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#23349812   2013/01/25 Save this To Up

Functional modulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 by a novel splice variant.

Vascular Adhesion Protein-1 (VAP-1) is an endothelial adhesion molecule belonging to the primary amine oxidases. Upon inflammation it takes part in the leukocyte extravasation cascade facilitating transmigration of leukocytes into the inflamed tissue. Screening of a human lung cDNA library revealed the presence of an alternatively spliced shorter transcript of VAP-1, VAP-1Δ3. Here, we have studied the functional and structural characteristics of VAP-1Δ3, and show that the mRNA for this splice variant is expressed in most human tissues studied. In comparison to the parent molecule this carboxy-terminally truncated isoform lacks several of the amino acids important in the formation of the enzymatic groove of VAP-1. In addition, the conserved His684, which takes part in coordinating the active site copper, is missing from VAP-1Δ3. Assays using the prototypic amine substrates methylamine and benzylamine demonstrated that VAP-1Δ3 is indeed devoid of the semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity characteristic to VAP-1. When VAP-1Δ3-cDNA is transfected into cells stably expressing VAP-1, the surface expression of the full-length molecule is reduced. Furthermore, the SSAO activity of the co-transfectants is diminished in comparison to transfectants expressing only VAP-1. The observed down-regulation of both the expression and enzymatic activity of VAP-1 may result from a dominant-negative effect caused by heterodimerization between VAP-1 and VAP-1Δ3, which was detected in co-immunoprecipitation studies. This alternatively spliced transcript adds thus to the repertoire of potential regulatory mechanisms through which the cell-surface expression and enzymatic activity of VAP-1 can be modulated.

1345 related Products with: Functional modulation of vascular adhesion protein-1 by a novel splice variant.

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#22982974   2012/10/22 Save this To Up

Identification and characterization of the chicken galanin receptor GalR2 and a novel GalR2-like receptor (GalR2-L).

In mammals, the neuropeptide galanin exerts a variety of physiological roles in the neuroendocrine system through its interactions with three galanin receptor subtypes (GalR1, GalR2 and GalR3). However, little is known about the characteristics of galanin receptors in birds, and it is only recently that avian GalR1 and a novel GalR1-like receptor were first identified in chickens. In this study, we report the cDNA cloning and characterization of the other two chicken galanin receptors, the galanin type II receptor (cGalR2) and a novel GalR2-like receptor (GalR2-L), which share high degrees of similarity in sequence identity, gene structure and signaling properties. cGalR2 and cGalR2-L cDNAs encode two putative receptors of 371 and 370 amino acids, in which they show considerable amino acid sequence identities (65-67%, and 53-55%, respectively) with the mammalian GalR2. RT-PCR assays revealed that cGalR2 and cGalR2-L mRNA were widely expressed in the adult chicken tissues including the whole brain, intestine, lung, ovary, pituitary and different regions of the oviduct. As assayed with different luciferase reporter systems, chicken galanin (cGal 1-29) and human galanin-like peptide (hGALP 1-60) were demonstrated to stimulate the luciferase activities in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing cGalR2 and cGalR2-L through the activations of cAMP/PKA, Ca(2+)/calcineurin and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, hence suggesting that both receptors are functionally coupled to the G(s) and G(q) proteins. Furthermore, the previously identified cGalR1 and cGalR1-L were found to be solely coupled to the G(i/o) proteins, and the hGALP (1-60) exhibited only a low potency to cGalR1, cGalR1-L, cGalR2 and cGalR2-L activations.

2705 related Products with: Identification and characterization of the chicken galanin receptor GalR2 and a novel GalR2-like receptor (GalR2-L).

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#12680773   2003/04/08 Save this To Up

Reduction of all-trans-retinal in the mouse liver peroxisome fraction by the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase RRD: induction by the PPAR alpha ligand clofibrate.

