Search results for: GW2580
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The c.1085A>G Genetic Variant ofGene Regulates Tumor Immunity by Altering the Proliferation, Polarization, and Function of Macrophages.Targeting tumor-associated macrophages with colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) inhibition reveals a strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we studied the impact ofgermline genetic variant on CSF-1R signaling and the susceptibility to CSF-1R inhibitors.germline genetic variants were studied in 140 cancer patients. CSF-1R phosphorylation, endocytosis, and macrophage polarization were measured as the response to CSF-1 stimulation. Tumor-associated macrophages in surgical specimens and sensitivity to CSF-1R inhibitors were used to determine macrophage function.Ac.1085A>G genetic variant causing the change of histidine to arginine in the domain of receptor dimerization was identified as a high allele frequency in Eastern Asian population. Cancer patients with this variant allele had less M2-like tumor-associated macrophages accompanied by low VEGF expression in tumor tissues. Importantly,genetic variant was significantly associated with disease-free survival in colorectal, endometrial, and ovarian cancer. In terms of differentiation, macrophages withc.1085A>G genetic variant displayed a refractory response to CSF-1 stimulation and macrophage survival was sensitive to CSF-1R inhibitors with ICof 0.1 to 1 nmol/L range. On contrast, CSF-1 induced a prominent phosphorylation and rapid endocytosis of CSF-1R, leading to an M2-like dominant polarization in macrophages withc.1085 genotype A_A, in which CSF-1R inhibitors of PLX3397, BLZ945, and GW2580 inhibited macrophage survival with ICof 10 to 100 nmol/L range.Thec.1085A>G genetic variant regulates tumor immunity by altering the polarization and function of macrophages. This genetic variant confers the sensitivity to CSF-1R inhibitors, implying as a biomarker in targeting CSF-1R signaling for cancer treatment..
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Upregulation of RET induces perineurial invasion of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.Tumor spread along nerves, a phenomenon known as perineurial invasion, is common in various cancers including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Neural invasion is associated with poor outcome, yet its mechanism remains unclear. Using the transgenic Pdx-1-Cre/KrasG12D /p53R172H (KPC) mouse model, we investigated the mechanism of neural invasion in PDAC. To detect tissue-specific factors that influence neural invasion by cancer cells, we characterized the perineurial microenvironment using a series of bone marrow transplantation (BMT) experiments in transgenic mice expressing single mutations in the Cx3cr1, GDNF and CCR2 genes. Immunolabeling of tumors in KPC mice of different ages and analysis of human cancer specimens revealed that RET expression is upregulated during PDAC tumorigenesis. BMT experiments revealed that BM-derived macrophages expressing the RET ligand GDNF are highly abundant around nerves invaded by cancer. Inhibition of perineurial macrophage recruitment, using the CSF-1R antagonist GW2580 or BMT from CCR2-deficient donors, reduced perineurial invasion. Deletion of GDNF expression by perineurial macrophages, or inhibition of RET with shRNA or a small-molecule inhibitor, reduced perineurial invasion in KPC mice with PDAC. Taken together, our findings show that RET is upregulated during pancreas tumorigenesis and its activation induces cancer perineurial invasion. Trafficking of BM-derived macrophages to the perineurial microenvironment and secretion of GDNF are essential for pancreatic cancer neural spread.
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Chronic pain and impaired glial glutamate transporter function in lupus-prone mice are ameliorated by blocking macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 receptors.Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ disease of unknown etiology in which the normal immune responses are directed against the body's own healthy tissues. Patients with SLE often suffer from chronic pain. Currently, no animal studies have been reported about the mechanisms underlying pain in SLE. In this study, the development of chronic pain in MRL lupus-prone (MRL/lpr) mice, a well-established lupus mouse model, was characterized for the first time. We found that female MRL/lpr mice developed thermal hyperalgesia at the age of 13 weeks, and mechanical allodynia at the age of 16 weeks. MRL/lpr mice with chronic pain had activation of microglia and astrocytes, over-expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), as well as suppression of glial glutamate transport function in the spinal cord. Intrathecal injection of either the CSF-1 blocker or IL-1 inhibitor attenuated thermal hyperalgesia in MRL/lpr mice. We provide evidence that the suppressed activity of glial glutamate transporters in the spinal dorsal horn in MRL/lpr mice is caused by activation of the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways. Our findings suggest that targeting the CSF-1 and IL-1β signaling pathways or the glial glutamate transporter in the spinal cord is an effective approach for the management of chronic pain caused by SLE.
