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#29054650   2017/10/21 Save this To Up

Vitamin B12 effects on chlorinated methanes-degrading microcosms: Dual isotope and metabolically active microbial populations assessment.

Field-derived anoxic microcosms were used to characterize chloroform (CF) and carbon tetrachloride (CT) natural attenuation to compare it with biostimulation scenarios in which vitamin B12 was added (B12/pollutant ratio of 0.01 and 0.1) by means of by-products, carbon and chlorine compound-specific stable-isotope analysis, and the active microbial community through 16S rRNA MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. Autoclaved slurry controls discarded abiotic degradation processes. B12 catalyzed CF and CT biodegradation without the accumulation of dichloromethane, carbon disulphide, or CF. The carbon isotopic fractionation value of CF (ƐCCF) with B12 was -14±4‰, and the value for chlorine (ƐClCF) was -2.4±0.4‰. The carbon isotopic fractionation values of CT (ƐCCT) were -16±6 with B12, and -13±2‰ without B12; and the chlorine isotopic fractionation values of CT (ƐClCT) were -6±3 and -4±2‰, respectively. Acidovorax, Ancylobacter, and Pseudomonas were the most metabolically active genera, whereas Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium were below 0.1% of relative abundance. The dual C-Cl element isotope slope (Λ=Δδ(13)C/Δδ(37)Cl) for CF biodegradation (only detected with B12, 7±1) was similar to that reported for CF reduction by Fe(0) (8±2). Several reductive pathways might be competing in the tested CT scenarios, as evidenced by the lack of CF accumulation when B12 was added, which might be linked to a major activity of Pseudomonas stutzeri; by different chlorine apparent kinetic isotope effect values and Λ which was statistically different with and without B12 (5±1 vs 6.1±0.5), respectively. Thus, positive B12 effects such as CT and CF degradation catalyst were quantified for the first time in isotopic terms, and confirmed with the major activity of species potentially capable of their degradation. Moreover, the indirect benefits of B12 on the degradation of chlorinated ethenes were proved, creating a basis for remediation strategies in multi-contaminant polluted sites.

1860 related Products with: Vitamin B12 effects on chlorinated methanes-degrading microcosms: Dual isotope and metabolically active microbial populations assessment.

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#29054470   2017/10/21 Save this To Up

Circulating adiponectin increases in obese women after sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass driving beneficial metabolic changes but with no relationship with carotid intima-media thickness.

Obesity surgery induces beneficial effects in metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Adiponectin increase might be associated with some of these changes. However, direct comparison between different surgical techniques has not been extensively performed.

1906 related Products with: Circulating adiponectin increases in obese women after sleeve gastrectomy or gastric bypass driving beneficial metabolic changes but with no relationship with carotid intima-media thickness.

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#29053857   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

UV reflection properties of plumage and skin of domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo f. dom.) as revealed by UV photography.

Reflection and fluorescence properties of feathered and non-feathered body regions of white- and bronze-colored fattening turkeys of various ages were examined by ultraviolet (UV) photography. The examinations were carried out on 20 white-feathered fattening turkeys (B.U.T. 6; 10 males, 10 females) and 20 bronze-feathered fattening turkeys (Grelier 708; 10 males, 10 females) over a period of 21 weeks. The turkeys were photographed once a wk under long-wave UV (UVA) radiation illumination (λ = 344-407 nm) using a digital camera. A bandpass filter was used for UV reflectography to filter out the visible components of the used light source. A longpass filter was used for UV fluorescence photography to avoid blurring in the image due to chromatic aberration as a result of UV illumination. We found that natal down feathers of white-feathered turkeys showed an intense yellowish-green fluorescence under UVA light. UVA fluorescence also was shown by the natal downs of the slightly melanized plumage areas of bronze turkeys. Vaned feathers of white fattening turkeys reflected UVA radiation. Freshly molted feathers were optically distinguishable from the previous feather generation due to their more intense UVA reflection. In bronze turkeys, both the bright end seams of the dark pennaceous feathers and rectrices and the bright banding of primary and secondary remiges reflected UVA radiation. Intense UVA fluorescence was recognizable in day-old chicks of both color variants on the scutellate scales of the legs and toes. In male turkeys of both color variants, UVA-reflecting parts were recognizable with increasing age on the featherless head region. The UVA-fluorescent and UVA-reflective characteristics of the plumage of fattening turkeys were closely related to the plumage color, the feather type, the molting state, and the age of the birds. Further research is needed regarding the UVA-reflecting properties of the turkey plumage and the effects of full-spectrum illumination, including the UVA spectrum, on the behavior and health of fattening turkeys.

