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#28934217   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Elevated humoral response to cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell immune recovery.

Some HIV-infected c-ART-suppressed individuals show incomplete CD4+ T-cell recovery, abnormal T-cell activation and higher mortality. One potential source of immune activation could be coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV). IgG and IgM levels, immune activation, inflammation and T-cell death in c-ART-suppressed individuals with CD4+ T-cell counts >350 cells/μL (immunoconcordant, n = 133) or <350 cells/μL (immunodiscordant, n = 95) were analyzed to evaluate the effect of CMV humoral response on immune recovery. In total, 27 HIV-uninfected individuals were included as controls. In addition, the presence of CMV IgM antibodies was retrospectively analyzed in 58 immunoconcordant individuals and 66 immunodiscordant individuals. Increased CMV IgG levels were observed in individuals with poor immune reconstitution (p = 0.0002). Increased CMV IgG responses were significantly correlated with lower nadir and absolute CD4+ T-cell counts. In contrast, CMV IgG responses were positively correlated with activation (HLA-DR+) and death markers in CD4+ T-cells and activated memory CD8+ T-cells (CD45RA-CD38+). Longitudinal subanalysis revealed an increased frequency of IgM+ samples in individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell recovery, and an association was observed between retrospective IgM positivity and the current level of IgG. The magnitude of the humoral immune response to CMV is associated with nadir CD4+ T-cell counts, inflammation, immune activation and CD4+ T-cell death, thus suggesting that CMV infection may be a relevant driving force in the increased morbidity/mortality observed in HIV+ individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell recovery.

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#28932819   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

IgA and IgM protein primarily drive plasma corona-induced adhesion reduction of PLGA nanoparticles in human blood flow.

The high abundance of immunoglobulins (Igs) in the plasma protein corona on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA)-based vascular-targeted carriers (VTCs) has previously been shown to reduce their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in human blood flow. However, the relative role of individual Ig classes (e.g., IgG, IgA, and IgM) in causing adhesion reduction remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized the influence of specific Ig classes in prescribing the binding efficiency of PLGA nano-sized VTCs in blood flow. Specifically, we evaluated the flow adhesion to aECs of PLGA VTCs with systematic depletion of various Igs in their corona. Adhesion reduction was largely eliminated for PLGA VTCs when all Igs were removed from the corona. Furthermore, re-addition of IgA or IgM to the Igs-depleted corona reinstated the low adhesion of PLGA VTCs, as evidenced by ∼40-70% reduction relative to particles with an Igs-deficient corona. However, re-addition of a high concentration of IgG to the Igs-depleted corona did not cause significant adhesion reduction. Overall, the presented results reveal that PLGA VTC adhesion reduction in blood flows is primarily driven by high adsorption of IgA and IgM in the particle corona. Pre-coating of albumin on PLGA VTCs mitigated the extent of adhesion reduction in plasma for some donors but was largely ineffective in general. Overall, this work may shed light into effective control of protein corona composition, thereby enhancing VTC functionality in vivo for eventual clinical use.

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anti H inh human blood an Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-APIP Apaf1 In Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T Rabbit Anti-TNIP2 ABIN2 T Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Rabbit Anti-Cell death in Bovine prolactin-induced Prolactin-Inducible Prote Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Anti AGO2 Human, Monoclon Human Macrophage Inflamma

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#28932402   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Comparative study of sickle cell anemia and hemoglobin SC disease: clinical characterization, laboratory biomarkers and genetic profiles.

In this study, we evaluate the association of different clinical profiles, laboratory and genetic biomarkers in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC) in attempt to characterize the sickle cell disease (SCD) genotypes.

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#28931886   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Value of Measuring Anti-Carbamylated Protein Antibodies for Classification on Early Arthritis Patients.

Classification of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as quickly as possible improves their prognosis. This reason motivates specially dedicated early arthritis (EA) clinics. Here, we have used 1062 EA patients with two years of follow-up to explore the value of anti-carbamylated protein (anti-CarP) antibodies, a new type of RA specific autoantibodies, for classification. Specifically, we aimed to determine whether the addition of anti-CarP antibodies to IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies, which are helpful in RA classification, improves it or not. Our analysis showed that incorporation of the anti-CarP antibodies to combinations of the other two antibodies (all joint by the OR Boolean operator) produces a modest increase in sensitivity (2.2% higher), at the cost of decreased specificity (8.1% lower). The cost-benefit ratio was more favorable in the patients lacking the other autoantibodies. However, it did not improve by considering different titer levels of the anti-CarP antibodies, or after exhaustively exploring other antibody combinations. Therefore, the place in RA classification of these antibodies is questionable in the context of current treatments and biomarkers. This conclusion does not exclude their potential value for stratifying patients in joint damage, disease activity, disability, or mortality categories.

