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Structural and dynamics evidence for scaffold asymmetric flexibility of the human transthyretin tetramer.

The molecular symmetry of multimeric proteins is generally determined by using X-ray diffraction techniques, so that the basic question as to whether this symmetry is perfectly preserved for the same protein in solution remains open. In this work, human transthyretin (TTR), a homotetrameric plasma transport protein with two binding sites for the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4), is considered as a case study. Based on the crystal structure of the TTR tetramer, a hypothetical D2 symmetry is inferred for the protein in solution, whose functional behavior reveals the presence of two markedly different Kd values for the two T4 binding sites. The latter property has been ascribed to an as yet uncharacterized negative binding cooperativity. A triple mutant form of human TTR (F87M/L110M/S117E TTR), which is monomeric in solution, crystallizes as a tetrameric protein and its structure has been determined. The exam of this and several other crystal forms of human TTR suggests that the TTR scaffold possesses a significant structural flexibility. In addition, TTR tetramer dynamics simulated using normal modes analysis exposes asymmetric vibrational patterns on both dimers and thermal fluctuations reveal small differences in size and flexibility for ligand cavities at each dimer-dimer interface. Such small structural differences between monomers can lead to significant functional differences on the TTR tetramer dynamics, a feature that may explain the functional heterogeneity of the T4 binding sites, which is partially overshadowed by the crystal state.

1659 related Products with: Structural and dynamics evidence for scaffold asymmetric flexibility of the human transthyretin tetramer.

Bone Morphogenetic Protei Growth Differentiation Fa Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Rabbit Anti-Human Androge succinate-CoA ligase, GDP TCP-1 theta antibody Sour formin-like 1 antibody So Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human PKC the Recombinant Human Transth Recombinant Human Transth

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Synthesis, Radiolabeling, and Characterization of Plasma Protein-Binding Ligands: Potential Tools for Modulation of the Pharmacokinetic Properties of (Radio)Pharmaceuticals.

The development of (radio)pharmaceuticals with favorable pharmacokinetic profiles is crucial for allowing the optimization of the imaging or therapeutic potential and the minimization of undesired side effects. The aim of this study was, therefore, to evaluate and compare three different plasma protein binders (PPB-01, PPB-02, and PPB-03) that are potentially useful in combination with (radio)pharmaceuticals to enhance their half-life in the blood. The entities were functionalized with a 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelator via a l-lysine and β-alanine linker moiety using solid-phase peptide chemistry and labeled withLu (T= 6.65 days), a clinically established radiometal. The binding capacities of these radioligands andLu-DOTA were evaluated using human plasma and solutions of human serum albumin (HSA), human α-acid glycoprotein (α-AGP), and human transthyretin (hTTR) by applying an ultrafiltration assay.Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 andLu-DOTA-PPB-02 bound to a high and moderate extent to human plasma proteins (>90% and ∼70%, respectively), whereas the binding to hTTR was considered negligible (<10%).Lu-DOTA-PPB-03 showed almost complete binding to human plasma proteins (>90%) with a high fraction bound to hTTR (∼50%). Plasma protein binding of theLu-DOTA complex, which was used as a control, was not observed (<1%).Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 andLu-DOTA-PPB-02 were both displaced (>80%) from HSA by ibuprofen, specific for Sudlow's binding site II and coherent with the aromatic structures, and >80% by their respective binding entities.Lu-DOTA-PPB-03 was displaced from hTTR by the site-marker l-thyroxine (>60%) and by its binding entity PPB-03* (>80%). All three radioligands were investigated with regard to the in vivo blood clearance in normal mice.Lu-DOTA-PPB-01 showed the slowest blood clearance (T: >15 h) followed byLu-DOTA-PPB-03 (T: ∼2.33 h) andLu-DOTA-PPB-02 (T: ∼1.14 h), which was excreted relatively fast. Our results confirmed the high affinity of the 4-(4-iodophenyl)-butyric acid entity (PPB-01) to plasma proteins, while replacement of the halogen by an ethynyl entity (PPB-02) reduced the plasma protein binding significantly. An attractive approach is the application of the transthyretin binder (PPB-03), which shows high affinity to hTTR. Future studies in our laboratory will be focused on the application of these binding entities in combination with clinically relevant targeting agents for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in nuclear medicine.

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Chicken S100 calcium bind Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 Acyl CoA binding Protein E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran E. coli SSB (Single Stran Taq SSB (Single Stranded Taq SSB (Single Stranded Bone Morphogenetic Protei Mouse Anti-Human Retinol

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Somatic mosaicism with reversion to normality of a mutated transthyretin allele related to a familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy.

Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) is a progressive neuropathy, with onset in adulthood and high mortality. It is related to an altered transthyretin (TTR) plasma protein, mainly produced by the liver and responsible for amyloid deposit in the peripheral nervous system. SNPs in the TTR gene were associated with FAP, and the G>C substitution (NM_000371.3:c.325G>C) in the 109th codon (GAG vs CAG; NP_362.1:p.E109Q) was previously described in Sicily (Italy). Here, we report on a Sicilian family with several patients affected by FAP related to the E109Q mutation, which displayed a somatic mosaicism with the reversion to normality of the c.325G>C mutation. After exclusion of isodisomy and allele deletion, this event seems to be due to a rare, post-zygotic interallelic gene conversion with the wild-type allele serving as a donor. Further investigations will be necessary to better understand the molecular basis of this phenomenon, and could help determine if this can be induced in a targeted manner in the context of natural gene therapy to treat TTR-related FAP patients, as previously proposed for other diseases. Moreover, our results confirm the need to perform DNA-based diagnostic tests with at least a second tissue when a suspected germline mutation in a candidate gene is not identified in the first tissue.

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Toxoplasma gondii MIC 3 r Toxoplasma gondii P24 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P29 (GR Toxoplasma gondii P30 (SA Shiga Toxin 1 antibody, M Shiga Toxin 2 antibody, M Cholera toxin antibody, M Clostridium botulinum D T Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi Clostridum difficile toxi

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Serum retinol-binding protein-induced endothelial inflammation is mediated through the activation of toll-like receptor 4.

Elevation of serum retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) induces inflammation in primary human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) via a retinol-independent mechanism; thus, it may play a causative role in the development and progression of vascular lesions in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Since HRECs do not express the classical RBP4 receptor, stimulated by retinoic acid gene 6 (STRA6), this study focuses on identifying the endothelial cell receptor and signaling that mediate RBP4-induced inflammation.

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First trimester TTR-RBP4-ROH complex and angiogenic factors in the prediction of small for gestational age infant's outcome.

To study the role of the TTR-RBP4-ROH complex components (transthyretin, serum retinol binding protein, retinol) and of angiogenic factors PlGF (placental growth factor) and sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) in pregnancies complicated by small for gestational age infants (SGA).

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Miniaturization of a transthyretin binding assay using a fluorescent probe for high throughput screening of thyroid hormone disruption in environmental samples.

Thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting compounds are potentially important environmental contaminants due to their possible adverse neurological and developmental effects on both humans and wildlife. Currently, the most successful bio-analytical method to detect and evaluate TH disruptors, which target the plasma transport of TH in environmental samples, is the radio-ligand thyroxine-transthyretin (T-TTR) binding assay. Yet, costly materials and tedious handling procedures prevent the use of this assay in high throughput analysis that is nowadays urgently demanded in environmental quality assessment. For the first time a miniaturized fluorescence T-TTR binding assay was developed in a 96 well microplate and tested with eight TH disrupting compounds. For most of the compounds, the sensitivity of the newly developed assay was slightly lower than the radio-ligand binding assay, however, throughput was enhanced at least 100-fold, while using much cheaper materials. The TH disrupting potency of 22 herring gull (Larus argentatus) egg extracts, collected from two different locations (Musvær and Reiaren) in Norway, was evaluated to demonstrate the applicability of the assay for environmental samples.

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Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Concentrations Are Independent Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Adult Patients at Nutritional Risk.

Elevated plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were identified as predictors of mortality in patients with oncologic, hepatic and renal diseases, and in elderly and critically ill medical patients. The association between vitamin B12 concentrations and in-hospital mortality in adult patients at nutritional risk has not been assessed.In this five-year prospective study, we investigated whether high vitamin B12 concentrations (>1000 pg/mL) are associated with in-hospital mortality in 1373 not-bed-ridden adult patients at nutritional risk (Nutrition Risk Index <97.5), admitted to medical and surgical departments.Three hundred and ninety-six (28.8%) patients presented vitamin B12 > 1000 pg/mL. Two hundred and four patients died in the hospital (14.9%). The adjusted odds ratio of in-hospital mortality in patients with high vitamin B12 was 2.20 (95% CI, 1.56-3.08;< 0.001); it was independent of age, gender, body mass index, six-month previous unintentional weight loss, admission ward, presence of malignancy, renal function, C-reactive protein and prealbumin. Patients with high vitamin B12 also had a longer length of stay (LOS) than those with normal concentrations (median 25 days, (IQR 15-41) versus 23 days (IQR 14-36);= 0.014), and elevated vitamin B12 was an independent predictor of LOS (= 0.027).An independent association between elevated vitamin B12 concentrations, mortality and LOS was found in our sample of hospitalized adult patients at nutritional risk. Although the underlying mechanisms are still unknown and any cause-effect relation cannot be inferred, clinicians should be aware of the potential negative impact of high vitamin B12 concentrations in hospitalized patients at nutritional risk and avoid inappropriate vitamin supplementation.

