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Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta regulates lipid droplet formation and transport in goat mammary epithelial cells.

Even though recent evidence in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) suggest a role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) in regulating lipid homeostasis, its role is not fully understood. Our hypothesis was that PPARD regulates lipid transport processes in GMEC and, thus, plays a crucial role in regulating fat formation. The PPARD was overexpressed using an adenovirus system (Ad-PPARD) with recombinant green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) as the control. Results revealed that overexpression of PPARD markedly upregulated the mRNA abundance of PPARD. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), overexpression of PPARD alone had no effect on mRNA expression of CD36, SCD1, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. The cultures overexpressing PPARD with the PPARD ligand GW0742 (GW) upregulated the expression of CD36, FABP3, FABP4, ACSL1, and ADRP. Overexpression of PPARD in GMEC plus GW increased the concentration of 16:1 and 18:1-trans and was associated with upregulation of SCD1. Compared with the control (Ad-GFP+dimethyl sulfoxide), the decrease of triacylglycerol concentration coupled with upregulation of genes related to lipid droplet secretion (e.g., ADRP and ACSL1) induced by PPARD overexpression suggests a role in lipid droplet (LD) secretion. Luciferase assay revealed that GW increased the ADRP promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of PPARD impaired the increase of ADRP promoter activity induced by GW, whereas GW enhanced the activity of ADRP promoter in GMEC overexpressing PPARD. Data with the ADRP 5'-flanking truncated luciferase reporter suggest a core region (-1,444 to -990 bp) response element for the induction of GW. This core region contains a known PPARG response element (PPRE) at -1,003 to -990 bp. When the PPRE was mutated, the overexpression of PPARD had no effect on ADRP promoter activity. Collectively, these results reveal a novel role for PPARD in lipid homeostasis via promoting fatty acid transport and LD formation through a mechanism of direct binding to the promoter of key genes. Hence, PPARD activity may contribute to fatty acid transport and LD formation during lactation.

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Nile Red, A lipophilic dy anti Transferrin receptor Human Internal Mammary Ar GFP Expressing Human Inte Goat Anti-Human Androgen Goat Anti-Human Bradykini Goat Anti-Human, Mouse Ca Goat Anti-Human Casein Ki Goat Anti-Rat CCKA Recept Goat Anti- Dopamine recep Goat Anti- EP1 receptor P Goat Anti-Human EP4 prost

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Long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 promotes Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury.

Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration through dedifferentiation and proliferation. In a previous study, we performed microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve after injury. Accordingly, we predicted that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 may promote Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury, as bioinformatic analysis revealed that the target gene of NONMMUG014387 was collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). Cthrc1 may promote cell proliferation in a variety of cells by activating Wnt/PCP signaling. Nonetheless, bioinformatic analysis still needs to be verified by biological experiment. In this study, the candidate long non-coding RNA, NONMMUG014387, was overexpressed in mouse Schwann cells by recombinant adenovirus transfection. Plasmid pHBAd-MCMV-GFP-NONMMUG014387 and pHBAd-MCMV-GFP were transfected into Schwann cells. Schwann cells were divided into three groups: control (Schwann cells without intervention), Ad-GFP (Schwann cells with GFP overexpression), and Ad-NONMMUGO148387 (Schwann cells with GFP and NONMMUGO148387 overexpression). Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate proliferative capability of mouse Schwann cells after NONMMUG014387 overexpression. Polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay were performed to investigate target genes and downstream pathways of NONMMUG014387. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in Schwann cells overexpressing lncRNA NONMMUG014387 compared with the other two groups. Further, compared with the control group, mRNA and protein levels of Cthrc1, Wnt5a, ROR2, RhoA, Rac1, JNK, and ROCK were visibly up-regulated in the Ad-NONMMUGO148387 group. Our findings confirm that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 can promote proliferation of Schwann cells surrounding the injury site through targeting Cthrc1 and activating the Wnt/PCP pathway.