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Selective M2 Macrophage Depletion Leads to Prolonged Inflammation in Surgical Wounds.A prolonged inflammatory phase is seen in aberrant wound healing and in chronic wounds. Macrophages are central to wound healing. Distinct macrophage subtypes have differing roles both in initial inflammation and in later tissue repair. Broadly, these cells can be divided into M1 and M2 macrophages. M2 macrophage proliferation and differentiation is regulated by colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) signalling and can be blocked by GW2580, a competitive cFMS kinase inhibitor, thereby allowing for analysis of the effect of M2 blockade on progression of surgical wounds.
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Cytokine and chemokine alterations in tissue, CSF, and plasma in early presymptomatic phase of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), in a rat model of multiple sclerosis.Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most commonly used experimental animal model for human multiple sclerosis (MS) that has been used so far to study the acute and remission-relapsing phases of the disease. Despite the vast literature on neuroinflammation onset and progression in EAE, important questions are still open regarding in particular the early asymptomatic phase between immunization and clinical onset.
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CSF-1R inhibition attenuates renal and neuropsychiatric disease in murine lupus.Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease that can affect multiple end organs. Kidney and brain are two of the organs most commonly involved in SLE. Past studies have suggested the importance of macrophages in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis (LN). Furthermore, as the immune effectors of the brain, microglia have been implicated in pathways leading to neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE). We depleted macrophages and microglia using GW2580, a small colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) kinase inhibitor, in MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice, a classic murine lupus model that displays features of both LN and NPSLE. Treatment was initiated before the onset of disease, and mice were followed for the development of LN and neurobehavioral dysfunction throughout the study. Treatment with GW2580 significantly ameliorated kidney disease, as evidenced by decreased proteinuria, BUN, and improved renal histopathology, despite equivalent levels of IgG and C3 deposition in the kidneys of treated and control mice. We were able to confirm macrophage depletion within the kidney via IBA-1 staining. Furthermore, we observed specific improvement in the depression-like behavioral deficit of MRL/lpr mice with GW2580 treatment. Circulating antibody and autoantibody levels were, however, not affected. These results provide additional support for the role of macrophages as a potentially valuable therapeutic target in SLE. Inhibiting CSF-1 receptor signaling would be more targeted than current immunosuppressive therapies, and may hold promise for the treatment of renal and neuropsychiatric end organ disease manifestations.
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CSF1R blockade slows the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by reducing microgliosis and invasion of macrophages into peripheral nerves.Inflammation is a common neuropathological feature in several neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We have studied the contribution of CSF1R signalling to inflammation in ALS, as a pathway previously reported to control the expansion and activation of microglial cells. We found that microglial cell proliferation in the spinal cord of SOD1(G93A) transgenic mice correlates with the expression of CSF1R and its ligand CSF1. Administration of GW2580, a selective CSF1R inhibitor, reduced microglial cell proliferation in SOD1(G93A) mice, indicating the importance of CSF1-CSF1R signalling in microgliosis in ALS. Moreover, GW2580 treatment slowed disease progression, attenuated motoneuron cell death and extended survival of SOD1(G93A) mice. Electrophysiological assessment revealed that GW2580 treatment protected skeletal muscle from denervation prior to its effects on microglial cells. We found that macrophages invaded the peripheral nerve of ALS mice before CSF1R-induced microgliosis occurred. Interestingly, treatment with GW2580 attenuated the influx of macrophages into the nerve, which was partly caused by the monocytopenia induced by CSF1R inhibition. Overall, our findings provide evidence that CSF1R signalling regulates inflammation in the central and peripheral nervous system in ALS, supporting therapeutic targeting of CSF1R in this disease.
