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#23389942   2013/05/22 Save this To Up

Breast cancer-derived transforming growth factor-β and tumor necrosis factor-α compromise interferon-α production by tumor-associated plasmacytoid dendritic cells.

We previously reported that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) infiltrating breast tumors are impaired for their interferon-α (IFN-α) production, resulting in local regulatory T cells amplification. We designed our study to decipher molecular mechanisms of such functional defect of tumor-associated pDC (TApDC) in breast cancer. We demonstrate that besides IFN-α, the production by Toll-like receptor (TLR)-activated healthy pDC of IFN-β and TNF-α but not IP-10/CXCL10 nor MIP1-α/CCL3 is impaired by the breast tumor environment. Importantly, we identified TGF-β and TNF-α as major soluble factors involved in TApDC functional alteration. Indeed, recombinant TGF-β1 and TNF-α synergistically blocked IFN-α production of TLR-activated pDC, and neutralization of TGF-β and TNF-α in tumor-derived supernatants restored pDCs' IFN-α production. The involvment of tumor-derived TGF-β was further confirmed in situ by the detection of phosphorylated Smad2 in the nuclei of TApDC in breast tumor tissues. Mechanisms of type I IFN inhibition did not involve TLR downregulation but the inhibition of IRF-7 expression and nuclear translocation in pDC after their exposure to tumor-derived supernatants or recombinant TGF-β1 and TNF-α. Our findings indicate that targeting TApDC to restore their IFN-α production might be an achievable strategy to induce antitumor immunity in breast cancer by combining TLR7/9-based immunotherapy with TGF-β and TNF-α antagonists.

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#17935139   2007/12/20 Save this To Up

Expression of CCR5 receptors on Reed-Sternberg cells and Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines: involvement of CCL5/Rantes in tumor cell growth and microenvironmental interactions.

The expression of CCL5/Rantes by Hodgkin (H) and Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells has been recently documented. In the present study we demonstrated that the CCL5 receptor (CCR5) is constitutively expressed by Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)-derived cell lines (i.e. L-428, KM-H2, L-1236 and L-540) as shown by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and western blotting and also detected by immunohistochemistry on primary H-RS cells from lymph node tissues. sCD40L never significantly affected CCR5 expression, whereas a short exposure to doxorubicin down regulated its expression. CCR5 receptors on HL cell lines were functionally active, since neutralizing anti-CCL5 monoclonal antibodies inhibited basal proliferation of HL-derived cell lines and recombinant CCR5 ligands (CCL3/Mip-1 alpha, CCL4/Mip1 beta and CCL5/Rantes) increased their clonogenic growth. CCL5 secretion by L-1236, L-428 and KM-H2 cells was stimulated by CD40 engagement and also by coculturing L-1236 cells on primary stromal fibroblasts from HL-involved lymph nodes (HLF). Coculture experiments indicated that a direct contact of H-RS cells induces HLF cells to produce CCL5. Supernatants from L-1236, L-428 and KM-H2 cells stimulated migration of purified CD4+ T-cells and eosinophils in vitro. The migratory response to HL-cell lines supernatants was only partially neutralized (CD4+ cells: 70%; esinophils: 36%) by anti-CCL5 antibodies, reinforcing the notion that multiple chemokines are involved in the recruitment of nonmalignant reactive cells in HL tissues. Taken together, our results indicate a possible involvement of the CCR5/CCR5-ligands signaling in the regulation of H-RS cells growth and in the formation/maintenance of the typical tissue microenvironment of HL.

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#11286540   2001/04/05 Save this To Up

Chemokines have diverse abilities to form solid phase gradients.

Chemokines play critical roles in leukocyte recruitment into sites of inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While chemokines immobilized on endothelium (solid-phase), but not soluble chemokines, direct rolling leukocytes to firmly adhere to endothelium, soluble and solid-phase chemokine gradients may play important roles in leukocyte extravasation into the tissue. In this study, we have sought to determine (1) if chemokines can be immobilized on structures in the extravascular space, (2) the mechanisms by which chemokines may be immobilized, and (3) if different chemokines have similar potentials to form solid-phase gradients. While secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)-tagged chemokines SLC (CCL21), TARC (CCL17), and RANTES (CCL5) bound to mast cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) in RA synovium under physiologic salt conditions, MCP1 (CCL2), MIP1 alpha (CCL3), MIP1 beta (CCL4), and fractalkine (FKN, CX3CL1) fusion proteins did not detectably bind. Chemokine binding to ECM and mast cells in situ and to immobilized heparin was inhibited by high salt and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparin, heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, and dermatan sulfate, but not by dextran or hyaluronan, indicating that the chemokines bind to highly sulfated GAGs. Chemokine binding to synovial structures correlated strongly with avidity of chemokine binding to heparin (SLC > TARC > RANTES > MIP1 beta > MCP1 > MIP1 alpha > FKN). A RANTES mutant with decreased avidity for heparin was not able to bind to ECM or mast cells. Thus, these data indicate that chemokines can bind to ECM and mast cell granule constituents in situ via interactions with GAGs. Further, only a subset of chemokines were able to bind efficiently to structures in the extravascular space, indicating that chemokines may form different types of gradients based on their GAG binding ability and that chemotactic gradients in tissues may be quite complex.

