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Rivaroxaban Causes Missed Diagnosis of Protein S Deficiency but Not of Activated Protein C Resistance (Factor V Leiden).

- Rivaroxaban causes a false increase in activated protein C resistance (APCR) ratios and protein S activity.

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A New Concept of Action of Hemostatic Proteases on Inflammation, Neurotoxicity, and Tissue Regeneration.

Key hemostatic serine proteases such as thrombin and activated protein C (APC) are signaling molecules controlling blood coagulation and inflammation, tissue regeneration, neurodegeneration, and some other processes. By interacting with protease-activated receptors (PARs), these enzymes cleave a receptor exodomain and liberate new amino acid sequence known as a tethered ligand, which then activates the initial receptor and induces multiple signaling pathways and cell responses. Among four PAR family members, APC and thrombin mainly act via PAR1, and they trigger divergent effects. APC is an anticoagulant with antiinflammatory and cytoprotective activity, whereas thrombin is a protease with procoagulant and proinflammatory effects. Hallmark features of APC-induced effects result from acting via different pathways: limited proteolysis of PAR1 localized in membrane caveolae with coreceptor (endothelial protein C receptor) as well as its targeted proteolytic action at a receptor exodomain site differing from the canonical thrombin cleavage site. Hence, a new noncanonical tethered PAR1 agonist peptide (PAR1-AP) is formed, whose effects are poorly investigated in inflammation, tissue regeneration, and neurotoxicity. In this review, a concept about a role of biased agonism in effects exerted by APC and PAR1-AP via PAR1 on cells involved in inflammation and related processes is developed. New evidence showing a role for a biased agonism in activating PAR1 both by APC and PAR1-AP as well as induction of antiinflammatory and cytoprotective cellular responses in experimental inflammation, wound healing, and excitotoxicity is presented. It seems that synthetic PAR1 peptide-agonists may compete with APC in controlling some inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

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The effects of dry ice exposure on plasma pH and coagulation analyses.

We recently observed that exposure to dry ice lowered sample pH and increased clotting times in lupus anticoagulant analyses, and that such changes could be prevented by placing samples at -80°C after dry ice exposure. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the effects of dry ice exposure on pH and various commonly used coagulation analyses.

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Multiplexed silicon photonic sensor arrays enable facile characterization of coagulation protein binding to nanodiscs with variable lipid content.

Interactions of soluble proteins with the cell membrane are critical within the blood coagulation cascade. Of particular interest are the interactions of γ-carboxyglutamic acid-rich domain-containing clotting proteins with lipids. Variability among conventional analytical methods presents challenges for comparing clotting protein-lipid interactions. Most previous studies have investigated only a single clotting protein and lipid composition and have yielded widely different binding constants. Herein, we demonstrate that a combination of lipid bilayer nanodiscs and a multiplexed silicon photonic analysis technology enables high-throughput probing of many protein-lipid interactions among blood-clotting proteins. This approach allowed direct comparison of the binding constants of prothrombin, factor X, activated factor VII, and activated protein C to seven different binary lipid compositions. In a single experiment, the binding constants of one protein interacting with all lipid compositions were simultaneously determined. A simple surface regeneration then facilitated similar binding measurements for three other coagulation proteins. As expected, our results indicated that all proteins exhibit tighter binding (lower Kd ) as the proportion of anionic lipid increases. Interestingly, at high proportions of phosphatidylserine, the Kd values of all four proteins began to converge. We also found that although koff values for all four proteins followed trends similar to those observed for the Kd values, the variation among the proteins was much lower, indicating that much of the variation came from the kinetic binding (kon) of the proteins. These findings indicate that the combination of silicon photonic microring resonator arrays and nanodiscs enables rapid interrogation of biomolecular binding interactions at model cell membrane interfaces.

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Thrombogenesis in Thrombophilic Pregnancy: Evaluation of Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin Prophylaxis.

The aim of this study is to investigate thrombogenesis and the hypercoagulable changes in pregnant women affected by thrombophilia who received low-molecular-weight heparin (LWMH) prophylaxis. We included 21 pregnant women affected by thrombophilia treated with LWMH and 20 nontreated normal pregnant women as the control group. The sample group of thrombophilic pregnant women included different conditions (factor V Leiden mutation, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency, antiphospholipid antibodies syndrome, and combined defects). Three blood samples were collected during pregnancy (i.e., at 16, 20, and 24 weeks) and tested for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin fragment F1 + 2 (F1 + 2); anti-FXa activity was tested only in treated thrombophilic pregnant women. F1 + 2 levels progressively increased during pregnancy in both study groups. However, the F1 + 2 increase in women exposed to heparin prophylaxis was significantly lower than that in normal pregnant women in all 3 measurements carried out during gestation (p < 0.05); a statistically significant inverse correlation between F1 + 2 levels and anti-Xa activity (R = -0.8575, p < 0.05) was observed in treated women during pregnancy. Our findings suggest that F1 + 2 in addition to anti-Xa measurement could be used to adjust LWMH prophylaxis, at least in high-risk pregnant women.