The mouse liver 16,000 g fraction, which contains peroxisomes, reduces all-trans-retinal, but has limited ability to dehydrogenate retinol enzymatically. Feeding mice for 2 weeks with a diet containing clofibrate (0.5%, w/w), a PPAR alpha ligand and peroxisome proliferator, increased the 16,000 g fraction approximately 2-fold in protein, approximately 2-fold in specific activity of retinal reduction, and approximately 4-fold in retinal reductase units compared to controls, and caused a 50% decrease in liver retinol. An increase in both reductase specific activity and units indicates that clofibrate/PPAR alpha induced expression of retinal-reducing enzymes(s), in addition to increasing reductase(s) content. We expressed a cDNA from the NCBI data bank that encodes a peroxisome short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase. The enzyme, mouse retinal reductase (RRD, also known as human 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase), reduces all-trans-retinal [V(m) = 40 nmol min(-1) (mg of protein)(-1); K(0.5) = 2.3 microM] and has 4- and 60-fold less activity with 13-cis-retinal and 9-cis-retinal, respectively. Recombinant RRD functions with both unbound and CRBP(I) (cellular retinol-binding protein)-bound retinal, but apo-CRBP(I) inhibits the reductase. RRD mRNA expression was initiated on embryo day 7. Most adult tissues assayed expressed the mRNA. Liver, kidney, and heart had the most intense expression, with much less intense expression in brain, spleen, and lung. Clofibrate feeding increased the amount of RRD protein in the 16,000 g fraction of liver, consistent with the clofibrate-induced increase in reductase activity. These data relate retinoid metabolism, PPAR alpha, peroxisomes, and RRD, and are consistent with a further function of CRBP(I) in retinoid metabolism.

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#11751519   2001/12/25 Save this To Up

Identification of a novel membrane protein, HP59, with therapeutic potential as a target of tumor angiogenesis.

CM101, a polysaccharide isolated from the culture medium of Group B streptococcus, a neonatal pathogen, targets pathological angiogenesis and inhibits tumor growth in mice and humans. CM101 also targets neonatal lung and adult sheep lung endothelial cells. A gene encoding a transmembrane protein that interacts with CM101 was isolated from a sheep lung endothelial cell cDNA library. The gene, termed sp55, encodes a 495-amino acid polypeptide. COS-7 cells transfected with a vector containing sp55 express the SP55 protein-bound CM101 in a concentration-dependent manner. Stably transfected CHO cells also bound CM101. The corresponding human gene, hp59, was isolated from a human fetal lung cDNA library and had a predicted identity to SP55 of 86% over 495 amino acids. HP59 protein was shown by immunohistochemistry to be present in the pathological tumor vasculature of the lung, breast, colon, and ovary, but not in the normal vasculature, suggesting that the protein may be critical to pathological angiogenesis. The hp59 gene and/or the HP59 protein was not expressed in a variety of normal tissues, but was significantly expressed in human fetal lung, consistent with the pathophysiology of Group B streptococcus infections in neonates. Mice immunized with HP59 and SP55 peptides showed significant attenuation of tumor growth. Immunization effectively inhibited both the tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenesis processes, as evidenced by lack of both HP59- and CD34-positive vessels. These results and the immunohistochemistry data suggest a therapeutic potential for the CM101 target protein HP59 both as a drug target and as a vaccine against pathoangiogenesis.

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#11284050   2001/04/03 Save this To Up

Cloning, sequencing, heterologous expression, and characterization of murine cytochrome P450 3a25*(Cyp3a25), a testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase.

A full-length cDNA clone encoding a novel form of the cytochrome P450 3A subfamily (Cyp3a-25) has been isolated from a mouse liver cDNA library. The sequence contained 2010 base pairs and encoded a protein with 503 amino acids. The amino acid sequence shared greater identities with rat CYP3A18 (90%) and golden hamster CYP3A10 (81%) sequences than with known mouse sequences (Cyp3a-11, Cyp3a-13, Cyp3a-16, and Cyp3a-41 [68--70%]). CYP3A25 was expressed in the Escherichia coli PCWori(+) expression vector following slight modifications of the N- and C-terminals of the cDNA. The purified CYP3A25 was recognized on an immunoblot by CYP3A1 antibody and has a molecular weight of 50 kD. CYP3A25 was catalytically active in the 6 beta-hydroxylation of testosterone and the N-demethylation of benzphetamine and erythromycin. It was demonstrated by RT-PCR that the CYP3A25 mRNA is present in both fetal and adult tissues, including liver, lung, intestines, kidney, and brain. Northern blotting demonstrated that expression is greatest in the liver and small intestine.

