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Cooperation between Hsp90 and mortalin/GRP75 in resistance to cell death induced by complement C5b-9.

Cancer cells are commonly more resistant to cell death activated by the membranolytic protein complex C5b-9. Several surface-expressed and intracellular proteins that protect cells from complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) have been identified. In this study, we investigated the function of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), an essential and ubiquitously expressed chaperone, overexpressed in cancer cells, in C5b-9-induced cell death. As shown, inhibition of Hsp90 with geldanamycin or radicicol is enhancing sensitivity of K562 erythroleukemia cells to CDC. Similarly, Hsp90 inhibition confers in Ramos B cell lymphoma cells elevated sensitivity to treatment with rituximab and complement. C5b-9 deposition is elevated on geldanamycin-treated cells. Purified Hsp90 binds directly to C9 and inhibits zinc-induced C9 polymerization, indicating that Hsp90 may act directly on the C5b-9 complex. Mortalin, also known as stress protein 70 or GRP75, is a mitochondrial chaperone that confers resistance to CDC. The postulated cooperation between Hsp90 and mortalin in protection from CDC was tested. Geldanamycin failed to sensitize toward CDC cells with knocked down mortalin. Direct binding of Hsp90 to mortalin was shown by co-immunoprecipitation in cell extracts after triggering with complement as well as by using purified recombinant proteins. These results provide an insight into the protective mechanisms utilized by cancer cells to evade CDC. They suggest that Hsp90 protects cells from CDC by inhibiting, together with mortalin, C5b-9 assembly and/or stability at the plasma membrane.

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c-FLIP is a target of the E3 ligase deltex1 in gastric cancer.

The ubiquitin E3 ligase DELTEX1 (DTX1) is specifically downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and expression of DTX1 is linked to better prognoses and survival in gastric cancer. Cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) is known for its pivotal role in the resistance of cancer cells to death receptor-induced cell death. Here, we show that DTX1 is an E3 ligase for c-FLIP in gastric cancer cells. DTX1 promoted c-FLIP downregulation. Overexpression of DTX1 sensitized gastric cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, whereas DTX1-knockdown attenuated apoptosis induction. DTX1 binds c-FLIPand directs it into the endosome-lysosomal pathway for proteasome-independent degradation. Moreover, induction of DTX1 in AGS cells by geldanamycin conferred susceptibility of those cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our results reveal a tumor-suppressive role for DTX1 and suggest a new approach to increasing TRAIL efficacy by raising DTX1 levels in gastric cancer therapy. DTX1 also enhanced c-FLIP degradation and FasL-induced and TRAIL-induced apoptosis in T cells, suggesting that DTX1 constitutes one of the physiological mechanisms regulating c-FLIP stability.

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Inhibition of HSP90α protects cultured neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation induced necroptosis by decreasing RIP3 expression.

Heat shock protein 90α (HSP90α) maintains cell stabilization and regulates cell death, respectively. Recent studies have shown that HSP90α is involved in receptor interacting protein 3 (RIP3)-mediated necroptosis in HT29 cells. It is known that oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) can induce necroptosis, which is regulated by RIP3 in neurons. However, it is still unclear whether HSP90α participates in the process of OGD-induced necroptosis in cultured neurons via the regulation of RIP3. Our study found that necroptosis occurs in primary cultured cortical neurons and PC-12 cells following exposure to OGD insult. Additionally, the expression of RIP3/p-RIP3, MLKL/p-MLKL, and the RIP1/RIP3 complex (necrosome) significantly increased following OGD, as measured through immunofluorescence (IF) staining, Western blotting (WB), and immunoprecipitation (IP) assay. Additionally, data from computer simulations and IP assays showed that HSP90α interacts with RIP3. In addition, HSP90α was overexpressed following OGD in cultured neurons, as measured through WB and IF staining. Inhibition of HSP90α in cultured neurons, using the specific inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), and siRNA/shRNA of HSP90α, protected cultured neurons from necrosis. Our study showed that the inhibitor of HSP90α, GA, rescued cultured neurons not only by decreasing the expression of total RIP3/MLKL, but also by decreasing the expression of p-RIP3/p-MLKL and the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome. In this study, we reveal that inhibition of HSP90α protects primary cultured cortical neurons and PC-12 cells from OGD-induced necroptosis through the modulation of RIP3 expression.

