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rBmTI-6 attenuates pathophysiological and inflammatory parameters of induced emphysema in mice.

Protease/anti-protease imbalance is the main pathogenic mechanism of emphysema and protease inhibitors have been recognized as potential molecules to treat the disease conditions. In this work the rBmTI-6 first domain (rBmTI-6-D1), a recombinant Kunitz-type serine proteinase inhibitor, was used to verify its effect in prevention or minimization of PPE-induced emphysema in mice. C57BL/6 mice were submitted to a PPE-induced emphysema model and treated with rBmTI-6-D1 before the emphysema development. We showed that the rBmTI-6-D1 treatment was sufficient to avoid the loss of elastic recoil, an effective decrease in alveolar enlargement and in the number of macrophages and lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Proteolytic analysis showed a significant increase in elastase activity in PPE-VE (induced emphysema) group that is controlled by rBmTI-6-D1. Kallikrein activity was decreased in the PPE-rBmTI6 (induced emphysema and inhibitor treated) group when compared to PPE-VE group. Although rBmTI-6-D1, did not present a neutrophil elastase (NE) inhibitory activity, the results show that the inhibitor interfered in the pathway of NE secretion in PPE-emphysema mice model. The role of rBmTI-6-D1 in the prevention of emphysema development in the mice model, apparently, is related with a control of inflammatory response due the trypsin/kallikrein inhibitory activity of rBmTI-6-D1.

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Genetically‑modified stem cells in treatment of human diseases: Tissue kallikrein (KLK1)‑based targeted therapy (Review).

The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases. Genetic modification enhances their inherent properties. MSCs or EPCs are competent cellular vehicles for drug and/or gene delivery in the targeted treatment of diseases. KLK1 gene delivery using adenoviral vectors or KLK1 protein infusion into injured tissues of animal models has provided particularly encouraging results in attenuating or reversing myocardial, renal and cerebrovascular ischemic phenotype and tissue damage, thus paving the way for the administration of genetically modified MSCs or EPCs with the human tissue KLK1 gene. Engraftment of KLK1‑modified MSCs and/or KLK1‑modified EPCs resulted in advanced beneficial outcome regarding heart and kidney protection and recovery from ischemic insults. Collectively, findings from pre‑clinical studies raise the possibility that tissue KLK1 may be a novel future therapeutic target in the treatment of a wide range of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disorders.

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Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Tissue array of gastric d Human normal bone and ost Human breast invasive duc Human breast invasive duc Human Small Intestine Mic Human Large Intestine Mic Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte ELISA kit CLGI,Collagenas Goat Anti-Human KLK1, (in

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Loss of kallikrein-related peptidase 7 exacerbates amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease model mice.

Deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques is one of the pathological hallmarks in the brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In addition, glial activation has been found in AD brains, although the precise pathological role of astrocytes remains unclear. Here, we identified kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7) as an astrocyte-derived Aβ degrading enzyme. Expression of KLK7 mRNA was significantly decreased in the brains of AD patients. Ablation of Klk7 exacerbated the thioflavin S-positive Aβ pathology in AD model mice. The expression of Klk7 was upregulated by Aβ treatment in the primary astrocyte, suggesting that Klk7 is homeostatically modulated by Aβ-induced responses. Finally, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-dementia drug memantine can increase the expression of Klk7 and Aβ degradation activity specifically in the astrocytes. These data suggest that KLK7 is an important enzyme in the degradation and clearance of deposited Aβ species by astrocytes involved in the pathogenesis of AD.

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Inhibition of plasma kallikrein-kinin system to alleviate renal injury and arthritis symptoms in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease. Impairment of kidney functions in RA was observed. However, the mechanism of kidney injury of RA has not been clear. Plasma kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) was involved in inflammatory processes in kidney disease.

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Best of the 2017 AUA Annual Meeting: Highlights From the 2017 American Urological Association Annual Meeting, May 12-16, 2017, Boston, MA.