1201 related Products with: Cloning, sequencing, heterologous expression, and characterization of murine cytochrome P450 3a25*(Cyp3a25), a testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase.

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#8879752   1997/02/05 Save this To Up

Neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase is expressed at low levels in human retina.

1. The expression of neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was studied in human retinal tissues. The cDNA sequence was cloned in human retinal poly (A)+ RNA by the RT-PCR method and encompassed an open-reading frame of 4,302 bp encoding 1,434 amino acids. This sequence showed a possibility of genetic polymorphism in comparison to human brain form. 2. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of a partial cDNA fragment suggest that there is genetic polymorphism in the neuronal form of NOS. Important differences were observed in a certain region between human retinal and brain froms. This region is a result of frame shift by the addition of three cytidines. In this study, regions from human brain (cerebellum) and skeletal muscle as well as retina were sequenced to confirm the difference in this region. The sequences from these tissues were completely identical. This indicated that genetic polymorphism of nNOS gene was due to single base substitution and not frame shift phenomenon by addition or deletion of bases. 3. The nNOS mRNA of approximately 12 kb was detected by northern blot analysis. The lower level of the expression was distinguished in comparison to those of human brain and skeletal muscle. The cDNA transiently transfected into CHO-K1 cells expressed a protein which contained a significant level of NOS activity. The size of the nNOS was found to be approximately 160 kDa by both in vitro and in vivo translation systems. This NOS was calcium dependent and the K(m) for arginine was 4.4 microM. 4. The Ca+2, L-arginine and NADPH dependency along with the inhibitory effect of N-nitro-L-arginine on NOS activity were evaluated. The finding of a constitutive from of NOS in human retina, which is calcium-NADPH dependent, gives further credence to the possible role of nitric oxide in retinal function and neuronal diseases.

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#8611140   1996/05/24 Save this To Up

Cloning and production of antisera to human placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2.

By inactivating potent glucocorticoid hormones (cortisol and corticosterone), 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11 beta-HSD2) plays an important role in the placenta by controlling fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, and in aldosterone target tissues by controlling ligand access to co-localized glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors. Amino acid sequence from homogeneous human placental 11 beta-HSD2 was used to isolate a 1897 bp cDNA encoding this enzyme (predicted M(r) 44126; predicted pI 9.9). Transfection into mammalian (CHO) cells produces 11 beta-HSD2 activity which is NAD(+)-dependent, is without reductase activity, avidly metabolizes glucocorticoids (Km values for corticosterone, cortisol and dexamethasone of 12.4 +/- 1.5, 43.9 +/- 8.5 and 119 +/- 15 nM respectively) and is inhibited by glycyrrhetinic acid and carbenoxolone (IC50 values 10-20 nM). Rabbit antisera recognizing 11 beta-HSD2 have been raised to an 11 beta-HSD2-(370--383)-peptide-carrier conjugate. Recombinant 11 beta-HSD2, like native human placental 11 beta-HSD2, is detectable with affinity labelling and anti-11 beta-HSD2 antisera, and appears to require little post-translational processing for activity. 11 beta-HSD2 mRNA (approximately 1.9 kb transcript) is expressed in placenta, aldosterone target tissues (kidney, parotid, colon and skin) and pancreas. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry localize abundant 11 beta-HSD2 expression to the distal nephron in human adult kidney and to the trophoblast in the placenta. 11 beta-HSD2 transcripts are expressed in fetal kidney (but not lung, liver or brain) at 21-26 weeks, suggesting that an 11 beta-HSD2 distribution resembling that in the adult is established by this stage in human development.

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#7636430   1995/09/13 Save this To Up

Plasma clearance, tissue uptake and expression of pituitary peptide 23/pancreatitis-associated protein in the rat.

