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Reference Values for Respiratory Muscle Strength in Children and Adolescents.

Measurement of respiratory muscle function is important in the diagnosis of respiratory muscle disease, respiratory failure, to assess the impact of chronic diseases, and/or to evaluate respiratory muscle function after treatment.

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T-2 Toxin Mycotoxins ELIS Zearalenone Mycotoxins EL (7’-Benzyloxy-indolymet Breast invasive ductal ca Multiple lung carcinoma ( Indole 7 carboxaldehyde ( Indole 3 carboxaldehyde ( Indole 6 carboxaldehyde ( Indole 5 carboxaldehyde ( Indole 4 carboxaldehyde ( Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti

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Long-Term Follow-up of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance.

Background Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) occurs in approximately 3% of persons 50 years of age or older. Methods We studied 1384 patients who were residing in southeastern Minnesota and in whom MGUS was diagnosed at the Mayo Clinic in the period from 1960 through 1994; the median follow-up was 34.1 years (range, 0.0 to 43.6). The primary end point was progression to multiple myeloma or another plasma-cell or lymphoid disorder. Results During 14,130 person-years of follow-up, MGUS progressed in 147 patients (11%), a rate that was 6.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5 to 7.7) as high as the rate in the control population. The risk of progression without accounting for death due to competing causes was 10% at 10 years, 18% at 20 years, 28% at 30 years, 36% at 35 years, and 36% at 40 years. Among patients with IgM MGUS, the presence of two adverse risk factors - namely, an abnormal serum free light-chain ratio (ratio of kappa to lambda free light chains) and a high serum monoclonal protein (M protein) level (≥1.5 g per deciliter) - was associated with a risk of progression at 20 years of 55%, as compared with 41% among patients who had one adverse risk factor and 19% among patients who had neither risk factor. Among patients with non-IgM MGUS, the risk of progression at 20 years was 30% among those who had the two risk factors, 20% among those who had one risk factor, and 7% among those who had neither risk factor. Patients with MGUS had shorter survival than was expected in the control population of Minnesota residents of matched age and sex (median, 8.1 vs. 12.4 years; P<0.001). Conclusions Significant differences were noted in the risk of progression between patients with IgM MGUS and those with non-IgM MGUS. Overall survival was shorter among patients with MGUS than was expected in a matched control population. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute.).

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Portulaca oleracea L. Extract Enhances Glucose Uptake by Stimulating GLUT4 Translocation to the Plasma Membrane in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

This study investigated the effects of Portulaca oleracea L. extract on glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. P. oleracea extract (POE) markedly enhanced glucose uptake, which was caused by increased GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane (PM) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This increase in PM-GLUT4 expression was associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activation, and Akt phosphorylation, and finally, enhanced intracellular glucose uptake. POE was not associated with protein kinase C (PKC)λ/ζ phosphorylation in the insulin signaling pathway, but did promote 5'-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Increased glucose uptake through POE was inhibited through treating with the PI3K inhibitor or AMPK inhibitor in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This result suggested that POE may enhance glucose uptake by stimulating GLUT4 translocation to the PM through activating the PI3K and AMPK pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

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Pig translocase of outer FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Jurkat Cell Extract (Indu Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula VDAC1 - Rabbit polyclonal

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Emergence of Multiscaling in a Random-Force Stirred Fluid.

We consider the transition to strong turbulence in an infinite fluid stirred by a Gaussian random force. The transition is defined as a first appearance of anomalous scaling of normalized moments of velocity derivatives (dissipation rates) emerging from the low-Reynolds-number Gaussian background. It is shown that, due to multiscaling, strongly intermittent rare events can be quantitatively described in terms of an infinite number of different "Reynolds numbers" reflecting a multitude of anomalous scaling exponents. The theoretically predicted transition disappears at R_{λ}≤3. The developed theory is in quantitative agreement with the outcome of large-scale numerical simulations.

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Dissipative Effects on Inertial-Range Statistics at High Reynolds Numbers.

Using the unique capabilities of the Variable Density Turbulence Tunnel at the Max Planck Institute for Dynamics and Self-Organization, Göttingen, we report experimental measurements in classical grid turbulence that uncover oscillations of the velocity structure functions in the inertial range. This was made possible by measuring extremely long time series of up to 10^{10} samples of the turbulent fluctuating velocity, which corresponds to O(10^{7}) integral length scales. The measurements were conducted in a well-controlled environment at a wide range of high Reynolds numbers from R_{λ}=110 up to R_{λ}=1600, using both traditional hot-wire probes as well as the nanoscale thermal anemometry probe developed at Princeton University. An implication of the observed oscillations is that dissipation influences the inertial-range statistics of turbulent flows at scales significantly larger than predicted by current models and theories.

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Population Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Guselkumab, a Human IgG1λ Monoclonal Antibody Targeting IL-23, in Patients with Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis.

Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disorder that requires chronic treatment and is associated with multiple comorbidities. Guselkumab, a human immunoglobulin-G1-lambda monoclonal antibody, binds to interleukin-23 with high specificity and affinity and is effective in treating moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. As part of the guselkumab psoriasis clinical trial program, using a confirmatory approach, a population pharmacokinetics (PopPK) model was established using 13 014 PK samples from 1454 guselkumab-treated patients across 3 phase 2/3 trials. Observed serum guselkumab concentrations were adequately described by a 1-compartment linear PK model with first-order absorption and elimination. The final PK model was robust and stable, with apparent clearance (CL/F), apparent volume of distribution (V/F), and absorption rate constant (ka) estimates of 0.516 L/day, 13.5 L, and 1.11 day-1 , respectively. A model-derived elimination half-life of 18.1 days indicated achievement of steady-state serum guselkumab concentrations within 12-14 weeks. The primary covariate contributing to the observed PK variability was body weight, which accounted for only 28% (CL/F) and 32% (V/F) of the interindividual proportion of variance. Diabetes was identified to marginally reduce guselkumab exposure, owing to 12% higher CL/F in diabetic versus nondiabetic patients, but its contribution was not clinically relevant. None of the other covariates tested (eg, age, sex, ethnicity, immune response to guselkumab, or concomitant medications) had a clinically relevant effect on guselkumab exposure.

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A 6-week warm-up injury prevention programme results in minimal biomechanical changes during jump landings: a randomized controlled trial.

To examine the extent to which an ACL injury prevention programme modifies lower extremity biomechanics during single- and double-leg landing tasks in both the sagittal and frontal plane. It was hypothesized that the training programme would elicit improvements in lower extremity biomechanics, but that these improvements would be greater during a double-leg sagittal plane landing task than tasks performed on a single leg or in the frontal plane.

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DNAJB9 Is a Specific Immunohistochemical Marker for Fibrillary Glomerulonephritis.

Fibrillary glomerulonephritis (FGN) is a rare disease with unknown pathogenesis and a poor prognosis. Until now, the diagnosis of this disease has required demonstration of glomerular deposition of randomly oriented fibrils by electron microscopy that are Congo red negative and stain with antisera to Igs. We recently discovered a novel proteomic tissue biomarker for FGN, namely, DNAJB9.

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Mutation Analysis in Cultured Cells of Transgenic Rodents.

To comply with guiding principles for the ethical use of animals for experimental research, the field of mutation research has witnessed a shift of interest from large-scale in vivo animal experiments to small-sized in vitro studies. Mutation assays in cultured cells of transgenic rodents constitute, in many ways, viable alternatives to in vivo mutagenicity experiments in the corresponding animals. A variety of transgenic rodent cell culture models and mutation detection systems have been developed for mutagenicity testing of carcinogens. Of these, transgenic Big Blue® (Stratagene Corp., La Jolla, CA, USA, acquired by Agilent Technologies Inc., Santa Clara, CA, USA, BioReliance/Sigma-Aldrich Corp., Darmstadt, Germany) mouse embryonic fibroblasts and the λ Select cII Mutation Detection System have been used by many research groups to investigate the mutagenic effects of a wide range of chemical and/or physical carcinogens. Here, we review techniques and principles involved in preparation and culturing of Big Blue® mouse embryonic fibroblasts, treatment in vitro with chemical/physical agent(s) of interest, determination of the cII mutant frequency by the λ Select cII assay and establishment of the mutation spectrum by DNA sequencing. We describe various approaches for data analysis and interpretation of the results. Furthermore, we highlight representative studies in which the Big Blue® mouse cell culture model and the λ Select cII assay have been used for mutagenicity testing of diverse carcinogens. We delineate the advantages of this approach and discuss its limitations, while underscoring auxiliary methods, where applicable.

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The evaluation of Cr-curcumin-DNA complexation by experimental and theoretical approaches.

Chromium(III) chloride mediates DNA-DNA cross-linking. Some chromium complexes promote programmed cell death in specific ligand environment through binding to DNA. One strategy that can be supposed for reduction of Cr3+ binding affinity to DNA is using curcumin as a chelator. In the current study, the [Cr(Curcumin)(EtOH)2](NO3)2 (CCC) was synthesized and characterized by UV/Vis, FT-IR, CHN and spectrophotometric titration techniques. The mole ratio plot revealed a 1:1 complex between Cr3+ and curcumin in solution. Binding interaction of this complex with calf thymus-DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated using UV/Vis, circular dichroism (CD), FT-IR and cyclic voltammetry. The intrinsic binding constants of CCC with DNA, measured by UV/Vis and cyclic voltammetry, were 1.60 × 105 and 1.13 × 105, respectively. The thermodynamic studies showed that the reaction is enthalpy and entropy favoured. CD analysis revealed that only Λ-CCC interacts with DNA and Δ-CCC form has no tendency towards DNA. Based on FT-IR studies, it was understood that CCC interacts with DNA via minor groove binding. The docking simulation was carried out for finding the binding mode of CCC to DNA, too. All of data demonstrated that the curcumin significantly reduced the affinity of Cr3+ to the DNA and the form of Δ-CCC has no interaction with DNA.

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