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#29052601   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Intratubular amyloid in light chain cast nephropathy is a risk factor for systemic light chain amyloidosis.

Light chain cast nephropathy is the most common form of kidney disease in patients with multiple myeloma. Light chain casts may occasionally show amyloid staining properties, that is, green birefringence after Congo red staining. The frequency and clinical significance of this intratubular amyloid are poorly understood. Here, we retrospectively assessed the clinicopathological features of 60 patients with histologically proven light chain cast nephropathy with a specific emphasis on intratubular amyloid, especially, its association with extrarenal systemic light chain amyloidosis. We found intratubular amyloid in 17 cases (17/60, 28%) and it was more frequent in patients with λ light chain gammopathy (13/17 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 19/43 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.02). Pathological examination of extrarenal specimens showed that intratubular amyloid was significantly associated with the occurrence of systemic light chain amyloidosis (5/13 in the 'intratubular amyloid' group vs 0/30 in the 'no intratubular amyloid' group, P=0.001). Our results indicate that first, intratubular amyloid is not a rare finding in kidney biopsies of patients with light chain cast nephropathy, and, second, it reflects an amyloidogenic capacity of light chains that can manifest as systemic light chain amyloidosis. Thus, intratubular amyloid should be systematically screened for in kidney biopsies from patients with light chain cast nephropathy and, if detected, should prompt a work-up for associated systemic light chain amyloidosis.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.124.

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#29052600   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Ultrasensitive automated RNA in situ hybridization for kappa and lambda light chain mRNA detects B-cell clonality in tissue biopsies with performance comparable or superior to flow cytometry.

The assessment of B-cell clonality is a critical component of the evaluation of suspected lymphoproliferative disorders, but analysis from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues can be challenging if fresh tissue is not available for flow cytometry. Immunohistochemical and conventional bright field in situ hybridization stains for kappa and lambda are effective for evaluation of plasma cells but are often insufficiently sensitive to detect the much lower abundance of light chains present in B-cells. We describe an ultrasensitive RNA in situ hybridization assay that has been adapted for use on an automated immunohistochemistry platform and compare results with flow cytometry in 203 consecutive tissues and 104 consecutive bone marrows. Overall, in 203 tissue biopsies, RNA in situ hybridization identified light chain-restricted B-cells in 85 (42%) vs 58 (29%) by flow cytometry. Within 83 B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, RNA in situ hybridization identified restricted B-cells in 74 (89%) vs 56 (67%) by flow cytometry. B-cell clonality could be evaluated in only 23/104 (22%) bone marrow cases owing to poor RNA preservation, but evaluable cases showed 91% concordance with flow cytometry. RNA in situ hybridization allowed for recognition of biclonal/composite lymphomas not identified by flow cytometry and highlighted unexpected findings, such as coexpression of kappa and lambda RNA in 2 cases and the presence of lambda light chain RNA in a T lymphoblastic lymphoma. Automated RNA in situ hybridization showed excellent interobserver reproducibility for manual evaluation (average K=0.92), and an automated image analysis system showed high concordance (97%) with manual evaluation. Automated RNA in situ hybridization staining, which can be adopted on commonly utilized immunohistochemistry instruments, allows for the interpretation of clonality in the context of the morphological features in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues with a clinical sensitivity similar or superior to flow cytometry.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2017.142.

1173 related Products with: Ultrasensitive automated RNA in situ hybridization for kappa and lambda light chain mRNA detects B-cell clonality in tissue biopsies with performance comparable or superior to flow cytometry.

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#29051692   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

New time scale generalizations of the Ostrowski-Grüss type inequality for k points.

Two Ostrowski-Grüss type inequalities for k points with a parameter [Formula: see text] are hereby presented. The first generalizes a recent result due to Nwaeze and Tameru, and the second extends the result of Liu et al. to k points. Many new interesting inequalities can be derived as special cases of our results by considering different values of λ and [Formula: see text]. In addition, we apply our results to the continuous, discrete, and quantum time scales to obtain several novel inequalities in this direction.

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#29051456   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Self-Reported Symptoms and Pesticide Use among Farm Workers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study.