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Mouse Anti-EBV Early Anti Anti C-Reactive Protein A Mouse Anti-RSV 33kDa & 19 Rabbit Anti-SARS Virus Nu Viral antibodies, anti-H Anti-SARS Spike Protein I Mouse Anti-SARS Nucleocap Anti-SARS Nucleocapsid Pr Rat Anti-Human Cartilage Mouse Anti-EBV Early Nucl Mouse Anti-Bovine Folate Mouse Anti-HSV-6 Human Ea

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#28931676   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Protective Humoral Immunity in the CNS Requires Peripheral CD19-Dependent Germinal Center Formation Following Coronavirus Encephalomyelitis.

B cell subsets with phenotypes characteristic of naïve, non-isotype-switched, memory (Bmem), and antibody-secreting cells (ASC) accumulate in various models of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, including viral encephalomyelitis. During neurotropic coronavirus JHMV infection infiltration of protective ASC occurs after T cell mediated viral control, and is preceded by accumulation of non-isotype switched IgD(+) and IgM(+) B cells. However, the contribution of peripheral activation events in cervical lymph nodes (CLN) in driving humoral immune responses in the infected CNS is poorly defined. CD19, a signaling component of the B cell receptor complex, is one of multiple regulators driving B cell differentiation and germinal center (GC) formation by lowering the threshold of antigen-driven activation. JHMV infected CD19(-/-) mice were thus used to determine how CD19 affects CNS recruitment of B cell subsets. Early polyclonal ASC expansion, GC formation, and virus-specific ASC were all significantly impaired in CLN of CD19(-/-) mice compared to wild type (wt) mice, consistent with lower and unsustained virus-specific serum Ab. ASC were also significantly reduced in the CNS resulting in increased infectious virus during persistence. Nevertheless, CD19 deficiency did not affect early CNS IgD(+) B cell accumulation. The results support that CD19 independent factors drive early B cell mobilization and recruitment to the infected CNS, while delayed accumulation of virus-specific, isotype switched ASC requires CD19 dependent GC formation in CLN. CD19 is thus essential for both sustained serum Ab as well as protective local Ab within the CNS following JHMV encephalomyelitis.IMPORTANCE CD19 activation is known to promote GC formation and sustain serum Ab responses following antigen immunization and viral infections. However, the contribution of CD19 in the context of CNS infections has not been evaluated. This study demonstrates that antiviral protective ASC in the CNS are dependent on CD19 activation and peripheral GC formation, while accumulation of early-recruited IgD(+) B cells is CD19-independent. This indicates that IgD(+) B cells commonly found early in the CNS do not give rise to local ASC differentiation and that only antigen-primed, peripheral GC-derived ASC infiltrate the CNS, thereby limiting potentially harmful non-specific Ab secretion. Expanding our understanding of activation signals driving CNS migration of distinct B cell subsets during neuroinflammatory insults is critical for preventing and managing acute encephalitic infections, as well as preempting reactivation of persistent viruses during immune suppressive therapies targeting B cells in multiple sclerosis (MS), such as Rituximab and Ocrelizumab.

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#28931582   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Steroids administered after vacuum-assisted biopsy in the management of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis.

The aetiology and treatment options for idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) are controversial. The aim was to study the clinical and diagnostic features and discuss medical and surgical treatment for IGM in our patients.

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#28931425   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Neutralizing immune responses induced by oligomeric H5N1-hemagglutinins from plants.

Plant-based transient expression is an alternative platform to produce hemagglutinin-based subunit vaccines. This production system provides not only fast and effective response in the context of a pandemic but also enables the supply of big volume vaccines at low cost. Crude plant extracts containing influenza hemagglutinin are considered to use as vaccine sources because of avoidance of related purification steps resulting in low cost production allowing veterinary applications. Highly immunogenic influenza hemagglutinins are urgently required to meet these pre-conditions. Here, we present a new and innovative way to generate functional H5 oligomers from avian flu hemagglutinin in planta by the specific interaction of S·Tag and S·Protein. A S·Tag was fused to H5 trimers and this construct was transiently co-expressed in planta with S·Protein-TPs which was multimerized by disulfide bonds via cysteine residues in tailpiece sequences (TP) of IgM antibody. Multimerized S·Protein-TPs serve as bridges/molecular docks to combine S·Tag-fused hemagglutinin trimers to form very large hemagglutinin H5 oligomers. H5 oligomers in the plant crude extract were highly active in hemagglutination resulting in high titers. Immunization of mice with two doses of plant crude extracts containing H5 oligomers after storage for 1 week at 4 °C caused strong immune responses and induced neutralizing specific humoral immune responses in mice. These results allow for the development of cheap influenza vaccines for veterinary application in future.

