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#25969367   2015/07/23 Save this To Up

IgE and risk of cancer in 37 747 individuals from the general population.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is produced by plasma cells, often as part of an allergic immune response. It is currently unknown whether plasma IgE levels are associated with risk of cancer in individuals from the general population. We tested the hypothesis that high levels of plasma total IgE are associated with overall risk of cancer and with risk of specific cancers.

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#25555008   2015/01/05 Save this To Up

[IgE myeloma. Laboratory typing difficulties].

The IgE multiple myeloma is a rare neoplasm of plasma cell accounting for 0.01% of all plasma cell dyscrasias. They are generally of more aggressive development and to date there are no more than 50 cases published in current literature. Laboratory studies are, in these cases, essential for the classification of the monoclonal component in serum and urine. The aim of this presentation is to report a patient diagnosed with IgE myeloma and to point out that the laboratory difficulties noted in these rare cases can lead to an erroneous report.

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#24925397   2014/06/13 Save this To Up

Mast cell research.

The role of mast cells in allergy remained unrevealed until the observation that they contained histamine in 1953, and then the discovery of immunoglobulin E (IgE) in 1966, nearly a century after Ehrlich's first publication. After the discovery of IgE, myeloma-derived IgE from Peter Shackford, who made a great contribution to mankind by providing 40 liters of plasma in the year prior to his death, was distributed to many researchers. This accelerated the exploration of the mechanisms involved in allergic reactions, especially regarding the role of mast cells in IgE-mediated reactions. The identification of mast cells as a progeny of a bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell in 1977 led us to the successful in vitro culture of mast cells. Along with the development of molecular biological techniques, the structure of the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) was determined in 1989. Thus, we now understand the whole molecules the expression of which is changed when mast cells are activated via FcεRI cross-linking. However, the physiological and pathological roles of mast cells, especially where IgE is not involved, are not yet fully understood. It will be necessary to determine the mechanisms involved in the 'non-IgE-mediated' steps of mast cell activation in allergic or other diseases.

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#24723328   2014/10/02 Save this To Up

Quantification of peptides from immunoglobulin constant and variable regions by LC-MRM MS for assessment of multiple myeloma patients.

Quantitative MS assays for Igs are compared with existing clinical methods in samples from patients with plasma cell dyscrasias, for example, multiple myeloma (MM).

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#24369932   2013/12/27 Save this To Up

A murine monoclonal antibody with broad specificity for occupationally relevant diisocyanates.

Diisocyanates (dNCOs) used in industrial applications are well known low molecular weight allergens. Occupational exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes including allergic sensitization and occupational asthma. In this study, we report the production and initial characterization of a dNCO-hapten specific murine IgM monoclonal antibody (mAb). Female BALB/c mice were immunized intraperitoneally with 25 μg of 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI)-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Following six biweekly booster immunizations, splenocytes were recovered and fused to Sp2/0-Ag14 murine myeloma cell line for hybridoma production. Hybridomas were then screened in a solid-phase indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against 40:1 4,4'-MDI- human serum albumin (HSA). mAb reactivity to dNCO-HSA conjugates and dNCO-HSA spiked human serum were characterized using a sandwich ELISA. One hybridoma produced a multimeric IgM mAb (15D4) that reacted with 4,4'-MDI-HSA. Sandwich ELISA analysis demonstrated comparable reactivity with other occupationally relevant dNCO-HSA adducts, including 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI)-HSA, 2,6-TDI-HSA, and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI)-HSA, but not other electrophilic chemical HSA conjugates. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of 4,4'-MDI-HSA, 2,4-TDI-HSA, 2,6-TDI-HSA, and 1,6-HDI-HSA sandwich ELISAs were 567.2, 172.7, 184.2, and 403.5 ng/mL (8.67, 2.60, 2.77, and 6.07 pmol/mL), respectively. In contrast, experiments using dNCO-supplemented human sera showed an increase in the detectable limit of the assay. A mAb has been produced that has potential utility for detecting mixed diisocyanate exposures in occupational environments. The mAb may have additional utility in the standardization of specific IgE detection immunoassays as well as chromatographic-mass spectrometric methods to enrich dNCO adducted HSA in the plasma of occupationally exposed workers.

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#24133829   2013/10/18 Save this To Up

Unusual myelomas: a review of IgD and IgE variants.

Immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma (IgD MM) accounts for almost 2% of all myeloma cases. It is associated with an increased frequency of undetectable or small monoclonal (M)-protein levels on electrophoresis; osteolytic lesions; extramedullary involvement; amyloidosis; a lambda (lambda) light chain predilection; renal failure; hypercalcemia; and, often, advanced disease at diagnosis. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) MM is rare, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. IgE MM presents with features similar to those of IgD MM, along with a higher incidence of plasma cell leukemia. The hallmark of IgE MM is t(11;14) (q13;q32). IgD and IgE levels are generally very low and hence may escape detection; thus, it is important that, when myeloma is suspected, patients be screened for the presence of IgD and IgE if they have an apparently free monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain in the serum. Although survival of patients with IgD MM or IgE MM is shorter in comparison to those with immunoglobulin G (IgG) MM or immunoglobulin A (IgA) MM, the outcome for patients with IgD and IgE subtypes is improving with the use of novel agents and autologous transplantation.

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#24055037   2013/10/14 Save this To Up

Syntaxin-4 is essential for IgE secretion by plasma cells.

The humoral immune system provides a crucial first defense against the invasion of microbial pathogens via the secretion of antigen specific immunoglobulins (Ig). The secretion of Ig is carried out by terminally differentiated B-lymphocytes called plasma cells. Despite the key role of plasma cells in the immune response, the mechanisms by which they constitutively traffic large volumes of Ig out of the cell is poorly understood. The involvement of Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the regulation of protein trafficking from cells has been well documented. Syntaxin-4, a member of the Qa SNARE syntaxin family has been implicated in fusion events at the plasma membrane in a number of cells in the immune system. In this work we show that knock-down of syntaxin-4 in the multiple myeloma U266 human plasma cell line results in a loss of IgE secretion and accumulation of IgE within the cells. Furthermore, we show that IgE co-localises with syntaxin-4 in U266 plasma cells suggesting direct involvement in secretion at the plasma membrane. This study demonstrates that syntaxin-4 plays a critical role in the secretion of IgE from plasma cells and sheds some light on the mechanisms by which these cells constitutively traffic vesicles to the surface for secretion. An understanding of this machinery may be beneficial in identifying potential therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma and autoimmune disease where over-production of Ig leads to severe pathology in patients.

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#23954772   2013/10/11 Save this To Up

A case of IgD myeloma representing a missed biclonal paraproteinemia or isotype switch in a patient previously diagnosed with IgA-lambda myeloma.

Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell neoplasm that is identified in the laboratory by a presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin or increased plasma light chain levels.

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#23872298   2013/10/11 Save this To Up

An IgE multiple myeloma: contradictory findings in clinical laboratory testing.

IgE multiple myeloma is a rare kind of plasma cell disorder, characterized by an aggressive clinical course, where laboratory testing plays a fundamental role for the correct diagnosis in order to start a targeted therapy. In the present paper it is described a case of IgE myeloma where contradictory findings between immunometric and separative techniques were found.

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#23775066   2013/10/17 Save this To Up

Antimyeloma activity of NK012, a micelle-forming macromolecular prodrug of SN-38, in an orthotopic model.

NK012 is a micelle-forming macromolecular prodrug of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy camptothecin (SN-38), an active metabolite of irinotecan. It is accumulated and retained in tumor tissues and gradually releases SN-38 in an enzyme-independent manner. NK012 was previously demonstrated to have stronger antitumor activity than irinotecan in a broad range of human solid-tumor xenograft models. In our study, we used an orthotopic multiple myeloma (MM) model created by injecting CD138-positive U266B1, a myeloma cell line that produces human IgE lambda light chain (monoclonal protein, M protein), into immunodeficient NOD/Shi-scid, IL-2Rγc (null) mice. This model shows typical bone marrow infiltration by the human myeloma cells. We evaluated the antimyeloma activity of intravenously administered NK012 in this model and showed that it suppressed the M protein concentration in the plasma and proliferation of myeloma cells in the bone marrow in a dose-dependent manner. NK012 suppressed the progression of hind-leg paralysis and prolonged the survival time of the mice compared to the untreated control group. In combination with bortezomib (BTZ), NK012 increased the median survival time compared to that with BTZ alone. In conclusion, these results suggest that NK012 is a potential candidate for use-alone and in combination-in the treatment of MM in humans.

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