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Efficiency of silencing RNA for removal of transthyretin V30M in a TTR leptomeningeal animal model.

Some TTR mutants target the central nervous system (CNS). Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) with leptomeningeal involvement has been described in 9% of transthyretin (TTR) mutations and in valine for methionine at position 30 (V30M) patients. These individuals present dementia, ataxia, brain hemorrhages and focal neurological episodes (FNEs). FNEs occurred also in V30M FAP patients with longer disease duration, who have undergone liver transplant to remove the source of plasma mutant TTR as a form of treatment. It is thus to expect that as better treatments for FAP emerge and prolong survival, meningeal-vascular CNS deposition will increase and need special therapies. Recently, we detected TTR meningeal-vascular deposition in a V30M TTR transgenic mouse model, opening new avenues of research to investigate selective treatments of this condition. Since pre-clinical studies with TTR siRNA therapeutics were shown to promote clearance of TTR non-fibrillar deposits in several organs and tissues, we investigated its effect on TTR meningeal-vascular deposition. We show that systemically administered TTR siRNA promoted TTR clearance in the extracellular matrix of meninges and brain blood vessels. Surprisingly, despite the striking decline of blood TTR, cerebrospinal fluid TTR levels were unaffected. Though this is reassuring because siRNA will not interfere with the neuroprotective role of TTR in the CNS, it raises new questions on therapeutical approaches for CNS ATTR.

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Systemic inflammation in acute intermittent porphyria: a case-control study.

This study aimed to examine whether acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is associated with systemic inflammation and whether the inflammation correlates with disease activity. A case-control study with 50 AIP cases and age-, sex- and place of residence-matched controls was performed. Plasma cytokines, insulin and C-peptide were analysed after an overnight fast using multiplex assay. Long pentraxin-3 (PTX3) and complement activation products (C3bc and TCC) were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Urine porphobilinogen ratio (U-PBG, µmol/mmol creatinine), haematological and biochemical tests were performed using routine methods. Questionnaires were used to register AIP symptoms, medication and other diseases. All 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors investigated were increased significantly in symptomatic AIP cases compared with controls (P < 0·0004). Hierarchical cluster analyses revealed a cluster with high visfatin levels and several highly expressed cytokines including interleukin (IL)-17, suggesting a T helper type 17 (Th17) inflammatory response in a group of AIP cases. C3bc (P = 0·002) and serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels (P = 0·03) were increased significantly in cases with AIP. The U-PBG ratio correlated positively with PTX3 (r = 0·38, P = 0·006), and with terminal complement complex (TCC) levels (r = 0·33, P = 0·02). PTX3 was a significant predictor of the biochemical disease activity marker U-PBG in AIP cases after adjustment for potential confounders in multiple linear regression analyses (P = 0·032). Prealbumin, C-peptide, insulin and kidney function were all decreased in the symptomatic AIP cases, but not in the asymptomatic cases. These results indicate that AIP is associated with systemic inflammation. Decreased C-peptide levels in symptomatic AIP cases indicate that reduced insulin release is associated with enhanced disease activity and reduced kidney function.

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Vitamin A Transport and Cell Signaling by the Retinol-Binding Protein Receptor STRA6.

Vitamin A, retinol, circulates in blood bound to retinol binding protein (RBP). In some tissues, the retinol-RBP complex (holo-RBP) is recognized by a membrane receptor, termed STRA6, which mediates uptake of retinol into cells. Recent studies have revealed that, in addition to serving as a retinol transporter, STRA6 is a ligand-activated cell surface signaling receptor that, upon binding of holo-RBP activates JAK/STAT signaling, culminating in the induction of STAT target genes. It has further been shown that retinol transport and cell signaling by STRA6 are critically interdependent and that both are coupled to intracellular vitamin A metabolism. The molecular mechanism of action of STRA6 and its associated machinery is beginning to be revealed, but further work is needed to identify and characterize the complete range of genes and associated signaling cascades that are regulated by STRA6 in different tissues. An understanding of STRA6 is clinically relevant, as for example, it has been shown to be hyper- activated in obese animals, leading to insulin resistance. A potential role for STRA6 in other pathologies, including cancer, awaits further investigation.

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