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Enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status following an 8-week aerobic exercise training program in heavy drinkers.

Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 28.4 ± 0.86 kg/m) participated first in a control condition for 4 weeks, and then in an intervention where they completed an 8-week supervised aerobic training program of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve). Blood samples were collected in the control condition (pre-, post-control) as well as before, during (week 4 of the training program), and after intervention (week 8 of the training program). Samples were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid (UA), bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity. No significant change in indices of redox status in the pre- and post-control was observed. Catalase activity increased (p < 0.05) after 8 weeks of intervention compared to week 4. GSH increased (p < 0.05) after 8 weeks of intervention compared to the control condition and to week 4 of intervention. TAC, UA, bilirubin, TBARS, and PC did not significantly change at any time point. Moreover, concentrations of GSH, TBARS, and catalase activity negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. In conclusion, an 8-week aerobic training program enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status in heavy drinkers, indicating that aerobic training may attenuate pathological processes caused by alcohol-induced oxidative stress.

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Effect of hypotensive therapy combined with modified diet or zinc supplementation on biochemical parameters and mineral status in hypertensive patients.

Hypotensive therapy leads to a number of trace elements metabolism disturbances. Zinc balance is frequently affected by antihypertensive treatment.

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Chronic consumption of quercetin reduces erythrocytes oxidative damage: Evaluation at resting and after eccentric exercise in humans.

The polyphenolic flavonoid quercetin has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant, in vitro and in murine models. However, its effect on redox status has been poorly examined in humans, particularly in combination with strenuous exercise. We hypothesized that quercetin supplementation would beneficially affect redox homeostasis in healthy individuals undergoing eccentric exercise. To test this hypothesis, the effects of chronic consumption of quercetin on glutathione system (reduced, oxidized, and reduced to oxidized glutathione ratio), oxidative damage [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs)], antioxidant enzymatic network (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase) and resistance to lysis, were investigated in erythrocytes, a traditional model widely used to study the effects of oxidative stress as well as the protective effects of antioxidants. In a two weeks controlled, randomized, crossover, intervention trial, 14 individuals ingested 2 caps (1 g/d) of quercetin or placebo. Blood samples were collected before, after 2 weeks of supplementation and after a bout of eccentric exercise. Quercetin, reduced significantly erythrocytes lipid peroxidation levels and the susceptibility to hemolysis induced by the free radical generator AAPH, while no differences in antioxidant enzyme activities and glutathione homeostasis were found between the two groups. After a single bout of eccentric exercise, quercetin supplementation improved redox status as assessed by reduced/oxidized glutathione ratio analysis and reduced TBARs levels both in erythrocytes and plasma. In conclusion, our study provides evidences that chronic quercetin supplementation has antioxidant potential prior to and after a strenuous eccentric exercise thus making the erythrocytes capable to better cope with an oxidative insult.

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Antioxidant defense system, immune response and erythron profile modulation in gold fish, Carassius auratus, after acute manganese treatment.

The manganese contamination has become a global problem, recently, because it is perceived as a real threat to the human health and the environment. It is well-known that overexposure to Mn may have negative physiological effects on fish and other organisms inhabiting heavy metal polluted waters. To the best of our knowledge, studies relating with manganese effects on fish antioxidant enzyme response in the blood, immunocompetence and erythron profile alteration, are scarce. In this study, the acute sub-lethal effects of manganese on blood antioxidant response, immune status and erythron profile were determined by exposing the freshwater model organism, Carassius auratus, to two doses of this metal (3.88 ± 0.193 mg/L and 7.52 ± 0.234 mg/L Mn) for 96 h. Significant increases in blood antioxidant enzyme activity like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were observed in fish exposed to manganese. Furthermore, plasmatic glucose and cortisol levels increased, while total protein decreased significantly. White blood cell differential count revealed a significant increase in monocyte and neutrophil number and a significant decrease of lymphocyte's number in fish exposed to manganese compared with those of control group. That can be considered as a clear evidence of altered immune system. Measured of erythron profile revealed a significant increasing of cellular and nuclear alteration of red blood cells, with karryorhectic, dividing and micronucleated erythrocytes in exposed fish, indicating the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects Mn ions. Our data shown also that manganese could trigger antioxidant response, modulate immune response and induce erythron profile modification leading to eryptosis, compromising the blood oxygen carrying capacity, and overall health status in fish. This may suggest those parameters consider as useful biomarkers for monitoring effects of sub-lethal metal exposure on fish.

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Cyanidin-3-rutinoside reduces insulin fibrillation and attenuates insulin fibrils-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes.

Insulin is able to form amyloid-like fibrils, a misfolding process by which insulin molecules interact with each other to form aggregates and pathological amyloid deposition. Inhibition of amyloid aggregation using natural products is proposed as a new strategy to prohibit the development of amyloid diseases. Herein, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R), a natural anthocyanin with multiple biological activities, against insulin amyloid fibrillation. The results showed that increased insulin concentration resulted in faster growth and higher amounts of insulin fibrils. C3R (10.6-170μM) concentration dependently decreased insulin fibril growth and increased the duration of lag time of insulin fibril formation. Moreover, C3R directly decreased the secondary structure transition from α-helix to β-sheet structure. C3R (0.31-5μM) attenuated insulin fibrils-induced oxidative hemolysis of human erythrocytes in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, C3R reduced insulin fibrils-induced erythrocyte membrane disruption through the inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. The findings also suggest that C3R reduced fibrils-induced membrane lipid peroxidation by maintaining the catalase activity and oxidized/reduced glutathione content (GSH/GSSH) in erythrocytes. These findings suggest that C3R may serve as a potential inhibitory agent against amyloid fibril formation and insulin fibrils-induced oxidative hemolysis.