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HSP90C interacts with PsbO1 and facilitates its thylakoid distribution from chloroplast stroma in Arabidopsis.

Arabidopsis plastidic HSP90C is an HSP90 family molecular chaperone that is required for chloroplast development and function. To understand the mechanism of action of HSP90C within the chloroplast, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screening and revealed it interacts directly with the photosystem II extrinsic protein PsbO1, which performs a canonical function in the thylakoid lumen. To understand the biological significance of HSP90C-PsbO1 interaction, we investigated the role of HSP90C in modulating the stromal and thylakoid distribution of PsbO1GFP fusion protein. Fusion to GFP significantly delays the PsbO1 thylakoid transport and induces a variegation phenotype. Overexpression of HSP90C promotes the thylakoid distribution of PsbO1GFP and alleviates the leaf variegation. By tracking the chloroplast maturation during photomorphogenesis, we observed PsbO1GFP tends to form distinct fluorescent clusters within the stroma with delayed thylakoid membrane biogenesis, while HSP90C overexpression corrects these adverse effects. We also demonstrated that active HSP90C function is specifically required for stable accumulation of mature PsbO1GFP in thylakoid by using specific inhibitor geldanamycin. This study therefore not only identified novel HSP90C interactors, but also reports for the first time that PsbO1 enroute from the cytoplasm to thylakoid lumen is tightly regulated by the HSP90C chaperone complex in plastid stroma; whereas the proper HSP90C homeostasis is also critical for chloroplast maturation and function.

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Heat Shock Proteins Revisited: Using a Mutasynthetically Generated Reblastatin Library to Compare the Inhibition of Human and Leishmania Hsp90s.

Thirteen new reblastatin derivatives, with alkynyl, amino and fluoro substituents on the aromatic ring, were prepared by a chemo-biosynthetic approach using an AHBA(-) mutant strain of Streptomyces hygroscopicus, the geldanamycin producer. The inhibitory potencies of these mutaproducts and of an extended library of natural products and derivatives were probed with purified heat shock proteins (Hsps), obtained from Leishmania braziliensis (LbHsp90) as well as from human sources (HsHsp90). We determined the activities of potential inhibitors by means of a displacement assay in which fluorescence-labelled ATP competes for the ATP binding sites of Hsps in the presence of the inhibitor in question. The results were compared with those of cell-based assays and, in selected cases, of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements. In essence, reblastatin derivatives are also able to bind effectively to the ATP-binding site of LbHsp90, and for selected derivatives, moderate differences in binding to LbHsp90 and HsHsp90 were encountered. This work demonstrates that parasitic heat shock proteins can be developed as potential pharmaceutical targets.

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Fibronectin is a stress responsive gene regulated by HSF1 in response to geldanamycin.

Fibronectin is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein with key roles in cell adhesion and migration. Hsp90 binds directly to fibronectin and Hsp90 depletion regulates fibronectin matrix stability. Where inhibition of Hsp90 with a C-terminal inhibitor, novobiocin, reduced the fibronectin matrix, treatment with an N-terminal inhibitor, geldanamycin, increased fibronectin levels. Geldanamycin treatment induced a stress response and a strong dose and time dependent increase in fibronectin mRNA via activation of the fibronectin promoter. Three putative heat shock elements (HSEs) were identified in the fibronectin promoter. Loss of two of these HSEs reduced both basal and geldanamycin-induced promoter activity, as did inhibition of the stress-responsive transcription factor HSF1. Binding of HSF1 to one of the putative HSE was confirmed by ChIP under basal conditions, and occupancy shown to increase with geldanamycin treatment. These data support the hypothesis that fibronectin is stress-responsive and a functional HSF1 target gene. COLA42 and LAMB3 mRNA levels were also increased with geldanamycin indicating that regulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) genes by HSF1 may be a wider phenomenon. Taken together, these data have implications for our understanding of ECM dynamics in stress-related diseases in which HSF1 is activated, and where the clinical application of N-terminal Hsp90 inhibitors is intended.

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Cytotoxic effects of the newly-developed chemotherapeutic agents 17-AAG in combination with oxaliplatin and capecitabine in colorectal cancer cell lines.

