Search results for: Influenza B Virus
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Influenza surveillance in Western Turkey in the era of quadrivalent vaccines: A 2003-2016 retrospective analysis.Human influenza is predominantly caused by influenza A virus (IAV) - A/H1N1 and/or A/H3N2 - and influenza B virus (IBV) - B/Victoria and/or B/Yamagata, which co-circulate each season. Influenza surveillance provides important information on seasonal disease burden and circulation, and vaccine content for the following season. To study the circulating influenza subtypes/lineages in western Turkey. Community-based sentinel surveillance results during 2003-2016 (weeks 40-20 each season; but week 21, 2009 through week 20, 2010 during the pandemic) were analyzed. Nasal/nasopharyngeal swabs from patients with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza virus and characterized as A/H1N1, A/H3N2, or IBV. A subset of IBV samples was further characterized as B/Victoria or B/Yamagata. Among 14,429 specimens (9,766 collected during interpandemic influenza seasons; 4,663 during the 2009-2010 pandemic), 3,927 (27.2%) were positive. Excluding the pandemic year (2009-2010), 645 (27.4%) samples were characterized as A/H1N1 or A/H1N1/pdm09, 958 (40.7%) as A/H3N2, and 752 (31.9%) as IBV, but the dominant subtype/lineage varied widely each season. During the pandemic year (2009-2010), 98.3% of cases were A/H1N1/pdm09. IBV accounted for 0-60.2% of positive samples each season. The IBV lineages in circulation matched the vaccine IBV lineage >50% in six seasons and <50% in four seasons; with an overall mismatch of 49.7%. IBV cases tended to peak later than IAV cases within seasons. These results have important implications for vaccine composition and optimal vaccination timing. Quadrivalent vaccines containing both IBV lineages can reduce B-lineage mismatch, thus reducing the burden of IBV disease.
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Evaluating Changes in The Clinical Presentation of Acute Obstructive Bronchitis in Preschool Children Using Antiviral Therapy.A randomized double-blind controlled study was carried out to evaluate changes in the clinical presentation of acute obstructive bronchitis in preschool children using antiviral, anti-inflammatory therapy. The study enrolled 54 subjects'(aged 3-6 years old) hospitalized with verified diagnosis of acute obstructive bronchitis. Their parents had given their informed consent for participation. Group 1 (n=26) received etiotropic therapy with the drug having complex antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antihistamine effect (Ergoferon), group 2 (n=28) received placebo. Meanwhile all children received complex therapy of ARI. To evaluate therapeutic efficacy the following parameters were compared: time to elimination of the clinical manifestations of the disease; extent of alleviation of the key symptoms, incidence of wheezing episodes and complications.
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Serum High-Mobility-Group Box 1 as a Biomarker and a Therapeutic Target during Respiratory Virus Infections.Host-derived "danger-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs) contribute to innate immune responses and serve as markers of disease progression and severity for inflammatory and infectious diseases. There is accumulating evidence that generation of DAMPs such as oxidized phospholipids and high-mobility-group box 1 (HMGB1) during influenza virus infection leads to acute lung injury (ALI). Treatment of influenza virus-infected mice and cotton rats with the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist Eritoran blocked DAMP accumulation and ameliorated influenza virus-induced ALI. However, changes in systemic HMGB1 kinetics during the course of influenza virus infection in animal models and humans have yet to establish an association of HMGB1 release with influenza virus infection. To this end, we used the cotton rat model that is permissive to nonadapted strains of influenza A and B viruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and human rhinoviruses (HRVs). Serum HMGB1 levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) prior to infection until day 14 or 18 post-infection. Infection with either influenza A or B virus resulted in a robust increase in serum HMGB1 levels that decreased by days 14 to 18. Inoculation with the live attenuated vaccine FluMist resulted in HMGB1 levels that were significantly lower than those with infection with live influenza viruses. RSV and HRVs showed profiles of serum HMGB1 induction that were consistent with their replication and degree of lung pathology in cotton rats. We further showed that therapeutic treatment with Eritoran of cotton rats infected with influenza B virus significantly blunted serum HMGB1 levels and improved lung pathology, without inhibiting virus replication. These findings support the use of drugs that block HMGB1 to combat influenza virus-induced ALI.Influenza virus is a common infectious agent causing serious seasonal epidemics, and there is urgent need to develop an alternative treatment modality for influenza virus infection. Recently, host-derived DAMPs, such as oxidized phospholipids and HMGB1, were shown to be generated during influenza virus infection and cause ALI. To establish a clear link between influenza virus infection and HMGB1 as a biomarker, we have systematically analyzed temporal patterns of serum HMGB1 release in cotton rats infected with nonadapted strains of influenza A and B viruses and compared these patterns with a live attenuated influenza vaccine and infection by other respiratory viruses. Towards development of a new therapeutic modality, we show herein that blocking serum HMGB1 levels by Eritoran improves lung pathology in influenza B virus-infected cotton rats. Our study is the first report of systemic HMGB1 as a potential biomarker of severity in respiratory virus infections and confirms that drugs that block virus-induced HMGB1 ameliorate ALI.