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The Effect of a Short-Term Exposure to Lead on the Levels of Essential Metal Ions, Selected Proteins Related to Them, and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Humans.

The present study was designed to explore the possible influence of subacute exposure to lead on the levels of selected essential metals, selected proteins related to them, and oxidative stress parameters in occupationally exposed workers. The study population included 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 36 to 44 days. Their blood lead level at the beginning of the study was 10.7 ± 7.67 g/dl and increased to the level of 49.1 ± 14.1 g/dl at the end of the study. The levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc increased significantly after lead exposure compared to baseline by 3%, 3%, and 8%, respectively, while the level of copper decreased significantly by 7%. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level and the activities of catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) did not change due to lead exposure. However, the level of lipid hydroperoxides (LPH) in serum increased significantly by 46%, while the level of erythrocyte lipofuscin (LPS) decreased by 13%. The serum levels of essential metals are modified by a short-term exposure to lead in occupationally exposed workers. A short-term exposure to lead induces oxidative stress associated with elevated levels of LPH but not MDA.

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Oxidative Stress in the Development of Genetic Generalised Epilepsy: An Observational Study in Southern Indian Population.

Oxidative stress resulting from excessive generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) plays a significant role in neurodegeneration associated with seizures/epilepsy.

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Deciphering the toxic effects of organochlorine pesticide, dicofol on human RBCs and lymphocytes.

Organochlorine pesticides have generated growing concern owing to their diverse toxicities. In this connection, we have evaluated toxic potential of an acaricide, dicofol (DCF) and its harmful effects on human RBCs and lymphocytes. DCF caused hemolysis and rupture of human erythrocytes as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Significant increase in protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, ROS production, methemoglobin formation with enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase but decreased level of reduced glutathione were observed as a result of DCF exposure to human erythrocytes. SEM showed significant DCF induced alterations in RBCs from normal discoid shape to echinocytes. Similarly, lymphocytes showed membrane damage, formation of membrane blebs and distorted cell morphology. In vitro comet assay indicated a significant DNA fragmentation in human lymphocytes upon DCF exposure. These results strongly suggest that DCF induces oxidative stress in RBCs via generation of ROS and alters the cellular architecture directly and indirectly.

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In vivo assessment of polydatin, a natural polyphenol compound, on arsenic-induced free radical overproduction, gene expression, and genotoxicity.

Arsenic (As) is a well-known contaminant of global groundwater. Its exposure causes several hazardous effects on animals and human via oxidative stress. The present study examined the effect of polydatin (PD) on free radical overproduction in rats exposed to As. Thirty-five male rats randomly allocated into five equal groups. To the control group, physiological saline was given orally and to the second group only 100 mg/L As was given by drinking water for 60 days. The other groups were treated with As (100 mg/L) and PD orally at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day, respectively. Treatment with As enhanced malondialdehyde level but decreased glutathione level in blood, liver, kidney, brain, lung, and heart of rats. Also, As decreased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities of erythrocyte, liver, kidney, brain, lung, and heart in rats. Furthermore, As treatment gave rise to increased DNA damage and gene expressions of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB), p53, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the lung, brain, kidney, and liver. However, treatment of PD ameliorated As-exposed lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes activities, DNA damage, gene expressions, and histopathological changes in tissues. In conclusion, PD has a dose-dependent protective effect on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense mechanism in rats against As exposure.

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Glycogen-gold nanohybrid escalates the potency of silymarin.

In this study, a glycogen-gold nanohybrid was fabricated to enhance the potency of a promising hepatoprotective agent silymarin (Sly) by improving its solubility and gut permeation. By utilizing a facile green chemistry approach, biogenic gold nanoparticles were synthesized from leaf phytoconstituents in combination with Sly (SGNPs). Further, the SGNPs were aggregated in glycogen biopolymer to yield the therapeutic nanohybrids (GSGNPs). Transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed the successful formation and conjugation of both SGNPs and GSGNPs. The fabricated nanohybrids showed significant protection against CCl-induced hepatic injury in Wistar rats and maintained natural antioxidant (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels. Animals treated with GSGNPs (10 mg/kg) and SGNPs (20 mg/kg) retained usual hepatic functions with routine levels of hepatobiliary enzymes (aspartate transferase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase) and inflammatory markers (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) with minimal lipid peroxidation, whereas those treated with 100 mg/kg of Sly showed the similar effect. These results were also supported by histopathology of the livers where pronounced hepatoprotection with normal hepatic physiology and negligible inflammatory infiltrate were observed. Significant higher plasma supported the enhanced bioavailability of Sly upon GSGNPs treatment compared to SGNPs and free Sly. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry analysis also substantiated the efficient delivery of GSGNPs over SGNPs. The fabricated therapeutic nanohybrids were also found to be biocompatible toward human erythrocytes and L929 mouse fibroblast cells. Overall, due to increased solubility, bioavailability and profuse gut absorption; GSGNPs demonstrated tenfold enhanced potency compared to free Sly.

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