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Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( REASTAIN® Quick Diff Kit T-cell proliferation grad TCCI T cell proliferation TCCI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCBI T cell proliferation TCBI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCPI T cell proliferation TCPI T cell proliferation

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[A recombinant adenovirus vector carrying murine interleukin-21 gene controls chronic HBV infection in mice].

To investigate the effect of an adenovirus vector containing murine interleukin-21 gene (Ad-GFP-mIL-21) in virus clearance and on the production of HBV-specific antibodies in mice with persistent HBV infection.

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Recombinant Porcine Inter Recombinant Rat Interleuk Recombinant Rat Interleuk Recombinant Porcine Inter Recombinant Porcine Inter Recombinant Porcine Inter Liver cancer tissue array Liver tissue cancer tissu Hepatocellular carcinoma Rat monoclonal anti mouse Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti

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High Content Positional Biosensor Assay to Screen for Compounds that Prevent or Disrupt Androgen Receptor and Transcription Intermediary Factor 2 Protein-Protein Interactions.

Transcriptional Intermediary Factor 2 (TIF2) is a key Androgen receptor (AR) coactivator that has been implicated in the development and progression of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This chapter describes the implementation of an AR-TIF2 protein-protein interaction (PPI) biosensor assay to screen for small molecules that can induce AR-TIF2 PPIs, inhibit the DHT-induced formation of AR-TIF2 PPIs, or disrupt pre-existing AR-TIF2 PPIs. The biosensor assay employs high content imaging and analysis to quantify AR-TIF2 PPIs and integrates physiologically relevant cell-based assays with the specificity of binding assays by incorporating structural information from AR and TIF2 functional domains along with intracellular targeting sequences using fluorescent protein reporters. Expression of the AR-Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) "prey" and TIF2-Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) "bait" components of the biosensor is directed by recombinant adenovirus (rAV) expression constructs that facilitated a simple co-infection protocol to produce homogeneous expression of both biosensors that is scalable for screening. In untreated cells, AR-RFP expression is localized predominantly to the cytoplasm and TIF2-GFP expression is localized only in the nucleoli of the nucleus. Exposure to DHT induces the co-localization of AR-RFP within the TIF2-GFP positive nucleoli of the nucleus. The AR-TIF2 biosensor assay therefore recapitulates the ligand-induced translocation of latent AR from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and the PPIs between AR and TIF2 result in the colocalization of AR-RFP within TIF2-GFP expressing nucleoli. The AR-TIF2 PPI biosensor approach offers significant promise for identifying molecules with potential to modulate AR transcriptional activity in a cell-specific manner that may overcome the development of resistance and progression to CRPC.

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Anti PDX1 Polyclonal Anti HMG2 (High mobility group Rabbit Anti-Human Androge anti GFP antibody, rat mo Protein A (Liquid form) IGF-1R Signaling Phospho- Rabbit Anti-Rat Androgen MarkerGene™ Total Prote QuantiFluo™ Protein Ass Recombinant Human Androge Polyclonal Antibody Recep High density multiple org

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Adenovirus-Mediated Expression of BMP-2 and BFGF in Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Combined with Demineralized Bone Matrix For Repair of Femoral Head Osteonecrosis in Beagle Dogs.

This study investigated the effect of using adenovirus-mediated expression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Ad-BMP-2) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in combination with a demineralized bone matrix (DBM) to repair osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) in Beagle dogs.

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Bone marrow tumor and adj Bone marrow tumor and nor Human normal bone and ost Bone and cartilage cancer Bone cancer test tissue a Bone and cartilage tumor Bone Morphogenetic Protei Human Bone Morphogenetic Macrophage Colony Stimula Macrophage Colony Stimula Alkaline Phospatase (ALP) (7’-Benzyloxy-indolymet

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[Effects of recombinant adenovirus Ad-miR-29b2c on HGC-27 cell proliferation and migration].