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Diagnostic Testing Approaches for Activated Protein C Resistance and Factor V Leiden: A Comparison of Institutional and National Provider Practices.

To analyze the economic impact of testing for activated protein C resistance (APC-R) due to factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation with APC-R with reflexive FVL genotyping (algorithmic approach) or genotyping alone.

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Thrombin activation of protein C requires prior processing by a liver proprotein convertase.

Protein C, a secretory vitamin K-dependent anticoagulant serine protease, inactivates factors Va/VIIIa. It is exclusively synthesized in liver hepatocytes as an inactive zymogen (proprotein C). In humans, thrombin cleavage of the propeptide at PR221↓ results in activated protein C (APC; residues 222-461). However, the propeptide is also cleaved by a furin-like proprotein convertase(s) (PCs) at KKRSHLKR199↓ (underlined basic residues critical for the recognition by PCs), but the order of cleavage is unknown. Herein, we present evidence that at the surface of COS-1 cells, mouse proprotein C is first cleaved by the convertases furin, PC5/6A, and PACE4. In mice, this cleavage occurs at the equivalent site, KKRKILKR198↓, and requires the presence of Arg198 at P1 and a combination of two other basic residues at either P2 (Lys197), P6 (Arg193), or P8 (Lys191) positions. Notably, the thrombin-resistant R221A mutant is still cleaved by these PCs, revealing that convertase cleavage can precede thrombin activation. This conclusion was supported by the fact that the APC-specific activity in the medium of COS-1 cells is exclusively dependent on prior cleavage by the convertases, because both R198A and R221A lack protein C activity. Primary cultures of hepatocytes derived from wild-type or hepatocyte-specific furin, PC5/6, or complete PACE4 knock-out mice suggested that the cleavage of overexpressed proprotein C is predominantly performed by furin intracellularly and by all three proprotein convertases at the cell surface. Indeed, plasma analyses of single-proprotein convertase-knock-out mice showed that loss of the convertase furin or PC5/6 in hepatocytes results in a ∼30% decrease in APC levels, with no significant contribution from PACE4. We conclude that prior convertase cleavage of protein C in hepatocytes is critical for its thrombin activation.

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Regulation of p53-mediated changes in the uPA-fibrinolytic system and in lung injury by loss of surfactant protein C expression in alveolar epithelial cells.

Pulmonary surfactant protein C (SP-C) expression by type II alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) is markedly reduced in diverse types of lung injuries and is often associated with AEC apoptosis. It is unclear whether loss of SP-C contributes to the increased p53 and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system cross-talk and apoptosis of AECs. Therefore, we inhibited SP-C expression in human and murine AECs using lentivirus vector expressing shRNA and tested p53 and downstream changes in the uPA-fibrinolytic system. Inhibition of SP-C expression in AECs induced p53 and activated caspase-3, indicating AEC apoptosis. We also found that bleomycin or cigarette smoke exposure failed to inhibit SP-C expression or apoptosis in AECs in p53- and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1)-deficient mice. Depletion of SP-C expression by lentiviral SP-C shRNA in PAI-1-deficient mice failed to induce p53 or apoptosis in AECs, whereas it increased both AEC p53 and apoptosis in wild-type and uPA-deficient mice. SP-C inhibition in AECs also increased in CXCL1 and CXCL2 and their receptor CXCR2 as well as ICAM-1 expression, which is indicative of a proinflammatory response. Overexpression of p53-binding 3'-UTR sequences in AECs inhibited PAI-1 induction while maintaining uPA and uPAR protein and mRNA expression. Furthermore, caveolin-1 expression and phosphorylation were increased in AECs, indicating an intricate link between caveolin-1 and Src kinase-mediated cell signaling and AEC apoptosis due to loss of SP-C expression through p53 and uPA system-mediated cross-talk. The role of uPA, PAI-1, and p53 in the regulation of AEC apoptosis after injury was also determined in knockout mice.

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Associations between polymorphisms in coagulation-related genes and venous thromboembolism: A meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis.

Recently, several studies showed that the polymorphisms in the coagulation-related genes might be associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE); however, the results were still controversial. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the endothelial cell-activated protein C receptor (EPCR) rs9574, F11 rs2289252, F11 rs2036914, FGG rs2066865, FGG rs1049636, CYP4V2 rs13146272, SERPINC1 rs2227589, and GP6 rs1613662 polymorphisms with the risk of VTE.

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Characterisation of clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and viscoelastic analysis in healthy donkeys.

Studies have demonstrated differences in commonly measured haemostatic parameters between donkeys and horses. Whether clotting factors, anticoagulant protein activities and thromboelastography parameters also differ between species is still unknown.

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