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#28931421   2017/09/21 Save this To Up

Magnitude of the Cytomegalovirus infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania.

Despite, Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection being associated with a potential risk to the fetus, there is limited data from Tanzania and many other developing countries regarding the epidemiology and the impact of CMV infections. This cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and June 2015 among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the city of Mwanza, Tanzania to investigate the magnitude and associated factors of CMV infection.

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#28929965   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

[A negleted bacteria with a case: Bartonella henselae].

Bartonella henselae the causative agent of cat scratch disease (CSD), is a gram-negative, coccobacillus, facultative intracellular bacterium CSD usually presents as a clinical form of benign local lymphadenopathy (LAP) but sometimes it may progress to severe life threatening complications. Despite the fact that CSD is known to be a common disease, which is one of the important causes of local LAPs in the world, there are few publications in our country. For the diagnosis, the clinician should suspect for CSD and has to ask to the patient whether there is a story of cat scratch or not. In our country the diagnosis of CSD is usually done by invasive pathological examination instead of simple serological tests. In this report, a 14 years old case with CSD with antibody titers of 1/384 IgM, 1/2048 IgG B.henselae antibody determined by indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) method in serum and B.henselae positivity by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from LAP sample of the patient with axillary LAP was presented. Even though molecular techniques have been used for the diagnosis of the previous reported cases, it is the first B.henselae positive case in our country detected with PCR. In the history of the case it was learned that the patient was scratched by a street cat few months ago and the axillary LAP developed 4-5 weeks later. Axillary ultrasonography shawed abscesses with the largest 22 x 44 mm compatible with LAP. No growth was detected in the LAP biopsy specimen culture. Leucocyte count was normal but sedimentation rate (68 mm/h), and C-reactive protein (41.7 mg/L) were higher.Therapy was started with azitromycin 500 mg/day but two weeks later as there was no regression of LAP, considering the development of resistance, the treatment was changed to doxycycline 2 x 100 mg/day and rifampicin 1 x 300 mg/day. As the LAP was in abscess formation and the titers found in IFA was higher than the predictive value of B.henselae antibody titer for endocarditis, the treatment has been extended to four weeks and the patient has been cured. Especially children and adolescents are at very high risk for zoonotic infections transmitted from pets in our country due to the intense immigration to the city from the rural areas and the unconscious and uncontrolled livelihood of friendship with street animals. We should accept that this is not a rare condition, as the cat scratch disease can change from harmless to very serious forms the diagnosis and treatment should be quickly and carefully performed. Currently, serological examinations for Bartonella are rarely done in some certain reference laboratories in our country. The number of these laboratories should be increased or the usage of the tests in these reference laboratories should be at least expanded.

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#28928744   2017/09/20 Save this To Up

CCCTC-Binding Factor Locks Premature IgH Germline Transcription and Restrains Class Switch Recombination.

In response to antigenic stimulation B cells undergo class switch recombination (CSR) at the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) to replace the primary IgM/IgD isotypes by IgG, IgE, or IgA. CSR is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) through the deamination of cytosine residues at the switch (S) regions of IgH. B cell stimulation promotes germline transcription (GLT) of specific S regions, a necessary event prior to CSR because it facilitates AID access to S regions. Here, we show that CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-deficient mice are severely impaired in the generation of germinal center B cells and plasma cells after immunization in vivo, most likely due to impaired cell survival. Importantly, we find that CTCF-deficient B cells have an increased rate of CSR under various stimulation conditions in vitro. This effect is not secondary to altered cell proliferation or AID expression in CTCF-deficient cells. Instead, we find that CTCF-deficient B cells harbor an increased mutation frequency at switch regions, probably reflecting an increased accessibility of AID to IgH in the absence of CTCF. Moreover, CTCF deficiency triggers premature GLT of S regions in naïve B cells. Our results indicate that CTCF restricts CSR by enforcing GLT silencing and limiting AID access to IgH.

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