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Digestive and Nondigestive Functions of Rodents' Salivary Glands.

Major salivary glands play a role not only in digestion, but also in regulation of other functions in rodents. In this review, we analyzed and summarized the data about the rodents' parotid, submandibular and sublingual salivary glands functions, which is not limited to the production of saliva and action of its hydrolytic enzymes on food in the oral cavity. In recent decades significantly expanded understanding of major salivary glands nondigestive functions. They are involved in excretion of metabolic products, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance. Special attention has been paid to the characteristics of specific (parotin, sialorphin, etc.) and nonspecific (epidermal growth factor, nerve growth factor, kallikrein, etc.) active substances of the major salivary glands and their involvement in wound healing, mineral metabolism, regulation of hematopoiesis and immunity system. Summarized and analyzed major salivary glands endocrine function in the organs and systems. Available literature data suggest: the structure of the major salivary glands, as well as the synthesis and secretion of a number of biologically active substances are controlled by sex hormones. In turn, these biologically active factors of the salivary glands, as epidermal growth factor, and parotin, sialorphin, whose expression is regulated by androgens, have an impact on the morphological and functional state of the gonads. Thus, major salivary glands operate a wide range of functions and involved in the regulation of sexual behavior of reproductive function and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

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[New progress in precision diagnosis of prostate cancer].

The morbidity of prostate cancer presents an obvious ascending tendency. Early diagnosis plays a crucial role in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer. However, the methods widely used for its diagnosis mostly lack high specificity and sensitivity. This review introduces four methods for the detection of prostate cancer, which are PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG, the Kallikrein panel, MRGB, and the STHLM3 model, all based on molecular biology and superior to the traditional methods in both specificity and sensitivity. These methods are expected to contribute to the realization of precision diagnosis of prostate cancer.

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Is There a Role for Functional MRI for the Assessment of Extracapsular Extension in Prostate Cancer?

Exctracapsular extension (ECE) in prostate cancer has a high impact on treatment decision. MRI might predict presence of ECE non-invasively.

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Long-term Outcomes of a Dose-reduction Trial to Decrease Late Gastrointestinal Toxicity in Patients with Prostate Cancer Receiving Soft Tissue-matched Image-guided Intensity-modulated Radiotherapy.

We experienced an unexpected high incidence of gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity in patients undergoing image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IG-IMRT) using helical tomotherapy in our initial 2.2 Gy/fraction schedule for prostate cancer; hence, a dose-reduction trial from 2.2 Gy to 2 Gy/fraction was conducted using modified planning target volume (PTV) contouring.

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Top 4 types of cancer (co Top five cancer tissue ar Colon cancer and matched Colon cancer tissue array Prostate cancer, adjacent Bladder cancer tissue arr Breast cancer and matched Breast cancer and matched Breast cancer and matched Late stage breast cancer Breast cancer tissue arra Breast cancer tissue arra

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Contact (kallikrein/kinin) system activation in whole human blood induced by low concentrations of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles.

Iron-oxide nanoparticles (NPs) generated by environmental events are likely to represent health problems. α-Fe2O3 NPs were synthesized, characterized and tested in a model for toxicity utilizing human whole blood without added anticoagulant. MALDI-TOF of the corona was performed and activation markers for plasma cascade systems (complement, contact and coagulation systems), platelet consumption and release of growth factors, MPO, and chemokine/cytokines from blood cells were analyzed. The coronas formed on the pristine α-Fe2O3 NPs contained contact system proteins and they induced massive activation of the contact (kinin/kallikrein) system, as well as thrombin generation, platelet activation, and release of two pro-angiogeneic growth factors: platelet-derived growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor, whereas complement activation was unaffected. The α-Fe2O3 NPs exhibited a noticeable toxicity, with kinin/kallikrein activation, which may be associated with hypotension and long-term angiogenesis in vivo, with implications for cancer, arteriosclerosis and pulmonary disease.

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