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Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R inhibits microglial proliferation and prevents the progression of Alzheimer's-like pathology.The proliferation and activation of microglial cells is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative conditions. This mechanism is regulated by the activation of the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R), thus providing a target that may prevent the progression of conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the study of microglial proliferation in Alzheimer's disease and validation of the efficacy of CSF1R-inhibiting strategies have not yet been reported. In this study we found increased proliferation of microglial cells in human Alzheimer's disease, in line with an increased upregulation of the CSF1R-dependent pro-mitogenic cascade, correlating with disease severity. Using a transgenic model of Alzheimer's-like pathology (APPswe, PSEN1dE9; APP/PS1 mice) we define a CSF1R-dependent progressive increase in microglial proliferation, in the proximity of amyloid-β plaques. Prolonged inhibition of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice by an orally available tyrosine kinase inhibitor (GW2580) resulted in the blockade of microglial proliferation and the shifting of the microglial inflammatory profile to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Pharmacological targeting of CSF1R in APP/PS1 mice resulted in an improved performance in memory and behavioural tasks and a prevention of synaptic degeneration, although these changes were not correlated with a change in the number of amyloid-β plaques. Our results provide the first proof of the efficacy of CSF1R inhibition in models of Alzheimer's disease, and validate the application of a therapeutic strategy aimed at modifying CSF1R activation as a promising approach to tackle microglial activation and the progression of Alzheimer's disease.
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Microglia regulate hippocampal neurogenesis during chronic neurodegeneration.Neurogenesis is altered in neurodegenerative disorders, partly regulated by inflammatory factors. We have investigated whether microglia, the innate immune brain cells, regulate hippocampal neurogenesis in neurodegeneration. Using the ME7 model of prion disease we applied gain- or loss-of CSF1R function, as means to stimulate or inhibit microglial proliferation, respectively, to dissect the contribution of these cells to neurogenesis. We found that increased hippocampal neurogenesis correlates with the expansion of the microglia population. The selective inhibition of microglial proliferation caused a reduction in neurogenesis and a restoration of normal neuronal differentiation, supporting a pro-neurogenic role for microglia. Using a gene screening strategy, we identified TGFβ as a molecule controlling the microglial pro-neurogenic response in chronic neurodegeneration, supported by loss-of-function mechanistic experiments. By the selective targeting of microglial proliferation we have been able to uncover a pro-neurogenic role for microglia in chronic neurodegeneration, suggesting promising therapeutic targets to normalise the neurogenic niche during neurodegeneration.
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Macrophage Blockade Using CSF1R Inhibitors Reverses the Vascular Leakage Underlying Malignant Ascites in Late-Stage Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.Malignant ascites is a common complication in the late stages of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) that greatly diminishes the quality of life of patients. Malignant ascites is a known consequence of vascular dysfunction, but current approved treatments are not effective in preventing fluid accumulation. In this study, we investigated an alternative strategy of targeting macrophage functions to reverse the vascular pathology of malignant ascites using fluid from human patients and an immunocompetent murine model (ID8) of EOC that mirrors human disease by developing progressive vascular disorganization and leakiness culminating in massive ascites. We demonstrate that the macrophage content in ascites fluid from human patients and the ID8 model directly correlates with vascular permeability. To further substantiate macrophages' role in the pathogenesis of malignant ascites, we blocked macrophage function in ID8 mice using a colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor kinase inhibitor (GW2580). Administration of GW2580 in the late stages of disease resulted in reduced infiltration of protumorigenic (M2) macrophages and dramatically decreased ascites volume. Moreover, the disorganized peritoneal vasculature became normalized and sera from GW2580-treated ascites protected against endothelial permeability. Therefore, our findings suggest that macrophage-targeted treatment may be a promising strategy toward a safe and effective means to control malignant ascites of EOC.
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