We constructed recombinant adenoviruses expressing miR-29b2c (Ad-miR29b2c), and analyzed their effects on the proliferation and migration of HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells. miR-29b2c gene was amplified by PCR from genomic DNA and cloned into the pAdTrack-CMV vector to create the shuttle plasmid pAdT-29b2c. The recombinant plasmid was verified by restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing. The linearized shuttle vector was mixed with an adenoviral backbone plasmid (pAdEasy-1), followed by cotransformation into competent BJ5183 cells to generate the recombinant plasmid pAd-miR-29b2c. Finally, recombinant adenoviral vectors were generated by transfecting the recombinant plasmid into 293A packaging cell line. HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells were infected with the recombinant adenoviruses expressing pAd-miR-29b2c, then MTT and wound-healing assay were used to analyze the effects of pAd-miR-29b2c on the proliferation and migration of HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells. The miR-29b and miR-29c levels were significantly increased in HGC-27 cells after infected with pAd-miR-29b2c. MTT and wound-healing analysis also revealed a significant decrease in proliferation and migration of HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells compared to the control Ad-GFP-infected cells. Furthermore, western blotting results demonstrated that the protein expression level of δ-catenin was reduced in pAd-miR-29b2c transfected HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells. Taken together, the recombinant adenoviral vector was generated, and it can significantly inhibit the proliferation and migration of HGC-27 and MGC-803 cells.

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Ras (dn N17) Recombinant Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( T-cell proliferation grad TCCI T cell proliferation TCCI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCBI T cell proliferation TCBI T cell proliferation T-cell proliferation grad TCPI T cell proliferation TCPI T cell proliferation

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Enhancement or inhibition of PLCγ2 expression in rat hepatocytes by recombinant adenoviral vectors that contain full-length gene or siRNA.

We investigated the effects of recombinant adenovirus vectors that overexpress or silence PLCγ2 on the expression of this gene during hepatocyte proliferation. Hepatocytes were isolated, identified by immunofluorescent cytochemical staining and infected by previously constructed Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA1, siRNA2 and siRNA3. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression was observed by fluorescence microscopy. Infection percentage was calculated by flow cytometry. mRNA and protein levels of PLCγ2 were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blotting, respectively. The viability of the infected hepatocytes was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. We found that nearly 97% of cells were positive for the hepatocyte marker, CK18. After infection of Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA, more than 99% of hepatocytes expressed GFP significantly, and mRNA and protein expression of PLCγ2 was up-regulated significantly in Ad-PLCγ2 infected hepatocytes, but down-regulated in Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA2 infected cells. The cell proliferation rate decreased in PLCγ2-overexpressing cells, while the rate increased in PLCγ2-silencing cells. We verified that recombinant Ad-PLCγ2 and Ad-PLCγ2 siRNA2 were constructed successfully. These two recombinant vectors promoted or decreased the expression of PLCγ2 in rat hepatocytes and affected the cell proliferation rate, which provides a useful tool for further investigation of the role of PLCγ2 in hepatocyte apoptosis.

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Targeting expression of antimicrobial peptide CAMA-Syn by adenovirus vector in macrophages inhibits the growth of intracellular bacteria.