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#8830793   1996/11/05 Save this To Up

Human recombinant monocyte chemotactic protein and other C-C chemokines bind and induce directional migration of dendritic cells in vitro.

Because dendritic cells (DC) are the most potent antigen-presenting cells involved in many pathophysiological responses, we investigated the effect of chemokines on the migration of these cells in an effort to determine whether chemokines may contribute to the initiation of immune responses. CD34+ progenitor cells isolated from umbilical cord blood were grown in suspension cultures with cytokines and expanded 50- to 100-fold. A variable proportion of the cells expressed markers consistent with DC. The proportion of CD1a+ DC was increased when the cells were cultured with interleukin-4 (IL-4). These cells expressed specific binding sites for C-C and C-X-C chemokines. Cells cultured with or without IL-4 had similar binding profiles. All C-C chemokines tested, including monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, MCP-2, MCP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP1 alpha), MIP-1 beta, and RANTES, induced migration of DC-enriched cells cultured with or without IL-4 with MCP-3 being the most potent chemoattractant. Phenotypic analysis of cell migrating in response to C-C chemokines showed that CD1a+ cells were indeed attracted across the polycarbonate filters, and there was no preferential attraction of contaminating CD14+ monocytes by C-C chemokines. DC-enriched cells also expressed specific binding sites for IL-8 and NAP2, which failed to induce cell migration. Our results suggest that C-C chemokines may participate in the recruitment of DC to amplify host defense.

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#7545673   1995/10/17 Save this To Up

Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) interacts with multiple leukocyte receptors. C-C CKR1, a receptor for macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha/Rantes, is also a functional receptor for MCP3.

Monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP3) is recently identified and molecularly cloned C-C chemokine that is chemotactic for and activates a great variety of inflammatory cell types. MCP3 has been reported to interact with several C-C chemokine receptors, which can be simultaneously or selectively expressed on leukocyte subpopulations. In order to isolate receptor(s) for MCP3, a cDNA library was constructed using mRNA from a human NK-like cell line, YT. These cells showed high affinity binding sites for 125I-MCP3 and migrated in response to MCP3. A chemokine receptor cDNA clone, designated YT4, was sequenced and found to be identical to the known C-C CKR1 or macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP1 alpha)/Rantes receptor. YT4 cDNA was subcloned into a mammalian expression vector, and stable transfectants were prepared using the embryonic kidney cell line 293. The transfectants (YT4/293) showed high affinity binding for 125I-MCP3 in addition to specifically binding 125I-MIP1 alpha and 125I-Rantes. All three C-C chemokines were able to cross-compete for binding sites on YT4/293 cells and induced directional migration of YT4/293 cells in vitro, with MCP3 being the most potent chemoattractant. MCP3, MIP1 alpha, and Rantes were equally able to cross-attenuate the migratory response of YT4/293 cells to one another. In contrast, MCP1 and MIP1 beta had very limited capacity to compete for MCP3 binding on YT4/293 cells and had only a minor attenuating effect on MCP3-induced migration. Since MCP3 has been reported to use MCP1 receptor(s), our results with transfected 293 cells expressing only C-C CKR1 clearly establish that C-C CKR1 is also a functional receptor for MCP3.

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#7852848   1995/03/14 Save this To Up

Modulation of IL-8 receptor expression on purified human T lymphocytes is associated with changed chemotactic responses to IL-8.