The use of heat shock protein 90 inhibitors like 17-allylamino-17-demethoxy-geldanamycin (17-AAG) has been recently introduced as an attractive anticancer therapy. It has been shown that 17-AAG may potentiate the inhibitory effects of some classical anticolorectal cancer (CRC) agents. In this study, two panels of colorectal carcinoma cell lines were used to evaluate the effects of 17-AAG in combination with capecitabine and oxaliplatin as double and triple combination therapies on the proliferation of CRC cell lines. HT-29 and all HCT-116 cell lines were seeded in culture media in the presence of different doses of the mentioned drugs in single, double, and triple combinations. Water-soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1) assay was used to investigate cell proliferation 24 h after treatments. Then, dose-response curves were plotted using WST-1outputs, and ICvalues were determined. For double and triple combinations respectively 0.5 × ICand 0.25 × ICwere used. Data was analyzed with the software CompuSyn. Drug interactions were analyzed using Chou-Talalay method to calculate the combination index (CI).The data revealed that 17-AAG shows a potent synergistic interaction (CI < 1) with oxaliplatin and capecitabine in double combinations (0.5 × IC) in both cell lines. In the case of triple combinations, the findings showed an antagonistic interaction (CI > 1) in HT-29 and a synergistic effect (CI < 1) in HCT-116 (0.25 × IC) cell lines. It was concluded that double combinations of 17-AAG with oxaliplatin or capecitabine might be effective against HCT-116 and HT-29 cell lines. However, in triple combinations, positive results were seen only against HCT-116. Further investigation is suggested to confirm the effectiveness of these combinations in clinical trials.

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Monoterpenes induce the heat shock response in Arabidopsis.

Monoterpenes are common constituents of essential oils produced by plants. Although it has been reported that monoterpenes enhanced the heat tolerance of plants, the mechanism has not been elucidated. Here, we tested whether 13 monoterpenes promoted the heat shock response (HSR) in Arabidopsis. To assess the HSR-inducing activity of monoterpenes, we produced transgenic Arabidopsis, which has the β-glucuronidase gene driven by the promoter of a small heat shock protein (HSP17.6C-CI) gene. Results indicated that two monocyclic and four bicyclic monoterpenes showed HSR-inducing activities using the reporter gene system. In particular, (-)-perillaldehyde, which is a monocyclic monoterpene, demonstrated the most potent HSR-inducing activity. (-)-Perillaldehyde significantly inhibited the reduction of chlorophyll content by heat shock in Arabidopsis seedlings. Our previous study indicated that chemical HSR inducers such as geldanamycin and sanguinarine inhibited the activity of plant chaperones in vitro. (-)-Perillaldehyde also inhibited chaperone activity, indicating that it might promote the expression of heat shock protein genes by inhibiting chaperones in the plant cell.

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Novel Functional Role of Heat Shock Protein 90 in Mitochondrial Connexin 43-Mediated Hypoxic Postconditioning.

Previous studies have shown that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90)-mediated mitochondrial import of connexin 43 (Cx43) is critical in preconditioning cardioprotection. The present study was designed to test whether postconditioning has the same effect as preconditioning in promoting Cx43 translocation to mitochondria and whether mitochondrial HSP90 modulates this effect.

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Hsp90 and Thioredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase enable the catalytic activity of Clostridial neurotoxins inside nerve terminals.

Botulinum (BoNTs) and tetanus (TeNT) neurotoxins are the most toxic substances known and form the growing family of Clostridial neurotoxins (CNT), the etiologic agents of botulism and tetanus. CNT are composed of a metalloprotease light chain (L), linked via a disulfide bond to a heavy chain (H). H mediates the binding to nerve terminals and the membrane translocation of L into the cytosol, where its substrates, the three SNARE proteins, are localized. L translocation is accompanied by unfolding and, once delivered on the cytosolic side of the endosome membrane, it has to be reduced and reacquire the native fold to be active. The Thioredoxin-Thioredoxin Reductase system (Trx-TrxR) specifically reduces the interchain disulfide bond while the cytosolic chaperone protein Hsp90 mediates L refolding. Both steps are essential for CNT activity and their inhibition efficiently blocks the neurotoxicity in cultured neurons and mice. Trx and its reductase physically interact with Hsp90 and are loosely bound to the cytosolic side of synaptic vesicles, the organelle exploited by CNT to enter nerve terminals and wherefrom L is translocated into the cytosol. Therefore, Trx, TrxR and Hsp90 orchestrate a chaperone-redox molecular machinery that enables the catalytic activity of the L inside nerve terminals. Given the fundamental role of L reduction and refolding, this machinery represents a rational target for the development of mechanism-based antitoxins.

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