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A Randomized, Double-Blind, Active-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Cell Culture-Derived Inactivated Trivalent Influenza Vaccine (NBP607) in Healthy Children 6 Months Through 18 Years of Age.Although a number of cell culture-derived influenza vaccines have been approved for use in adults, there have been few clinical trials of cell culture-derived seasonal influenza vaccines for young children.
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Evaluation of the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel FAST v2 assay for detection of multiple respiratory viral pathogens in nasal and throat swabs in Vietnam.Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are among the leading causes of hospitalization in children ≤5 years old. Rapid diagnostics of viral pathogens is essential to avoid unnecessary antibiotic treatment, thereby slowing down antibiotic-resistance. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the Luminex xTAG Respiratory Viral Panel FAST v2 against viral specific PCR as reference assays for ARI in Vietnam.
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High-resolution structure of the Influenza A virus PB2cap binding domain illuminates the changes induced by ligand binding.In the face of increasing drug resistance and the rapidly increasing necessity for practicality in clinical settings, drugs targeting different viral proteins are needed in order to control influenza A and B. A small molecule that tenaciously adheres to the PB2cap binding domain, part of the heterotrimeric RNA polymerase machinery of influenza A virus and influenza B virus, is a promising drug candidate. Understanding the anatomic behavior of PB2cap upon ligand binding will aid in the development of a more robust inhibitor. In this report, the anatomic behavior of the influenza A virus PB2cap domain is established by solving the crystal structure of native influenza A virus PB2cap at 1.52 Å resolution. By comparing it with the ligand-bound structure, the dissociation and rotation of the ligand-binding domain in PB2cap from the C-terminal domain is identified. This domain movement is present in many PB2cap structures, suggesting its functional relevance for polymerase activity.
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Implementation of a rapid influenza A/B and RSV direct molecular assay improves emergency department oseltamivir use in paediatric patients.Influenza A virus (FluA), influenza B virus (FluB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) illnesses increase hospitalizations during seasonal epidemics.
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Identification and characterization of viral defective RNA genomes in influenza B virus.Influenza B virus (FLUBV) is an important pathogen that infects humans and causes seasonal influenza epidemics. To date, little is known about defective genomes of FLUBV and their roles in viral replication. In this study, by using a next-generation sequencing approach, we analyzed total mRNAs extracted from A549 cells infected with B/Brisbane/60/2008 virus (Victoria lineage), and identified four defective FLUBV genomes with two (PB1∆A and PB1∆B) from the polymerase basic subunit 1 (PB1) segment and the other two (M∆A and M∆B) from the matrix (M) protein-encoding segment. These defective genomes contained significant deletions in the central regions with each having the potential for encoding a novel polypeptide. Significantly, each of the discovered defective RNAs can potently inhibit the replication of B/Yamanashi/166/98 (Yamagata lineage). Furthermore, PB1∆A was able to interfere modestly with influenza A virus (FLUAV) replication. In summary, our study provides important initial insights into FLUBV defective-interfering genomes, which can be further explored to achieve better understanding of the replication, pathogenesis and evolution of FLUBV.
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Update: Influenza Activity - United States, October 1, 2017-February 3, 2018.Influenza activity in the United States began to increase in early November 2017 and rose sharply from December through February 3, 2018; elevated influenza activity is expected to continue for several more weeks. Influenza A viruses have been most commonly identified, with influenza A(H3N2) viruses predominating, but influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 and influenza B viruses were also reported. This report summarizes U.S. influenza activity* during October 1, 2017-February 3, 2018,and updates the previous summary (1).
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Interim Estimates of 2017-18 Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness - United States, February 2018.In the United States, annual vaccination against seasonal influenza is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months (1). During each influenza season since 2004-05, CDC has estimated the effectiveness of seasonal influenza vaccine to prevent laboratory-confirmed influenza associated with medically attended acute respiratory illness (ARI). This report uses data from 4,562 children and adults enrolled in the U.S. Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network (U.S. Flu VE Network) during November 2, 2017-February 3, 2018. During this period, overall adjusted vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A and influenza B virus infection associated with medically attended ARI was 36% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 27%-44%). Most (69%) influenza infections were caused by A(H3N2) viruses. VE was estimated to be 25% (CI = 13% to 36%) against illness caused by influenza A(H3N2) virus, 67% (CI = 54%-76%) against A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses, and 42% (CI = 25%-56%) against influenza B viruses. These early VE estimates underscore the need for ongoing influenza prevention and treatment measures. CDC continues to recommend influenza vaccination because the vaccine can still prevent some infections with currently circulating influenza viruses, which are expected to continue circulating for several weeks. Even with current vaccine effectiveness estimates, vaccination will still prevent influenza illness, including thousands of hospitalizations and deaths. Persons aged ≥6 months who have not yet been vaccinated this season should be vaccinated.
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