The objective of the study was to describe self-reported health symptoms, the use of personal protective gear and clothing and poor safety procedures when applying pesticides among farm workers. A total of 128 adult farm workers were interviewed using a structured questionnaire during the farming season. The commonly used pesticides included profenofos, mancozeb, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan and carbosulfan. The majority (>90%) of farm workers used no personal protective clothing while handling pesticides. More than one-third of farm workers ate and drank without washing their hands following pesticide handling, while a smaller number smoked or chewed gum. Wearing special boots during pesticide application was found to reduce the risk of skin rash (OR = 0.2, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66), whereas smoking when applying pesticides increased the risk of chest pain occurrence (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.14-15.43), as well as forgetfulness (OR = 4.0, 95% CI: 1.30-14.02). Chewing gum and eating when applying pesticides was associated with diarrhoea (OR = 11.0, 95% CI: 1.80-6.84 and OR = 7.0, 95% CI: 1.27-3.67 respectively). The increased self-reported prevalence of post-exposure adverse health effects among farm workers was associated with poor use of personal protective clothing and poor safety practices during pesticide use and handling. These data indicate the need for improved availability and use of protective equipment, and training in crop and pest management practices to prevent risky behavioursand for safer and sustainable vegetable production.

2488 related Products with: Self-Reported Symptoms and Pesticide Use among Farm Workers in Arusha, Northern Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study.

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#29050667   2017/10/20 Save this To Up

Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria.

Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based metabolic engineering in bacteria for chemical production, with focus on the λ-Red recombineering and the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 nuclease systems. In conjunction, they enable the integration of in vitro-synthesized DNA segments into specified locations on the chromosome and allow for enrichment of rare mutants by elimination of unmodified wild-type cells. Combination with concurrently developing improvements in important accessory technologies such as DNA synthesis, high-throughput screening methods, regulatory element design, and metabolic pathway optimization tools has resulted in novel efficient microbial producer strains and given access to new metabolic products. These new tools have made and will likely continue to make a big impact on the bioengineering strategies that transform the chemical industry.

1187 related Products with: Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria.

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#29049957   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Non-target impacts of soybean insecticidal seed treatments on the life history and behavior of Podisus nigrispinus, a predator of fall armyworm.

The treatment of seeds with systemic insecticides has become a common practice worldwide. However, this prophylactic use of insecticides has been questioned recently because of the potential risks to non-target organisms. This study assessed the non-target effects of chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam seed treatments on the life history and walking behavior of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas), as well as the efficacy of these insecticides for controlling Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith). Thiamethoxam caused mortality of P. nigrispinus, increased the pre-oviposition period, and reduced the oviposition period and the fecundity and survival of females compared to chlorantraniliprole. In contrast, the life expectancy of P. nigrispinus females was prolonged by chlorantraniliprole, which also increased the intrinsic rate of growth (rm) and the finite growth rate (λ), and reduced the population doubling time (DT) compared to thiamethoxam. The net reproductive rate (R0) and mean generation time (T) were not affected by either insecticide treatment, and neither were the walking velocity of P. nigrispinus females, nor the distance they covered. Both chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam reduced soybean leaf consumption by S. frugiperda larvae. Given the observed lethal and sublethal effects, soybean seed treatments with chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam were judged to present low and moderate risks for P. nigrispinus, respectively.

1897 related Products with: Non-target impacts of soybean insecticidal seed treatments on the life history and behavior of Podisus nigrispinus, a predator of fall armyworm.

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#29049389   2017/10/19 Save this To Up

Endemic chronic wasting disease causes mule deer population decline in Wyoming.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), and moose (Alces alces shirasi) in North America. In southeastern Wyoming average annual CWD prevalence in mule deer exceeds 20% and appears to contribute to regional population declines. We determined the effect of CWD on mule deer demography using age-specific, female-only, CWD transition matrix models to estimate the population growth rate (λ). Mule deer were captured from 2010-2014 in southern Converse County Wyoming, USA. Captured adult (≥ 1.5 years old) deer were tested ante-mortem for CWD using tonsil biopsies and monitored using radio telemetry. Mean annual survival rates of CWD-negative and CWD-positive deer were 0.76 and 0.32, respectively. Pregnancy and fawn recruitment were not observed to be influenced by CWD. We estimated λ = 0.79, indicating an annual population decline of 21% under current CWD prevalence levels. A model derived from the demography of only CWD-negative individuals yielded; λ = 1.00, indicating a stable population if CWD were absent. These findings support CWD as a significant contributor to mule deer population decline. Chronic wasting disease is difficult or impossible to eradicate with current tools, given significant environmental contamination, and at present our best recommendation for control of this disease is to minimize spread to new areas and naïve cervid populations.

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