Muenster strains. These strains were from different markets suggesting local circulation of related strains. Our study justifies consumer resistance to consumption of unripened soft cheese without further lethal heat treatment, and provides evidence that supports the Ghana Health Service recommendation for use of 3rd generation cephalosporins for the treatment of MDR NTS infections.

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Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 Play Contrasting Roles in -Stimulated Immunity.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and are commonly used for pain relief and fever reduction. NSAIDs are used following childhood vaccinations and cancer immunotherapies; however, how NSAIDs influence the development of immunity following these therapies is unknown. We hypothesized that NSAIDs would modulate the development of an immune response to -based immunotherapy. Treatment of mice with the nonspecific COX inhibitor indomethacin impaired the generation of cell-mediated immunity. This phenotype was due to inhibition of the inducible COX-2 enzyme, as treatment with the COX-2-selective inhibitor celecoxib similarly inhibited the development of immunity. In contrast, loss of COX-1 activity improved immunity to Impairments in immunity were independent of bacterial burden, dendritic cell costimulation, or innate immune cell infiltrate. Instead, we observed that PGE production following is critical for the formation of an Ag-specific CD8 T cell response. Use of the alternative analgesic acetaminophen did not impair immunity. Taken together, our results suggest that COX-2 is necessary for optimal CD8 T cell responses to , whereas COX-1 is detrimental. Use of pharmacotherapies that spare COX-2 activity and the production of PGE like acetaminophen will be critical for the generation of optimal antitumor responses using .

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Growth, detection and virulence of Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of other microorganisms: microbial interactions from species to strain level.

Like with all food microorganisms, many basic aspects of L. monocytogenes life are likely to be influenced by its interactions with bacteria living in close proximity. This pathogenic bacterium is a major concern both for the food industry and health organizations since it is ubiquitous and able to withstand harsh environmental conditions. Due to the ubiquity of Listeria monocytogenes, various strains may contaminate foods at different stages of the supply chain. Consequently, simultaneous exposure of consumers to multiple strains is also possible. In this context even strain-to-strain interactions of L. monocytogenes play a significant role in fundamental processes for the life of the pathogen, such as growth or virulence, and subsequently compromise food safety, affect the evolution of a potential infection, or even introduce bias in the detection by classical enrichment techniques. This article summarizes the impact of microbial interactions on the growth and detection of L. monocytogenes primarily in foods and food-associated environments. Furthermore it provides an overview of L. monocytogenes virulence in the presence of other microorganisms.

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Phenolic compounds can delay the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes: structure-activity relationships.

Phenolic compounds present a potential solution to ensuring food quality and safety. Indeed, they can limit oxidation reactions and bacterial growth in food products. Although their antioxidant mechanisms of action are well known, their antibacterial ones are less well understood, especially in light of their chemical structures. The aim of this study was to first quantify both aspects of a series of natural phenolic compounds and then link these activities to their chemical structure.

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Assessment of microbial contaminations in commercial frozen duck meats and the application of electron beam irradiation to improve their hygienic quality.

High microbial load is a serious concern in terms of the health-related safety of products of animal origin. In this study, the microbial loads of commercial frozen duck meat products, including bone-in whole raw, boneless sliced raw, and boneless whole smoked were investigated for pathogenic contamination. In addition, application of electron beam irradiation was also investigated.

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Rapid Colorimetric Assay for Detection of in Food Samples Using LAMP Formation of DNA Concatemers and Gold Nanoparticle-DNA Probe Complex.

is a major foodborne pathogen of global health concern. Herein, the rapid diagnosis of has been achieved using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on the phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C gene (). Colorimetric detection was then performed through the formation of DNA concatemers and a gold nanoparticle/DNA probe complex (GNP/DNA probe). The overall detection process was accomplished within approximately 1 h with no need for complicated equipment. The limits of detection for in the forms of purified genomic DNA and pure culture were 800 fg and 2.82 CFU mL, respectively. No cross reactions were observed from closely related bacteria species. The LAMP-GNP/DNA probe assay was applied to the detection of 200 raw chicken meat samples and compared to routine standard methods. The data revealed that the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy were 100, 90.20, and 97.50%, respectively. The present assay was 100% in conformity with LAMP-agarose gel electrophoresis assay. Five samples that were negative by both assays appeared to have the pathogen at below the level of detection. The assay can be applied as a rapid direct screening method for .

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