The secretion of peptide 23 by rat pituitary cells is stimulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone and inhibited by somatostatin. Recent cloning of the cognate cDNA for peptide 23 revealed that it is identical to pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP). In the present study, the clearance and tissue uptake of recombinant peptide 23/PAP in normal adult male rats was assessed. The plasma half-life of recombinant peptide 23/PAP was 4.8 +/- 1.4 (S.D.) min. Maximal accumulation of radio-labelled peptide 23/PAP was observed in the kidney, stomach, small intestine and pancreas whereas negligible uptake was seen in the liver, lung or heart. Peptide 23/PAP was detected in a variety of tissue extracts using a radioimmunoassay. Extracts of ileum contained the highest concentrations of peptide 23/PAP. In situ hybridization analysis showed that peptide 23/PAP mRNA was highly expressed in the columnar epithelial cells of ileum, jejunum and duodenum. These observations demonstrate that peptide 23/PAP, a protein previously thought to be of pituitary origin, is widely expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and that it is rapidly removed from the circulation by the kidney and by tissues which express peptide 23/PAP.

1995 related Products with: Plasma clearance, tissue uptake and expression of pituitary peptide 23/pancreatitis-associated protein in the rat.

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#8325957   1993/08/06 Save this To Up

The combined effect of tumor-produced parathyroid hormone-related protein and transforming growth factor-alpha enhance hypercalcemia in vivo and bone resorption in vitro.

Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy is a multifactorial syndrome caused by the action of tumor-produced factors on target organs of bone, kidney, and intestine to disrupt normal calcium homeostasis. Although parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays an integral role in the syndrome, tumors also produce other hypercalcemic factors, such as transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), which may modulate the effects of PTHrP. In order to determine if the effects of PTHrP on calcium homeostasis can be modulated by TGF-alpha, we have used a human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (RWGT2) which produces PTHrP alone and Chinese hamster ovarian (CHO) cells expressing only transfected human TGF-alpha complementary DNA (CHO/TGF-alpha). We studied the effects of these tumors on calcium homeostasis in nude mice bearing both tumors or each tumor alone. Whole blood ionized calcium concentrations (mean +/- SEM in mmol/L) were significantly higher in mice bearing both RWGT2 and CHO/TGF-alpha tumors (3.11 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05) when compared with mice bearing either RWGT2 alone (2.02 +/- 0.06), CHO/TGF-alpha alone (1.42 +/- 0.01), or RWGT2 and nontransfected CHO tumors (1.86 +/- 0.01). This enhanced effect was also observed using continuous PTHrP-(1-34) infusion (2 micrograms/day) in mice bearing CHO/TGF-alpha tumors. In addition, tumor cell conditioned media was tested for bone resorbing activity in organ cultures of fetal rat long bones previously incorporated with 45calcium (45Ca++). Conditioned medium at 0.1% (vol/vol) from either RWGT2 or CHO/TGF-alpha had no bone resorbing activity over control (%45Ca++ release, mean +/- SEM; control 23 +/- 1, RWGT2 19 +/- 1, CHO/TGF-alpha 23 +/- 1). However, the combination of 0.1% conditioned medium from RWGT2 and CHO/TGF-alpha significantly increased bone resorption (53 +/- 2, P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that the hypercalcemic effects of tumor-produced PTHrP are enhanced by TGF-alpha and that this effect may be due to increased bone resorption.

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#7683930   1993/06/11 Save this To Up

The human Kell blood group gene maps to chromosome 7q33 and its expression is restricted to erythroid cells.

The Kell blood group is one of the major antigenic systems in human red blood cells. To determine the location of the Kell gene on human chromosomes, panels containing genomic DNA of human-hamster somatic cell hybrids were hybridized with radiolabeled cDNA probe specific for the Kell locus. Only the samples containing DNA from chromosome 7 gave positive hybridization signals. In situ hybridization analysis, using genomic clones isolated with the cDNA, localized the KEL gene to 7q33. Northern blot analysis of poly(A)+ RNA from human brain, kidney, lung, fetal and adult liver, and bone marrow showed that Kell transcripts were only present in fetal liver and bone marrow. This indicates that the Kell protein, which carries the Kell antigens, may only be expressed in erythroid tissues.

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