Interleukin-8 is a member of the chemokine superfamily and is a major mediator of acute inflammation. Although IL-8 has been reported by some laboratories also to be a chemoattractant for T lymphocytes, this has been difficult to confirm and remains a controversial issue. By using freshly purified human T cells (90-95% CD3+), we could demonstrate consistent directional migration of T cells to recombinant human IL-8. IL-8 was as potent as RANTES, MIP1 alpha, and MIP1 beta in inducing T cell chemotaxis. Highly purified T cells, however, incubated at 37 degrees C for more than 12 h or cultured overnight with anti-CD3 antibody cross-linked to plastic dishes, showed a markedly reduced capacity to migrate in response to IL-8. This was associated with a decrease in binding of radioiodinated IL-8 to T cells. Northern blot and polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that freshly purified T cells expressed mRNA for both IL-8 receptor type A and type B. Steady-state levels of mRNA for the IL-8RA and IL-8RB genes were also reduced by incubation of the cells with or without anti-CD3 for 12 h at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that T cells are indeed one of the target cell populations for IL-8. The regulation of IL-8 receptor expression on T lymphocytes may contribute to the pathophysiological role of IL-8 in inducing the homing and infiltration of T cells.

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#8106442   1994/03/22 Save this To Up

Rapid induction of arachidonic acid release by monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and related chemokines. Role of Ca2+ influx, synergism with platelet-activating factor and significance for chemotaxis.

Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), a member of the Cys-Cys branch of the chemokine superfamily, induced a mepacrine- and manoalide-sensitive increase in the release of [3H]arachidonic acid from prelabeled human monocytes and monocytic THP-1 leukemic cells. The effect was rapid (<30 s), reached maximum at optimal chemotactic concentrations, and was completely blocked by pretreatment of monocytes with Bordetella pertussis toxin. A specific antiserum and heat inactivation blocked the induction of arachidonic release by MCP-1. No [3H]arachidonic acid release was observed in the absence of Ca2+ influx (5 mM EGTA or 5 mM Ni2+) or in monocytes loaded with a Ca(2+)-buffering agent. However, using ionophore-permeabilized monocytes and controlled intracellular Ca2+ concentration it was possible to dissociate MCP-1-induced Ca2+ influx from [3H]arachidonic acid release. Thus, the MCP-1-induced increase in [Ca2+]i is necessary but not sufficient for arachidonic acid accumulation. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors (mepacrine, p-bromophenacyl bromide, and manoalide) blocked monocyte polarization and chemotaxis induced by MCP-1. The related Cys-Cys chemokines RANTES and LD78/MIP1 alpha also induced a rapid release of [3H]arachidonic acid, and their chemotactic activity was blocked by phospholipase A2 inhibitors. Brief (5 min) pretreatment of monocytes with platelet-activating factor amplified MCP-1-induced arachidonic acid release and, at MCP-1 suboptimal concentrations, synergized in inducing monocyte migration. Since MCP-1 and platelet-activating factor are induced concomitantly by inflammatory cytokines in monocytes and endothelial cells, we speculate that the observed synergism may have in vivo relevance. The results presented here show that the Cys-Cys chemokines MCP-1, LD78/MIP1 alpha, and RANTES cause rapid release of arachidonic acid in monocytes and that this may be important in inducing monocyte chemotaxis.

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#1969921   1990/05/17 Save this To Up

Clustering of cytokine genes on mouse chromosome 11.

The presence of positionally conserved amino acid residues suggests that the mouse proteins TCA3, P500, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE are members of a single gene family. These proteins are activation specific and can be expressed by both myeloid and lymphoid cells. MIP1-alpha/MIP1-beta and MCAF (the putative human homologue of JE) act as chemotactic and activating agents for neutrophils and macrophages, respectively. The functions of TCA3 and P500 are unknown. We have used interspecies somatic cell hybrids and recombinant inbred mouse strains to show that the genes encoding TCA3, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE (provisionally termed Tca3, Mip-1a, Mip-1b, and Sigje, respectively) map as a cluster on the distal portion of mouse chromosome 11 near the Hox-2 gene complex. DNA sequence analysis indicates that the P500 and TCA3 proteins are encoded by alternative splicing products of one genomic gene. Additionally, the genes encoding TCA3 and JE are found to be strikingly similar with respect to the positions of intron-exon boundaries. Together, these data support the model that the cytokines TCA3, P500, MIP1-alpha, MIP1-beta, and JE are encoded by a single cluster of related genes. The gene encoding IL-5 (Il-5), which acts as a T cell-replacing factor, a B cell growth factor, and an eosinophil differentiation factor, is also mapped to mouse chromosome 11.Il-5 maps approximately 25 cM proximal to the Tca-3 gene and appears tightly linked to a previously described gene cluster that includes Il-3, Il-4, and Csfgm. We discuss the potential relevance of the two cytokine gene clusters described here with particular attention to specific human hematologic malignancies associated with chromosomal aberrations at corresponding locations on human chromosomes 5 and 17.

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