Although purified and synthesized Cecropin A-magainin 2 (CAMA-syn) shows potent antibacterial activity in vitro, its ability to inhibit bacteria within mammal cells mediated by virus vector has not yet been investigated. To enhance its antimicrobial potential and reduce systemic side effects, it would be desirable to deliver CAMA-syn in macrophages by adenovirus vector. In this study,recombinant adenovirus Ad-MSP-CAMA/GFP were used to infect macrophages RAW264.7 cells in vitro and macrophages cells of lungs in vivo and the expression of CAMA-syn was detected by RT-PCR and observation of co-expression of GFP. Antimicrobial activity in cells was evaluated by colony enumeration. The results showed that expression of CAMA-syn in macrophages conferred antimicrobial activity against a series of bacteria, including E. coli and BCG(Bacillus Calmette-Guérin). To establish BCG infection animal model, 40 Kunming mice were randomly divided into the following four groups: adenoviral delivery of Ad-MSP-CAMA/GFP, Ad-CMV-CAMA/GFP, empty-virus Ad-GFP, and control PBS, respectively. The expression of CAMA-syn in mouse was confirmed by real-time PCR and GFP co-expression. In brief, 3 days after injection of adenoviral vector, mice were scarified, different tissues were sectioned and homogenized and colony-forming efficiency by these treated tissues was determined. The colony-forming efficiency of Ad-MSP-CAMA/GFP (78.31%) and Ad-CMV-CAMA/GFP (61.68%) showed significant reduction compared to control groups. No inhibition of bacterial colony was observed from tissues treated by the PBS or empty-virus control. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that macrophages-specific expression of antimicrobial peptide CAMA-syn in macrophages inhibited the growth of intracellular bacteria, providing a promise approach for the control of refractory intracellular infection.

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Post-spinal cord injury astrocyte-mediated functional recovery in rats after intraspinal injection of the recombinant adenoviral vectors Ad5-VEGF and Ad5-ANG.

OBJECTIVE The most actively explored therapeutic strategy for overcoming spinal cord injury (SCI) is the delivery of genes encoding molecules that stimulate regeneration. In a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and in preliminary clinical trials in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the combined administration of recombinant adenoviral vectors (Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG) encoding the neurotrophic/angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF) and angiogenin ( ANG) was found to slow the development of neurological deficits. These results suggest that there may be positive effects of this combination of genes in posttraumatic spinal cord regeneration. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG combination therapy on motor function recovery and reactivity of astrocytes in a rat model of SCI. METHODS Spinal cord injury was induced in adult Wistar rats by the weight-drop method. Rats (n = 51) were divided into 2 groups: the experimental group (Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG) and the control group (Ad5-GFP [green fluorescent protein]). Recovery of motor function was assessed using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale. The duration and intensity of infectivity and gene expression from the injected vectors were assessed by immunofluorescent detection of GFP. Reactivity of glial cells was assessed by changes in the number of immunopositive cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), S100β, aquaporin 4 (AQP4), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4. The level of S100β mRNA expression in the spinal cord was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS Partial recovery of motor function was observed 30 days after surgery in both groups. However, Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scores were 35.9% higher in the Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG group compared with the control group. Specific GFP signal was observed at distances of up to 5 mm in the rostral and caudal directions from the points of injection. A 1.5 to 2.0-fold increase in the number of GFAP+, S100β+, and AQP4+ cells was observed in the white and gray matter at a distance of up to 5 mm from the center of the lesion site in the caudal and rostral directions. At 30 days after injury, a 2-fold increase in S100β transcripts was observed in the Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG group compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS Intraspinal injection of recombinant adenoviral vectors encoding VEGF and ANG stimulates functional recovery after traumatic SCI. The increased number of S100β+ astrocytes induced by this approach may be a beneficial factor for maintaining the survival and function of neurons. Therefore, gene therapy with Ad5-VEGF+Ad5-ANG vectors is an effective therapeutic method for SCI treatment.

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Expression of Dominant Negative K6W-Ubiquitin in the Lens Epithelium via an Adenoviral Vector Delays Posterior Capsule Opacification in a Rabbit Model.

Ubiquitin is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and the objective of this study is to investigate the potential of dominant negative Ubiquitin (Ub) with a lysine to tryptophan mutation at the 6 position (K6W) through an adenoviral expression vector in the prevention of posterior capsule opacification (PCO) in a rabbit PCO model.

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Interleukin-34 IL34 (N-t Interleukin-34 IL34 anti Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Integrin â3 (Phospho Tyr Interferon-a Receptor Typ Rabbit Anti-Inf A Neurami Rabbit Anti-Influenza A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza A N Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H Rabbit Anti-Influenza-A H

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